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List of Abbreviations for a Thesis or Dissertation

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  • By DiscoverPhDs
  • September 14, 2020

List of Abbreviations Thesis

What are Abbreviations and Acronyms?

An abbreviation is a shortened version of a term or phrase, e.g. kg for kilogram or Dr. for doctor.

An acronym is a type of abbreviation constructed from the first letters of a term, e.g. FRP for Fibre Reinforced Polymer or STEM for Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths.

List of Abbreviations in a Thesis or Dissertation

If your thesis or dissertation contains several symbols or abbreviations, it would be beneficial to include a list of abbreviations to assist your reader. This is a list sorted in alphabetical order that gives their definitions.

This will not only help the reader better understand your research, but it will also improve the flow of your paper, as it prevents continually having to define abbreviations in your main text.

Where Does a List of Abbreviations Go?

When including a list of abbreviations, insert them near the start of the report after your table of contents. To make it clear that your document contains an abbreviated list, also add a separate heading to your table of contents.

Note: The page number for your list of abbreviations should continue from the page number that proceeds it; there is no need to reset it for this section.

Rules for Using Abbreviations and Acronyms

The first time you use an abbreviation or acronym, it is good practice to write out the full terminology or phrase followed by the abbreviation or acronym encased in parenthesis.

After defining an abbreviation or acronym for the first time in your main text, you no longer need to use the full term; for example:

Example of Acronyms in a Thesis or Dissertation

This allows the reader to understand your report without having to rely on the list of abbreviations; it is only there to help the reader if they forget what an abbreviation stands for and needs to look it up.

Note: In academic writing, abbreviations that are not listed should always be defined in your thesis text at their first appearance.

Abbreviated Exceptions

Very common abbreviations should not be included in your list because they needlessly overload your list with terms that your readers already know, which discourages them from using it.

Some examples of common abbreviations and acronyms that should not be included in your standard abbreviation list are USA, PhD , Dr. and Ltd. etc.

Example of List of Abbreviations for a Thesis or Dissertation

An example abbreviation list is as follows:

Abbreviations Listing - Example

The above example has been extracted from here .

List of Symbols

You can add symbols and their definitions to your list of abbreviations, however, some people like to keep them separate, especially if they have many of them. While this format will come down to personal preference, most STEM students create a separate list of symbols and most non-STEM students incorporate them into their list of abbreviations.

Note: If you are writing your report to APA style, you will need to consider additional requirements when writing your list of abbreviations. You can find further information here .

Further Reading

Whether you’re writing a Ph.D. thesis or a dissertation paper, the following resources will also be of use:

  • Title Page for an Academic Paper
  • List of Appendices

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Dissertation Title Page

The title page of your dissertation or thesis conveys all the essential details about your project. This guide helps you format it in the correct way.

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Dr Hothi gained his PhD in Orthopaedic Engineering from Queen Mary University of London in 2012. He is now the Implant Science Fellow at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, researching how to improve knee, hip and spine implants.

research paper list of abbreviations

Prof Raghupathi gained his PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Virginia Commonwealth University in 1991. He is now a professor in the Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy at Drexel University College of Medicine.

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Formatting Your Thesis or Dissertation with Microsoft Word

  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication, Acknowledgements, & Preface
  • Headings and Subheadings
  • Citations and Bibliography
  • Page Numbers
  • Tables and Figures
  • Rotated (Landscape) Pages
  • Table of Contents
  • Lists of Tables and Figures
  • Some Things to Watch For
  • PDF with Embedded Fonts

List of abbreviations

Microsoft Word can automatically create a List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. If you use a lot of abbreviations and acronyms in your thesis — and even if you only use a few — there is no reason not to include a list. The process is not at all difficult. See the video tutorial below to see how to create such a list.

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List of Abbreviations for Dissertation

Published by Owen Ingram at August 11th, 2021 , Revised On August 22, 2023

What are Abbreviations?

“Oxford English Dictionary defines an abbreviation as ‘a short form of a word’. For example, UN is the short form – an abbreviation – for United Nations.” Abbreviations are commonly used in every form of writing, including academic writing. Abbreviations in dissertations generally have to do with names of organisations, institutions, theoretical models and the like. 

If your dissertation includes many abbreviations, it will make sense to define all these abbreviations in an alphabetically-organised list. 

This can really help your readers understand the jargon and specific terms they might not be familiar with. Here is all you need to know about the  list of abbreviations for the dissertation .

Placement of a List of Abbreviations 

Abbreviations’ list should be placed at the start of the dissertation and right after the  table of contents . The list of abbreviations should also be a part of the table of contents. If you aren’t using many abbreviations, there isn’t a need to include a whole list. Underneath, we will guide you on how to define abbreviations within the text.

Abbreviation Full Form
Association
Corporation
Limited
Bookkeeper
Doctor
For Example

Abbreviations don’t need to be numbered in the list.

Acronyms and Abbreviations

There are various ways of placing acronyms and abbreviations in a dissertation. While using acronyms formed by combining the first letter of each word from a phrase, you should write that phrase in its full form and then write the abbreviation in parenthesis right after that. You can then make use of that acronym for the  rest of the dissertation .

Acronyms Example in a dissertation

 I met the regional sales manager (RSM) of 5 different multi-national companies (MNC). I conducted in-depth interviews with the RSM, through which I came to know that every MNC  has a different strategy for its product marketing.

Some exceptions don’t apply to this rule, such as when acronyms like AI, URL, FIFA, etc. are involved You can still write the full acronym if unsure.

Point to remember: In research, it is not considered right to create your own abbreviations and/or acronyms. You can only abbreviate terms that have officially been abbreviated in books, journals and other published materials. For instance, you cannot abbreviate ‘women leaders in private sectors’ to ‘WLiPS’. Unless such an abbreviation actually exists, this would be unethical in the context of research.

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APA Style of Abbreviations

If you are working with APA referencing style, there are additional and specific requirements for creating a list of abbreviations for the dissertation.

Other Types of Lists in a Dissertation

In addition to the list of abbreviations, there are other lists that you can include in your dissertation paper, including:

  • Table of Contents
  • Figures and tables

Point to note: You might come across some types of research or theses where the abbreviations’ column is placed in front of an ‘explanation’ column. The latter is simply another way of ‘defining’ the acronyms/abbreviations or rather, giving their full forms. Here is an example of such a list of abbreviations from a thesis:

List-of-abbreviations-and-acronyms-used-in-this-article

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 Whether you need help with the list of abbreviations or any other aspect of your dissertation paper, ResearchProspect dissertation services are designed to help you achieve a high academic grade. Our strict recruitment process helps us to hire the best of the best dissertation writers .

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is a list of abbreviations.

