Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations | Operations Research

application of assignment problem in operations research pdf

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations.

Meaning of Assignment Problem:

An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total cost or maximize total profit of allocation.

The problem of assignment arises because available resources such as men, machines etc. have varying degrees of efficiency for performing different activities, therefore, cost, profit or loss of performing the different activities is different.

Thus, the problem is “How should the assignments be made so as to optimize the given objective”. Some of the problem where the assignment technique may be useful are assignment of workers to machines, salesman to different sales areas.

Definition of Assignment Problem:

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Suppose there are n jobs to be performed and n persons are available for doing these jobs. Assume that each person can do each job at a term, though with varying degree of efficiency, let c ij be the cost if the i-th person is assigned to the j-th job. The problem is to find an assignment (which job should be assigned to which person one on-one basis) So that the total cost of performing all jobs is minimum, problem of this kind are known as assignment problem.

The assignment problem can be stated in the form of n x n cost matrix C real members as given in the following table:

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Solving the Rectangular assignment problem and applications

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  • Published: 05 June 2010
  • Volume 181 , pages 443–462, ( 2010 )

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application of assignment problem in operations research pdf

  • J. Bijsterbosch 1 &
  • A. Volgenant 1  

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The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show how it can be used to solve variants of the LAP, such as the k -cardinality LAP and the LAP with outsourcing by transformation. We introduce a transformation to solve the machine replacement LAP.

We describe improvements of a LAP-algorithm for the rectangular problem, in general and slightly adapted for these variants, based on the structure of the corresponding cost matrices. For these problem instances, we compared the best special codes from literature to our codes, which are more general and easier to implement. The improvements lead to more efficient and robust codes, making them competitive on all problem instances and often showing much shorter computing times.

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Bijsterbosch, J., Volgenant, A. Solving the Rectangular assignment problem and applications. Ann Oper Res 181 , 443–462 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-010-0757-3

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Published : 05 June 2010

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10479-010-0757-3

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THE LITERATURE REVIEW FOR ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSPORTATION PROBLEMS.

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Operations Research is a logical learning through interdisciplinary collaboration to determine the best usage of restricted assets. In this paper, the importance of Operations research is discussed and the literature of assignment and transportation problem is discussed in detail.

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application of assignment problem in operations research pdf

Rabindra Mondal

A transportation problem basically deals with the problem, which aims to find the best way to fulfil the demand of n demand points using the capacities of m supply points. Here we studied a new method for solving transportation problems with mixed constraints and described the algorithm to find an optimal more-for-less (MFL) solution. The optimal MFL solution procedure is illustrated with numerical example and also computer programming. Though maximum transportation problems in real life have mixed constraints, these problems are not be solved by using general method. The proposed method builds on the initial solution of the transportation problem which is very simple, easy to understand and apply.

Optimization

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The family of network optimization problems includes the following prototype models: assignment, critical path, max flow, shortest path, and transportation. Although it is long known that these problems can be modeled as linear programs (LP), this is generally not done. Due to the relative inefficiency and complexity of the simplex methods (primal, dual, and other variations) for network models, these problems are usually treated by one of over 100 specialized algorithms. This leads to several difficulties. The solution algorithms are not unified and each algorithm uses a different strategy to exploit the special structure of a specific problem. Furthermore, small variations in the problem, such as the introduction of side constraints, destroys the special structure and requires modifying andjor restarting the algorithm. Also, these algorithms obtain solution efficiency at the expense of managerial insight, as the final solutions from these algorithms do not have sufficient information to perform postoptimality analysis.Another approach is to adapt the simplex to network optimization problems through network simplex. This provides unification of the various problems but maintains all the inefficiencies of simplex, as well as, most of the network inflexibility to handle changes such as side constraints. Even ordinary sensitivity analysis (OSA), long available in the tabular simplex, has been only recently transferred to network simplex.This paper provides a single unified algorithm for all five network models. The proposed solution algorithm is a variant of the self-dual simplex with a warm start. This algorithm makes available the full power of LP perturbation analysis (PA) extended to handle optimal degeneracy. In contrast to OSA, the proposed PA provides ranges for which the current optimal strategy remains optimal, for simultaneous dependent or independent changes from the nominal values in costs, arc capacities, or suppliesJdemands. The proposed solution algorithm also facilitates incorporation of network structural changes and side constraints. It has the advantage of being computationally practical, easy for managers to understand and use, and provides useful PA information in all cases. Computer implementation issues are discussed and illustrative numerical examples are provided in the Appendix For teaching purposes you may try: Refined Simplex Algorithm for the Classical Transportation Problem with Application to Parametric Analysis, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 12(8), 1035-1044, 1989. http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/KahnRefine.pdf

Journal of Applied Mathematics and Decision Sciences

In a fast changing global market, a manager is concerned with cost uncertainties of the cost matrix in transportation problems (TP) and assignment problems (AP).A time lag between the development and application of the model could cause cost parameters to assume different values when an optimal assignment is implemented. The manager might wish to determine the responsiveness of the current optimal solution to such uncertainties. A desirable tool is to construct a perturbation set (PS) of cost coeffcients which ensures the stability of an optimal solution under such uncertainties. The widely-used methods of solving the TP and AP are the stepping-stone (SS) method and the Hungarian method, respectively. Both methods fail to provide direct information to construct the needed PS. An added difficulty is that these problems might be highly pivotal degenerate. Therefore, the sensitivity results obtained via the available linear programming (LP) software might be misleading. We propose a unified pivotal solution algorithm for both TP and AP. The algorithm is free of pivotal degeneracy, which may cause cycling, and does not require any extra variables such as slack, surplus, or artificial variables used in dual and primal simplex. The algorithm permits higher-order assignment problems and side-constraints. Computational results comparing the proposed algorithm to the closely-related pivotal solution algorithm, the simplex, via the widely-used pack-age Lindo, are provided. The proposed algorithm has the advantage of being computationally practical, being easy to understand, and providing useful information for managers. The results empower the manager to assess and monitor various types of cost uncertainties encountered in real-life situations. Some illustrative numerical examples are also presented."