A list of abbreviations is a compilation of shortened forms used in a document, often found at the beginning or end. It explains the meanings of acronyms, initialisms, or shortened terms to help readers comprehend the text more easily.

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A list of glossary in a dissertation contains all the terms that were used in your dissertation but the meanings of which may not be obvious to the readers.

Make sure that your selected topic is intriguing, manageable, and relevant. Here are some guidelines to help understand how to find a good dissertation topic.

When writing your dissertation, an abstract serves as a deal maker or breaker. It can either motivate your readers to continue reading or discourage them.

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Abbreviations in Research: Common Errors in Academic Writing 

Abbreviations in research: Common errors in academic writing

“Provided they are not obscure to the reader, abbreviations communicate more with fewer letters. Writers have only to ensure that the abbreviations they use are too well known to need any introduction, or that they are introduced and explained on their first appearance.”  

—From “The Cambridge Guide to English Usage” by Pam Peters 1  

David Crystal defines abbreviations as “a major component of the English writing system, not a marginal feature. The largest dictionaries of abbreviations contain well over half a million entries, and their number is increasing all the time.” 2 Students and researchers often use abbreviations in research writing to save space, especially when facing restrictions of page or word limits. Abbreviations in research are also used in place of long or difficult phrases for ease of writing and reading. Exactly how abbreviations in research writing should be used depends on the style guide you follow. For example, in British English, the period (or full stop) is omitted in abbreviations that include the first and last letters of a single word (e.g., “Dr” or “Ms”). But in American English, such abbreviations in writing are followed by a period (e.g., “Dr.” or “Ms.”).  

While using abbreviations in academic writing is a common feature in many academic and scientific papers, most journals prefer keeping their use to a minimum or restricting their use to standard abbreviations. As a general rule, all non-standard acronyms/abbreviations in research papers should be written out in full on first use (in both the abstract and the paper itself), followed by the abbreviated form in parentheses, as in the American Psychological Association (APA) style guide. 

Table of Contents

  • Mistakes to avoid when using acronyms and abbreviations in research writing3 
  • Tips to using abbreviations in research writing 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Mistakes to avoid when using acronyms and abbreviations in research writing 3.

  • Avoid opening a sentence with an abbreviation in research papers; write the word out. 
  • Abbreviations such as a.m., p.m., B.C., and A.D. are never spelled out. Unless your style guide says otherwise, use lowercase or small capitals for a.m. and p.m. Use  capital letters  or small caps for B.C. and A.D. (the periods are optional).  
  • Avoid RAS Syndrome:   RAS Syndrome stands for Redundant Acronym Syndrome…Syndrome. For example, DC Comics—DC already stands for “Detective Comics,” making Comics after DC redundant. 
  • Avoid Alphabet Soup:   Alphabet soup refers to using too many abbreviations in academic writing. Do not abbreviate the words if their frequency of appearance in the document is less than three. 

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  • Do not follow acronyms with a period unless at the end of a sentence. 
  • When pluralizing acronyms add a lowercase “s” at the end (“three ECGs”); acronyms can be made possessive with an apostrophe followed by a lowercase “s” (“DOD’s acknowledge”). 
  • Acronyms are treated as singulars, even when they stand for plurals. Therefore, they require a singular verb (“NASA is planning to…”). 
  • Articles “a” or “an” before an acronym should be based on the opening sound rather than the acronym’s meaning. This depends on whether they are pronounced as words or as a series of letters. Use “an” if a soft vowel sound opens the acronym; else, use “a.” For example, a NATO meeting; an MRI scan. 

Tips to using abbreviations in research writing

1. When to abbreviate: Using too many abbreviations in research papers can make the document hard to read. While it makes sense to abbreviate every long word, it’s best to abbreviate terms you use repeatedly. 

2. Acronyms and initialisms: Define all acronyms and initialisms on their first use by giving the full terminology followed by the abbreviation in brackets. Once defined, use the shortened version in place of the full term. 

3. Contractions: Using contractions (isn’t, can’t, don’t, etc.) in academic writing, such as a research paper, is usually not encouraged because it can make your writing sound informal. 

4. Latin abbreviations: Latin abbreviations in research are widely preferred as they contain much meaning in a tiny package. Most style manuals (APA, MLA, and Chicago) suggest limiting the use of Latin abbreviations in the main text. They recommend using etc. , e.g. , and i.e., in parentheses within the body of a text, but others should appear only in footnotes, endnotes, tables, and other forms of documentation. But APA allows using “ et al .” when citing works with multiple authors and v. in the titles of court cases. 

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5. Capitalization: Abbreviations in writing are in full capital letters (COBOL, HTML, etc.). Exceptions include acronyms such as “radar,” “scuba,” and “lidar,” which have become commonly accepted words. 

6. Punctuation: Abbreviations in research can be written without adding periods between each letter. However, when shortening a word, we usually add a period as follows: 

Figure → Fig. 

Doctor → Dr. 

January → Jan. 

Note that units of measurement do not require a period after the abbreviation. But, to avoid confusion with the word “ in ,” we write “ inches ” as “ in. ” in documents. 

7. Create a list: Make a list of the abbreviations in research as you write. Adding such a list at the start of your document can give the reader and yourself an easy point of reference.  

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Avoid making abbreviation mistakes in your writing with Paperpal  

Finalizing a research paper requires more than great writing. Proofreading for errors such as correct abbreviations in research is also an essential step, which often consumes a lot of time. That’s where Paperpal, the comprehensive AI academic writing assistant, can help you!  

Paperpal’s Consistency Check automatically identifies inconsistencies in formatting, style, abbreviations, and language and allows you to fix them. It can flag instances where you introduce an abbreviation without first defining it. It ensures you’re following consistent academic abbreviation styles and helps finalize your paper for submission faster, saving you a lot of time and effort. 

Consistency checks are available with Paperpal Prime. Here’s how to use these checks to fix abbreviations in research:  

  • Turn on Consistency Checks: Once logged in, paste your content in a new document, navigate to Edit and enable the Consistency feature.     
  • Inconsistency Flags: Paperpal will scan your paper and flag any inconsistencies it finds in your abbreviation usage. This might include 
  • Using the full term in some places and the abbreviation in others for the same concept. 
  • Formatting errors (e.g., p=0.05 vs. P>0.02) 
  • Language and numbering style erros (e.g., Jan vs. January or 9%-10% vs. 9-10%) 
  • Inconsistency in capitalization and plurals (e.g., MRI vs. mri). 
  • Fix the Abbreviations: Once it identifies inconsistencies, Paperpal will prompt you to review and ensure consistency throughout your research paper. This allows you to have control over your work and edit mindfully.  

It’s recommended to always follow your journal’s guidelines and use the tips above to eliminate abbreviation errors in research papers. Never forget to proofread your work; remember that AI academic writing tools like Paperpal can help proofread and fix such errors before you submit. Get Paperpal Prime and ensure your writing is submission ready in minutes!  

References  

  • Peters, P. The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge University Press (2004).  
  • Crystal, D. Spell it out: The singular story of English spelling (2013). 
  • Nordquist, R. 10 Tips for Using Abbreviations Correctly (July 25, 2019). Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/tips-for-using-abbreviations-correctly-1691738  
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Abbreviations in a research paper are shortened forms of words or phrases used to represent specific terms or concepts. They are employed to improve readability and conciseness, especially when there are strict word counts and terms are mentioned frequently throughout the paper. To ensure clarity, it is essential to define each abbreviation when it is first used in the research paper. This is typically done by providing the full term followed by its abbreviation in parentheses.

Some commonly used abbreviations in academic writing include e.g. (exempli gratia), i.e. (id est), et al. (et alia/et alii), etc. (et cetera), cf. (confer), and viz. (videlicet). Additionally, there are several subject-specific abbreviations that are known by and commonly used in a field of study. However, know that abbreviations may mean different things across different fields. This makes it important to consult style guides or specific guidelines provided by the academic institution or target publication to ensure consistent and appropriate use of abbreviations in your academic writing.

An acronym is an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of a series of words and is pronounced as a word itself. For example, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) are acronyms. An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase but they are usually pronounced as individual letters. Examples of abbreviations include “et al.” for “et alia/et alii” and “e.g.” for “exempli gratia.”

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Related Reads:

  • Parallelism in Academic Writing: What is Faulty Parallelism and its Types 
  • What does ‘et al.’ mean and How to Use ‘et al.’ in a Research Paper
  • How and When to Use ‘then’ vs. ‘than’ [with Examples]
  • 4 Types of Language Errors in Research Papers  

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Main navigation, section-specific, list of abbreviations.

   

Link: List of Abbreviations

The List of Abbreviations is an alphabetical list of the abbreviations used in your thesis/dissertation that aims to improve clarity and minimize confusion for the reader. This is optional. If your thesis/dissertation contains numerous abbreviations, or if you think your audience may not be familiar with the abbreviations used, a List of Abbreviations is recommended.

Setting Up Tabs

  • Create the "List of Abbreviations" heading (2" from the top of the page, styled as a 1st level heading).
  • Set page spacing to single-spaced.
  • Click on the bottom right of the Paragraph tab to open the Paragraph Settings window.
  • Click on the Tabs button at the bottom left of the window.
  • Set the tab stop to 1.5" (Align LEFT ; Leader NONE ).
  • Click Save on the Tabs window and then close the Paragraph settings window.
  • Click and move the right indent to 6.0" so that any long headers will wrap to the next line.
  • Create the “Abbreviations” and “Definitions” headings, styled as level 2 headings, on the second line using tabs to start the Definitions at 1.5”

General Formatting

  • Line Spacing: Single-spaced, or Faux double-spaced (Use faux double-spacing when abbreviation/definitions are longer than 1-line) (Set the whole page to single-spaced and add one single-spaced line before each new abbreviation) 
  • Page Number: Lowercase Roman numeral (continued from Table of Contents)

Section Heading Formatting

  • All 1st-order headings must be 2" from the top edge of the page and must be styled consistently.

Consistent Formatting

All Abbreviations must match verbatim (word-for-word) to those used in the body of manuscript.

Definitions should not be closer than 0.5" from the right margin so they do not overcrowd the page numbers.

The "Abbreviation" should be against the left margin while the "Definition” should be indented to 1.5". All lines of the definition must be indented the same. See the above example for help.

Page numbers are not required for the abbreviations. 

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List of Abbreviations, List of Works

A List of Abbreviations is not required, but it may be helpful to the reader if abbreviations are used extensively in the text. The distinguishing feature of the List of Abbreviations is that information is arranged in two columns with the abbreviations or acronyms aligned along the left margin and the terms or names aligned under the word "LIST" in the title "LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS." If a List of Abbreviations is used, it should follow the List of Tables and/or the List of Figures.

A List of Works lists items that the student has mentioned in text that are not in the text as figures or in an appendix.  These items would be uploaded as a supplementary file in the ProQuest database. The List of Works has numbered items similar to the List of Tables and List of Figures, but capitalization varies according to the type of artwork being described. The List of Works template briefly describes the types of capitalization most commonly used. Read through the list of items in the List of Works template before inputting your own material to review formatting rules regarding capitalization of titles of works of art. The List of Works should be arranged in the document as the last list if other lists are included in the document and before the first page of text.

NOTE:  The templates were created using the 2013 version of Microsoft Word. If a template is downloaded in another version of Word or another word processing program, the formatting may be incorrect. Also, if a template is copied and pasted into another document, the settings of that document (margins, page number settings, font style, etc.) may affect the look of the template.

  • List of Abbreviations Template (DOC)

This Microsoft Word document can be saved to your computer to use as a template. It was created using Microsoft Office 2013 version of Word. Please email [email protected] if you have problems with the download.

  • List of Works Template (DOC)

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Style Guide for Research Papers: Abbreviations

  • Style & Format
  • Citing the Bible
  • Footnotes & Bibliography
  • Citing Books
  • Citing Commentaries
  • Citing Dictionaries/Encyclopedias
  • Citing Journals
  • Citing Lexicons
  • Citing Digital Media
  • Abbreviations
  • Model Title Page

Documentation and Abbreviations

The SBL Handbook of Style offers two extensive lists of abbreviations for journals, series, and other standard reference works. The first abbreviation list is alphabetized by source ( SBLHS 8.4.1) and the second by abbreviation ( SBLHS 8.4.2). If the work cited is in these lists, you may use the standard abbreviation provided.

Note that both lists italicize abbreviations of journal titles and abbreviations based on book titles (e.g., JBL, COS ), but do not italicize the abbreviations of book series (e.g., WGRW, JSOTSup) or abbreviations based on personal names (e.g., BAGD, BDB). If a work is not included in the abbreviation lists of SBLHS or some other authoritative resource (e.g., IATG , CAD ), use complete titles throughout or include a list of additional abbreviations on a separate page at the beginning of the paper (after the title page and before the main text). A partial list of abbreviations is included at the end of this style guide.