IJAR Indexing

Assignment problems deal with the question how to assign n objects to m other objects in an injective fashion in the best possible way. An assignment problem is completely specified by its two components the assignments, which represent the underlying combinatorial structure, and the objective function to be optimized, which models \\\\\\\"the best possible way\\\\\\\". The assignment problem refers to another special class of linear programming problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities on a one to one basis so as to minimize total costs of performing the tasks at hand or maximize total profit of allocation. In this paper we introduce a new technique to solve assignment problems namely, Divide Row Minima and Subtract Column Minima .For the validity and comparison study we consider an example and solved by using our technique and the existing Hungarian (HA) and matrix ones assignment method(MOA) and compare optimum result shown graphically.

ام محمد لا للشات

The problem of finding the initial basic feasible solution of the Transportation Problem has long been studied and is well known to the research scholars of the field. So far three general methods for solving transportation methods are available in literature, namely Northwest, Least Cost and Vogel?s Approximation methods. These methods give only initial feasible solution. However here we discuss a new alternative method which gives Initial feasible solution as well as optimal or nearly optimal solution. In this paper we provide an alternate method to find IBFS (Initial Basic Feasible Solution) and compared the alternate method and the existing IBFS methods using a Graphical User Interface. It is also to be noticed that this method requires lesser number of iterations to reach optimality as compared to other known methods for solving the transportation problem and the solution obtained is as good as obtained by Vogel?s Approximation Method (VAM).

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COMMENTS

  1. PDF Unit 4: ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    Problem 4. Job shop needs to assign 4 jobs to 4 workers. The cost of performing a job is a function of the skills of the workers. Table summarizes the cost of the assignments. Worker1 cannot do job3, and worker 3 cannot do job 4. Determine the optimal assignment using the Hungarian method. Job. Worker.

  2. PDF ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM

    ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM Consider an assignment problem of assigning n jobs to n machines (one job to one machine). Let c ij be the unit cost of assigning ith machine to the jth job and,ith machine to jth job. Let x ij = 1 , if jth job is assigned to ith machine. x ij = 0 , if jth job is not assigned to ith machine. K.BHARATHI,SCSVMV. ASSIGNMENT ...

  3. PDF UNIT 5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

    e minimisation problem.3. The assignment problem wherein the number of rows is not equal to the number of columns is said t. be an unbalanced problem. Such a problem is handled by introducing dummy row(s) if the number of rows is less than the number of columns and dummy column(s) if the number of columns is le.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Assignment Problem

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  5. PDF Solving The Assignment Problems Directly Without Any Iterations

    The assignment problem is a standard topic discussed in operations research textbooks [8] and [10]. It is an important subject, put forward immediately after the transportation problem, is the assignment problem. This is particularly important in the theory of decision making. The assignment problem is one of the earliest

  6. Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations

    After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations. Meaning of Assignment Problem: An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total ...

  7. Revisiting the Evolution and Application of Assignment Problem ...

    problems such as the linear network flow and shortest path problems to take the form of an assignment problem. The assignment problem finds many applications; the most obvious being that of matching such as the matching of operators and machines or delivery vehicles and deliveries. There are however numerous other interesting applications.

  8. PDF A Brief Review on Classic Assignment Problem and its Applications

    minimizes the total cost or maximizes the total profit. The original version of the assignment problem is discussed in almost every textbook for an introductory course in either management science/operations research or production and operations management. Assignment problem is well structured linear programming problem,

  9. PDF Operations Research

    book is on the applications of operations research in practice. Typically, a topic is introduced by means of a description of its applications, a model is formulated and ... 2.2.7 Transportation and Assignment Problems 43 Exercises 50 60 2.3.1 The Graphical Solution Method 60 2.3.2 Special Cases of Linear Programming Problems 70

  10. Chapter 5: Assignment Problem

    5.1 INTRODUCTION. The assignment problem is one of the special type of transportation problem for which more efficient (less-time consuming) solution method has been devised by KUHN (1956) and FLOOD (1956). The justification of the steps leading to the solution is based on theorems proved by Hungarian mathematicians KONEIG (1950) and EGERVARY ...

  11. (PDF) Program for Solving Assignment Problems and Its Application in

    Assignment model is a powerful operations research techniques that can be used to solve assignment or allocation problem. This study applies the assignment model to the course allocation problem ...

  12. Solving the Rectangular assignment problem and applications

    The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show how it can be used to solve variants of the LAP, such as the k-cardinality LAP and the LAP with ...

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  16. Solving the Assignment Problem by Relaxation

    Abstract. This paper presents a new algorithm for solving the assignment problem. The algorithm is based on a scheme of relaxing the given problem into a series of simple network flow (transportation) problems for each of which an optimal solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm is thus seen to be able to take advantage of the nice ...

  17. Assignment Problem

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  18. PDF MIT Sloan School of Management

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