Biblical Abbreviations

Abbreviations follow the format recommended by the Society of Biblical Literature

Old Testament
Name Abbreviation
Genesis Gen
Exodus Exod
Leviticus Lev
Numbers Num
Deuteronomy Deut
Joshua Josh
Judges Judg
Ruth Ruth
1-2 Samuel 1-2 Sam
1-2 Kings 1-2 Kgs
1-2 Chronicles 1-2 Chr
Ezra Ezra
Nehemiah Neh
Esther Esth
Job Job
Psalms Ps/Pss
Proverbs Prov
Ecclesiastes Eccl/Qoh
Song of Songs/Solomon Song/Cant
Isaiah Isa
Jeremiah Jer
Lamentations Lam
Ezekiel Ezek
Daniel Dan
Hosea Hos
Joel Joel
Amos Amos
Obadiah Obad
Jonah Jonah
Micah Mic
Nahum Nah
Habakkuk Hab
Zephaniah Zeph
Haggai Hag
Zechariah Zech
Malachi Mal
New Testament
Name Abbreviation
Matthew Matt
Mark Mark
Luke Luke
John John
Acts Acts
Romans Rom
1-2 Corinthians 1-2 Cor
Galatians Gal
Ephesians Eph
Philippians Phil
Colossians Col
1-2 Thessalonians 1-2 Thess
1-2 Timothy 1-2 Tim
Titus Titus
Philemon Phlm
Hebrews Heb
James Jas
1-2 Peter 1-2 Pet
1-3 John 1-3 John
Jude Jude
Revelation Rev

Abbreviations for Bible Versions

Amplified Bible AMP
American Standard Version ASV
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (Hebrew Bible) BHS
Common English Bible CEB
Contemporary English Version CEV
Christian Standard Bible CSB
English Standard Version ESV
Good News Bible GNB
Holman Christian Standard Bbile HCSB
Jerusalem Bible JB
King James Version KJV
Living Bible LB
Lexham English Bible LEB
Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible) LXX
Modern Language Bible MLB
New Testament: A New Translation, James Moffatt MOFFATT
Message MSG
Masoretic Text MT
Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 28th Edition NA28
New American Bible, Revised Edition NASR
New American Standard Bible NASB
New American Version NAV
New Century Version NCV
New English Bible NET
New English Translation of the Septuagint NETS
New International Reader's Version NIrV
New International Version NIV
New Jerusalem Bible NJB
Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures: The New JPS Translation NJPS
New King James Version NKJV
New Living Translation NLT
New Revised Standard Version NRSV
New Testament in Modern English, J.B. Phillips PHILLIPS
Revised English Bible REB
Revised Standard Version RSV
Today's English Version (also known as Good News Bible) TEV
Today's Living Bible TLB
Today's New International Version TNIV
Vulgate VUL
World English Bible WEB
New Testament in Modern Speech, R. F. Weymouth WEYMOUTH
Young's Literal Translation YLT

Journal Abbreviations

The following is only a partial list of abbreviations for journals. See the SBL Handbook of Style for a more complete list.

African Journal of Evangelical Theology AJET
Asbury Theological Journal AsTJ
Asia Journal of Theology AJT
Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies AJPS
Biblica Bib
Biblical Archaeology Review BAR
Biblical Theology Bulletin BTB
Bibliotheca Sacra BSas
Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BASOR
Calvin Theological Journal CTJ
Catholic Biblical Quarterly CBQ
Church History CH
European Journal of Theology EuroJTh
Harvard Theological Review HTR
Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel HeBAI
Horizons in Biblical Theology HBT
Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology Int
Journal for the Study of the New Testament JSNT
Journal for the Study of the Old Testament JSOT
Journal of Biblical and Pneumatological Research JBPR
Journal of Biblical Literature JBL
Journal of Early Christian Studies JECS
Journal of Pentecostal Theology JPS
Journal of the Evangelical theological Society JETS
Journal fo the Jesus Movement in Its Jewish Setting JJMJS
Journal of Religious Ethics JORE
Near Eastern Archaeology NEA
New Testament Studies NTS
Novum Testamentum NovT
Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies Pneuma
Scottish Journal of Theology SJT
Southern Baptist Journal of Theology SBJT
Southwestern Journal of Theology SWJT
Trinity Journal TJ
Westminster Theological Journal WTJ

Commentary Abbreviations

The following is only a partial list of abbreviations for commentaries. See the SBL Handbook of Style for a more complete list.

Abingdon New Testament Commentaries ANTC
Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries AOTC
Anchor Bible (or Anchor Yale Bible) AB (or AYBC)
Ancient Christian Commentary Series ACCS
Apollos Old Testament Commentary ApOTC
Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament ACNT
Baker Exegetical Commentary on the NT BECNT
Bible Knowledge Commentary BKC
Bible Speaks Today BST
Black's New Testament Commentaries BNTC
Brazos Theological Commentaries BTC
Eerdmans Critical Commentary ECC
Expositor's Bible Commentary (and revised version) EBC (or REBC)
Hermeneia Hermeneia
International Critical Commentary ICC
Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Preaching and Teaching IBC
IVP New Testament Commentary IVPNTC
Keil and Delitzsch Commentary K&D
New American Commentary NAC
New Cambridge Bible Commentary NCBC
New Century Bible NCB
New International Biblical Commentary on the NT NIBCNT
New International Biblical Commentary on the OT NIBCOT
New International Commentary on the NT NICNT
New International Commentary on the OT NICOT
New International Greek Testament Commentary NIGTC
New Interpreter's Bible NIB
New Jerome Bible Commentary NJBC
New Testament Library NTL
NIV Application Commentary NIVAC
Old Testament Library OTL
Paideia Commentaries on the New Testament PCNT
Pillar New Testament Commentary PNTC
Socio-Rhetorical Commentary SRC
Tyndale New Testament Commentaries TNTC
Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries TOTC
Word Biblical Commentary WBC
Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament ZECNT
Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the Old Testament ZECOT
Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary ZIBBC

Publisher Abbreviations

The following is only a partial list of abbreviations for publishing houses. For a full explanation of the proper way to cite publishers, see the Society of Biblical Literature Handbook of Style, 2nd edition, section 6.1.4.

The left column in the following list includes the full publishing house names, followed in parentheses by the main city or cities where they are located. Cities in the list that are followed by their state abbreviation will require that state abbreviation in the footnotes and bibliography of your papers.

The right column in the following list shows how the publishers should be cited in the footnotes and bibliography. The city is always required, followed by a colon, followed by the standardized name of the publishing company. When citing a publishing house, only use the first city that is listed in title page or copyright page of the actual book you used. Do not include terms such as "Press," "Publisher," or "Publishing House" in your citations unless that part of the publisher's name is required to avoid ambiguity from similarly-named publishing houses. Note that publishers such as Eerdmans , InterVarsity , and de Gruyter follow particular standardized rules.

Abingdon (Nashville; New York)   Nashville: Abingdon
Apollos (Leicester) Leicester: Apollos
Augsburg (Minneapolis) Minneapolis: Augsburg
Augsburg Fortress (Minneapolis) Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress
Baker Academic (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Baker Academic
Baker Books (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Baker Books
Baylor University Press (Waco, TX) Waco, TX: Baylor University Press
Bloomsbury (London; New Delhi; New York; Sydney) London: Bloomsbury
Brazos (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Brazos
Brill (Leiden; Boston) Leiden: Brill
Cambridge University Press (Cambridge: New York) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cascade (Eugene, OR) Eugene, OR: Cascade
Crossway (Wheaton, IL) Wheaton, IL: Crossway
de Gruyter (Berlin) Berlin: de Gruyter
Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (Stuttgart) Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft
Doubleday (Garden City, NY; New York) New York: Doubleday
Eerdmans (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
E. J. Brill (see Brill, above)
Fortress (Philadelphia) Philadelphia: Fortress
Harper & Row (New York; San Francisco) New York: Harper & Row
HarperCollins (New York: San Francisco) New York: HarperCollins
HarperOne (San Francisco) San Francisco: HarperOne
Harvard University Press (Cambridge) Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Hendrickson (Peabody, MA) Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
InterVarsity Press (Downers Grove, IL) Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity
Inter-Varsity Press (Leicester; London) London: Inter-Varsity
John Knox (Atlanta; Richmond, VA) Atlanta: John Knox
Kregel (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Kregel
Mercer University Press (Macon, GA) Macon, GA: Mercer University Press
Mohr Siebeck (Tübingen) Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck
Nelson (Nashville; London) Nashville: Nelson
Orbis Books (Maryknoll, NY) Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books
Oxford University Press (Oxford; London; New York) Oxford: Oxford University Press
Paternoster (Exeter; Milton Keynes) Exeter: Paternoster
Paulist (New York: Mahwah, NJ) New York: Paulist
Peeters (Leuven) Leuven: Peeters
Penguin Books (Harmondsworth; London) London: Penguin Books
Pickwick (Pittsburgh; Eugene, OR) Pittsburgh: Pickwick
Prentice Hall (Englewood Cliffs, NJ; Upper Saddle River, NJ) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Princeton University Press (Princeton) Princeton: Princeton University Press
Rowman & Littlefield (Lanham, MD) Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield
SBL Press (Atlanta) Atlanta: SBL Press
Scholars Press (Missoula, MT; Chico, CA; Atlanta) Atlanta: Scholars Press
SCM (London) London: SCM
Scribner’s Sons (New York) New York: Scribner's Sons
Sheffield Academic (Sheffield) Sheffield: Sheffield Academic
Sheffield Phoenix (Sheffield) Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix
SIL International (Dallas) Dallas: SIL International
Smyth & Helwys (Macon, GA) Macon, GA: Smyth & Helwys
Society of Biblical Literature (Atlanta) Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (see SPCK)
SPCK (London) London: SPCK
T&T Clark (Edinburgh; London; New York) New York: T&T Clark
Thomas Nelson (see Nelson, above)
Tyndale House (Carol Stream, IL) Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House
Tyndale Press (London) London: Tyndale Press
United Bible Societies (London; New York; Stuttgart) New York: United Bible Societies
Walter de Gruyter (see de Gruyter)
Westminster (Philadelphia) Philadelphia: Westminster
Westminster John Knox (Louisville) Louisville: Westminster John Knox
Wiley & Sons (New York) New York: Wiley & Sons
Wiley-Blackwell (Malden, MA; Chichester) Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell
William B. Eerdmans (see Eerdmans, above)
Wm. B. Eerdmans (see Eerdmans, above)
Wipf & Stock (Eugene, OR) Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock
Word (Waco, TX; Dallas; Nashville) Dallas: Word
Yale University Press (New Haven) New Haven: Yale University Press
Zondervan (Grand Rapids) Grand Rapids: Zondervan
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Using abbreviations in scientific papers

It’s time to know more about abbreviations in scientific papers and learn ways to avoid mistakes when using them.

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The use of abbreviations in academic and scientific publications is common, but authors are often asked to keep their usage as brief as possible. 

They are usually limited to universal abbreviations for weights and measurements. We would like to provide some tips in this article on how to use abbreviations effectively in your writing. 

If you are going to use abbreviations in scientific papers , then you should pay attention to the following tips.

What do abbreviations in scientific papers mean?

Abbreviations are shortened versions of terms and phrases, such as kg for kilograms, CEO for chief executive officer and Dr. for doctors. The use of abbreviations is ideally suited to situations in which you wish to reduce the number of words the text contains. 

However, there is a tendency for abbreviations to be widely used in one field of study but unknown in another. It is important to use the article that corresponds to the pronounced form of the abbreviation 

Are abbreviations allowed in research papers and where do you put them?

Your paper should include a list of abbreviations at the beginning of each of the following segments: heading, abstract , text, and figure/table legends. 

A common rule of thumb is to write all non-standard abbreviations in their entirety on their first appearance both in abstracts and papers themselves. 

After the first mention of an abbreviation, it is essential that you use it frequently. Additionally, the format should be consistently followed throughout the paper. 

Abbreviations and acronyms: what’s the difference?

The terms abbreviation and acronym are both shorthand versions of words and phrases. While abbreviations shorten longer words (like Dr. or Prof.), acronyms use the first letter of each word in a phrase to create a new word (like NASA or FBI). 

There is a difference between abbreviations and acronyms, even though authors often use them the same way. An acronym, initialism, or other word contraction form is an abbreviation. 

Acronyms are abbreviations formed by condensing the first letters of multiple words into one. Although not all abbreviations are acronyms, all acronyms are abbreviations. Abbreviations and acronyms differ primarily in this regard.

The most common mistakes to avoid when using abbreviations

Abbreviation errors in academic publications are sometimes common. The following are a few ways you can avoid this from happening in the future. 

  • It is usually advisable to define abbreviations only once when you decide to use them. Exceptions do exist, however. An abbreviation may be used at the beginning of a section in a report or chapter in a book.
  • Having an inconsistent approach is the top mistake you can make. The journals will provide guidelines on how to submit your work, so please read them carefully. Generally, abbreviations in scholarly articles are introduced only after three or more instances of the term.
  • It is important to use standard abbreviations if you are writing in a field that uses them – for instance, elements in the physical sciences are often abbreviated for word count constraints. Standard formatting should always be used (both spelling and case-sensitive formatting). Capitalization is typically used only for proper nouns.
  • Remember that for well-known abbreviations, lowercase is recommended over uppercase for competing terms, if the same letters are used in other abbreviations in the manuscript .
  • The abbreviation “et al.” can be confusing to use in scientific writing because it is often misspelt or misused. As the name suggests, this term means “and others”. In-text citations or references are often shortened with this abbreviation, and it can be used wherever it precedes a name in the text. 

Here is a list of some scientific abbreviations

DNADeoxyribonucleic acid
NASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration
PBAProcess Behaviour Analysis
QAQuality Assurance
Fig.Figure
MRIMagnetic resonance imaging
MLMaximum Likelihood
AIArtificial Intelligence
CSFCerebrospinal Fluid
ANOVAAnalysis of variance

And the list goes on.

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About Aayushi Zaveri

Aayushi Zaveri majored in biotechnology engineering. She is currently pursuing a master's degree in Bioentrepreneurship from Karolinska Institute. She is interested in health and diseases, global health, socioeconomic development, and women's health. As a science enthusiast, she is keen in learning more about the scientific world and wants to play a part in making a difference.

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How To Use Abbreviations in Academic Writing

November 3, 2022 | Blog

Cheat sheet

No time to read? Here’s the short version:

  • Avoid contractions like won’t, can’t, they’re, it’s .
  • The first time you mention a phrase that can be abbreviated, spell it out in full and provide the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation thereafter.
  • Only abbreviate phrases that occur three or more times in your paper.
  • Avoid abbreviations in titles, headings, the abstract, and the reference section.
  • Use the standard abbreviations you find in reputable dictionaries for months, personal titles, countries and states, and some Latin phrases.

What’s an abbreviation?

Abbreviation is an umbrella term for a shortened version of a longer word or phrase. There are four types of abbreviations:

  • Contraction: The result of combining two words into one word with an apostrophe. For example, don’t is a contraction of do not.
  • Shortening: Shortened words in which a part of the word (usually the beginning or the end, but occasionally both!) has been dropped. They may appear as words in their own right, such as app for application, ad for advertisement, and flu for influenza. They may also appear as truncated words which are read out as if they were full words, such as for professor, Mgmt. for management, and Feb . for February. In such cases, the truncation is usually signalled with a full stop.
  • Acronym: A series of letters that represents a longer phrase. The end result is pronounced like a word. For example, NASA is the acronym for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration and is pronounced nah-sa .
  • Initialism: Like an acronym, an initialism consists of several letters and represents a longer phrase. However, the end result cannot be pronounced as a word and instead has to be read letter by letter. FBI is the initialism for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and each letter is pronounced individually: ef-bee-eye.

Contractions are considered informal. They are therefore best avoided in academic writing, where it’s essential to maintain a formal register.

When to use abbreviations

Only use abbreviations for phrases that you use three or more times in a paper. For terms you use less frequently, it’s easier for a reader to read the full phrase than to try to remember an abbreviation encountered only once several pages earlier.

Sometimes, you may introduce an abbreviation at the beginning of your paper, but may not use it again until much later. In that case, consider adding a List of Abbreviations to help the reader follow along.

How to introduce an abbreviation

When you first use a phrase that can be abbreviated, spell it out in full and show the abbreviation in parentheses immediately afterwards.

Organizations often use a request for proposal (RFP) to solicit work.

The study was conducted at the University of Lagos (UNILAG). Many UNILAG students were surveyed for this research.

If the long-form phrase is already in parentheses the first time it occurs, use square brackets to set the abbreviation apart.

The number of imprisoned journalists globally has risen in the past 10 years (Society of Professional Journalists [SPJ], 2015).

Remember, after you’ve introduced the abbreviation, use only the acronym throughout the rest of your paper. You don’t need to spell out the full phrase again. That’s the beauty of abbreviations!

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently conducted a joint study with the South African Medical Association (SAMA) on water hygiene in South Africa. WHO provided SAMA with a five-year grant to collect data from 25 hospitals.

How to pluralize abbreviations

To make an acronym or initialism plural, all you need to do is add a lowercase s to the end; no apostrophes necessary!

Correct:           The CEOs were profiled in Forbes magazine.

Incorrect:         The CEO’s were profiled in Forbes magazine.

Incorrect:         The CEOS were profiled in Forbes magazine.

Articles before abbreviations

When to use a or an before an abbreviation.

Use the article that matches the way the abbreviation is pronounced. If the first sound is a vowel sound, use an . If the abbreviation starts with a consonant sound, use a .

an NBC reporter

an MRI machine

a NATO representative

a MOMA exhibit

Still not sure which article to use? Deciding whether to use a or an can be tricky. In a pinch, try searching for the entire phrase online (enclosed in quotation marks) to see how other writers in your industry have approached the problem.

When to use the before an abbreviation

This rule depends on whether the abbreviation is an acronym or an initialism. Add the if the abbreviation is an initialism (not an acronym) for a phrase or name that normally includes the word the (but don’t add the letter T in the abbreviation).

Correct:           the International Criminal Court → the ICC

Correct:           the Women’s National Basketball Association → the WNBA

Incorrect:         the National Aeronautics and Space Administration → the NASA

When to avoid abbreviations

Avoid using abbreviations in the following sections of an academic paper:

Section headings

Reference section.

Your title should be accessible to all readers and easy to understand. Avoid ambiguity by spelling out phrases in full.

Correct:           The Environmental Protection Agency’s Stance on Carbon Capture

Incorrect:         The EPA’s Stance on Carbon Capture

Abstracts are short. It’s unlikely that you’ll use the same term three or more times in an abstract, so abbreviations are not necessary here. However, if you do introduce an abbreviation in the abstract, remember to do it in the body of your paper as well.

Some readers will skim your paper to identify those sections that are most useful to them. Help them navigate the contents more easily by using full phrases in the section headings instead of relying on abbreviations.

Correct:           Undergraduate Enrolment in the Society of Women Engineers in 2018

Incorrect:         Undergraduate Enrolment in the SWE in 2018

You can use abbreviations in in-text citations. In the Reference section (sometimes labelled Works Cited), however, all abbreviations should be written in full.

Correct:            American Psychological Association. (2010). Gen Y’s evolving gender roles.  Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/millennials/gender.

Incorrect:          American Psychological Association (APA). (2010). Gen Y’s evolving gender roles. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/millennials/gender.

Incorrect:          APA. (2010). Gen Y’s evolving gender roles. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/millennials/gender.

Abbreviations in other languages

Sometimes, an abbreviation or acronym might be in a foreign language. In this case, introduce both the full phrase or name of the organization in its original language and the English translation. The abbreviation should reflect the correct word order in the original language.

Italy’s Five Star Movement, known as Movimento Cinque Stelle (M5S), is a populist, anti-establishment reform party.

You can also introduce the abbreviation by putting the original name in parentheses and the abbreviation in brackets within the parentheses.

In parliamentary elections held in March 2018, the Five Star Movement (Movimento Cinque Stelle [M5S]) emerged as the largest party in Italy with 32% of the vote.

When to add a list of abbreviations

If you’ve used 10 or more abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation, consider adding a formal list of abbreviations after the table of contents. This will help your reader follow along more easily. Even if you do include a list of abbreviations, be sure to introduce each abbreviated phrase in full the first time that you use it within your text, with the corresponding abbreviation in parentheses.

A list of abbreviations should contain all the abbreviations your paper uses in alphabetical order. Abbreviations starting with a number should come before the letter ‘A’. Here’s a shortened example from a paper on medicine:

BNABritish Nursing Association
BPblood pressure
DSM-5Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition
PEpulmonary embolism

As shown in the example, abbreviations can represent not only names that would be capitalized in their full form, but also common terms that are not normally capitalized, such as blood pressure (BP). If such terms recur often in the running text, it makes sense to abbreviate them, too.

Some acronyms and initialisms are so common that they require no formal introduction; there is no need to define these in either the running text or the List of Abbreviations. Examples include USSR, AIDS, HTML, and GMT.

Frequent errors

Using abbreviations correctly in English is quite tricky, and many writers struggle with this aspect of their academic writing. Here’s a very common mistake: following an abbreviation with a word that is already in the abbreviation. For example, if you say ATM machine , the word machine is redundant because the last letter of the acronym already stands for machine .

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  • Frequently asked questions

What is a list of abbreviations?

A list of abbreviations is a list of all the abbreviations you used in your thesis or dissertation. It should appear at the beginning of your document, immediately after your table of contents . It should always be in alphabetical order.

Frequently asked questions: Knowledge Base

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research. Developing your methodology involves studying the research methods used in your field and the theories or principles that underpin them, in order to choose the approach that best matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyse data (e.g. interviews, experiments , surveys , statistical tests ).

In a dissertation or scientific paper, the methodology chapter or methods section comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion .

Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology.

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to test a hypothesis by systematically collecting and analysing data, while qualitative methods allow you to explore ideas and experiences in depth.

Reliability and validity are both about how well a method measures something:

  • Reliability refers to the  consistency of a measure (whether the results can be reproduced under the same conditions).
  • Validity   refers to the  accuracy of a measure (whether the results really do represent what they are supposed to measure).

If you are doing experimental research , you also have to consider the internal and external validity of your experiment.

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population. Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research.

For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

Statistical sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population. There are various sampling methods you can use to ensure that your sample is representative of the population as a whole.

There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:

  • To familiarise yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
  • To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
  • To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
  • To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
  • To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic

Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .

It is often written as part of a dissertation , thesis, research paper , or proposal .

The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your  dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

Harvard style Vancouver style
In-text citation Each referencing style has different rules (Pears and Shields, 2019). Each referencing style has different rules (1).
Reference list Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019). . 11th edn. London: MacMillan. 1. Pears R, Shields G. Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 11th ed. London: MacMillan; 2019.

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In-text citation Reference list
1 author (Smith, 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …
2 authors (Smith and Jones, 2014) Smith, T. and Jones, F. (2014) …
3 authors (Smith, Jones and Davies, 2014) Smith, T., Jones, F. and Davies, S. (2014) …
4+ authors (Smith , 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …

A bibliography should always contain every source you cited in your text. Sometimes a bibliography also contains other sources that you used in your research, but did not cite in the text.

MHRA doesn’t specify a rule about this, so check with your supervisor to find out exactly what should be included in your bibliography.

Footnote numbers should appear in superscript (e.g. 11 ). You can use the ‘Insert footnote’ button in Word to do this automatically; it’s in the ‘References’ tab at the top.

Footnotes always appear after the quote or paraphrase they relate to. MHRA generally recommends placing footnote numbers at the end of the sentence, immediately after any closing punctuation, like this. 12

In situations where this might be awkward or misleading, such as a long sentence containing multiple quotations, footnotes can also be placed at the end of a clause mid-sentence, like this; 13 note that they still come after any punctuation.

When a source has two or three authors, name all of them in your MHRA references . When there are four or more, use only the first name, followed by ‘and others’:

Number of authors Footnote example Bibliography example
1 author David Smith Smith, David
2 authors David Smith and Hugh Jones Smith, David, and Hugh Jones
3 authors David Smith, Hugh Jones and Emily Wright Smith, David, Hugh Jones and Emily Wright
4+ authors David Smith and others Smith, David, and others

Note that in the bibliography, only the author listed first has their name inverted. The names of additional authors and those of translators or editors are written normally.

A citation should appear wherever you use information or ideas from a source, whether by quoting or paraphrasing its content.

In Vancouver style , you have some flexibility about where the citation number appears in the sentence – usually directly after mentioning the author’s name is best, but simply placing it at the end of the sentence is an acceptable alternative, as long as it’s clear what it relates to.

In Vancouver style , when you refer to a source with multiple authors in your text, you should only name the first author followed by ‘et al.’. This applies even when there are only two authors.

In your reference list, include up to six authors. For sources with seven or more authors, list the first six followed by ‘et al.’.

The words ‘ dissertation ’ and ‘thesis’ both refer to a large written research project undertaken to complete a degree, but they are used differently depending on the country:

  • In the UK, you write a dissertation at the end of a bachelor’s or master’s degree, and you write a thesis to complete a PhD.
  • In the US, it’s the other way around: you may write a thesis at the end of a bachelor’s or master’s degree, and you write a dissertation to complete a PhD.

The main difference is in terms of scale – a dissertation is usually much longer than the other essays you complete during your degree.

Another key difference is that you are given much more independence when working on a dissertation. You choose your own dissertation topic , and you have to conduct the research and write the dissertation yourself (with some assistance from your supervisor).

Dissertation word counts vary widely across different fields, institutions, and levels of education:

  • An undergraduate dissertation is typically 8,000–15,000 words
  • A master’s dissertation is typically 12,000–50,000 words
  • A PhD thesis is typically book-length: 70,000–100,000 words

However, none of these are strict guidelines – your word count may be lower or higher than the numbers stated here. Always check the guidelines provided by your university to determine how long your own dissertation should be.

At the bachelor’s and master’s levels, the dissertation is usually the main focus of your final year. You might work on it (alongside other classes) for the entirety of the final year, or for the last six months. This includes formulating an idea, doing the research, and writing up.

A PhD thesis takes a longer time, as the thesis is the main focus of the degree. A PhD thesis might be being formulated and worked on for the whole four years of the degree program. The writing process alone can take around 18 months.

References should be included in your text whenever you use words, ideas, or information from a source. A source can be anything from a book or journal article to a website or YouTube video.

If you don’t acknowledge your sources, you can get in trouble for plagiarism .

Your university should tell you which referencing style to follow. If you’re unsure, check with a supervisor. Commonly used styles include:

  • Harvard referencing , the most commonly used style in UK universities.
  • MHRA , used in humanities subjects.
  • APA , used in the social sciences.
  • Vancouver , used in biomedicine.
  • OSCOLA , used in law.

Your university may have its own referencing style guide.

If you are allowed to choose which style to follow, we recommend Harvard referencing, as it is a straightforward and widely used style.

To avoid plagiarism , always include a reference when you use words, ideas or information from a source. This shows that you are not trying to pass the work of others off as your own.

You must also properly quote or paraphrase the source. If you’re not sure whether you’ve done this correctly, you can use the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker to find and correct any mistakes.

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

When you want to use a quote but can’t access the original source, you can cite it indirectly. In the in-text citation , first mention the source you want to refer to, and then the source in which you found it. For example:

It’s advisable to avoid indirect citations wherever possible, because they suggest you don’t have full knowledge of the sources you’re citing. Only use an indirect citation if you can’t reasonably gain access to the original source.

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

To create a hanging indent for your bibliography or reference list :

  • Highlight all the entries
  • Click on the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the ‘Paragraph’ tab in the top menu.
  • In the pop-up window, under ‘Special’ in the ‘Indentation’ section, use the drop-down menu to select ‘Hanging’.
  • Then close the window with ‘OK’.

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

It’s important to assess the reliability of information found online. Look for sources from established publications and institutions with expertise (e.g. peer-reviewed journals and government agencies).

The CRAAP test (currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, purpose) can aid you in assessing sources, as can our list of credible sources . You should generally avoid citing websites like Wikipedia that can be edited by anyone – instead, look for the original source of the information in the “References” section.

You can generally omit page numbers in your in-text citations of online sources which don’t have them. But when you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a particularly long online source, it’s useful to find an alternate location marker.

For text-based sources, you can use paragraph numbers (e.g. ‘para. 4’) or headings (e.g. ‘under “Methodology”’). With video or audio sources, use a timestamp (e.g. ‘10:15’).

In the acknowledgements of your thesis or dissertation, you should first thank those who helped you academically or professionally, such as your supervisor, funders, and other academics.

Then you can include personal thanks to friends, family members, or anyone else who supported you during the process.

Yes, it’s important to thank your supervisor(s) in the acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation .

Even if you feel your supervisor did not contribute greatly to the final product, you still should acknowledge them, if only for a very brief thank you. If you do not include your supervisor, it may be seen as a snub.

The acknowledgements are generally included at the very beginning of your thesis or dissertation, directly after the title page and before the abstract .

In a thesis or dissertation, the acknowledgements should usually be no longer than one page. There is no minimum length.

You may acknowledge God in your thesis or dissertation acknowledgements , but be sure to follow academic convention by also thanking the relevant members of academia, as well as family, colleagues, and friends who helped you.

All level 1 and 2 headings should be included in your table of contents . That means the titles of your chapters and the main sections within them.

The contents should also include all appendices and the lists of tables and figures, if applicable, as well as your reference list .

Do not include the acknowledgements or abstract   in the table of contents.

To automatically insert a table of contents in Microsoft Word, follow these steps:

  • Apply heading styles throughout the document.
  • In the references section in the ribbon, locate the Table of Contents group.
  • Click the arrow next to the Table of Contents icon and select Custom Table of Contents.
  • Select which levels of headings you would like to include in the table of contents.

Make sure to update your table of contents if you move text or change headings. To update, simply right click and select Update Field.

The table of contents in a thesis or dissertation always goes between your abstract and your introduction.

An abbreviation is a shortened version of an existing word, such as Dr for Doctor. In contrast, an acronym uses the first letter of each word to create a wholly new word, such as UNESCO (an acronym for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).

Your dissertation sometimes contains a list of abbreviations .

As a rule of thumb, write the explanation in full the first time you use an acronym or abbreviation. You can then proceed with the shortened version. However, if the abbreviation is very common (like UK or PC), then you can just use the abbreviated version straight away.

Be sure to add each abbreviation in your list of abbreviations !

If you only used a few abbreviations in your thesis or dissertation, you don’t necessarily need to include a list of abbreviations .

If your abbreviations are numerous, or if you think they won’t be known to your audience, it’s never a bad idea to add one. They can also improve readability, minimising confusion about abbreviations unfamiliar to your reader.

Fishbone diagrams have a few different names that are used interchangeably, including herringbone diagram, cause-and-effect diagram, and Ishikawa diagram.

These are all ways to refer to the same thing– a problem-solving approach that uses a fish-shaped diagram to model possible root causes of problems and troubleshoot solutions.

Fishbone diagrams (also called herringbone diagrams, cause-and-effect diagrams, and Ishikawa diagrams) are most popular in fields of quality management. They are also commonly used in nursing and healthcare, or as a brainstorming technique for students.

Some synonyms and near synonyms of among include:

  • In the company of
  • In the middle of
  • Surrounded by

Some synonyms and near synonyms of between  include:

  • In the space separating
  • In the time separating

In spite of   is a preposition used to mean ‘ regardless of ‘, ‘notwithstanding’, or ‘even though’.

It’s always used in a subordinate clause to contrast with the information given in the main clause of a sentence (e.g., ‘Amy continued to watch TV, in spite of the time’).

Despite   is a preposition used to mean ‘ regardless of ‘, ‘notwithstanding’, or ‘even though’.

It’s used in a subordinate clause to contrast with information given in the main clause of a sentence (e.g., ‘Despite the stress, Joe loves his job’).

‘Log in’ is a phrasal verb meaning ‘connect to an electronic device, system, or app’. The preposition ‘to’ is often used directly after the verb; ‘in’ and ‘to’ should be written as two separate words (e.g., ‘ log in to the app to update privacy settings’).

‘Log into’ is sometimes used instead of ‘log in to’, but this is generally considered incorrect (as is ‘login to’).

Some synonyms and near synonyms of ensure include:

  • Make certain

Some synonyms and near synonyms of assure  include:

Rest assured is an expression meaning ‘you can be certain’ (e.g., ‘Rest assured, I will find your cat’). ‘Assured’ is the adjectival form of the verb assure , meaning ‘convince’ or ‘persuade’.

Some synonyms and near synonyms for council include:

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the two meanings of counsel :

Direct Direction
Guide Guidance
Instruct Instruction

AI writing tools can be used to perform a variety of tasks.

Generative AI writing tools (like ChatGPT ) generate text based on human inputs and can be used for interactive learning, to provide feedback, or to generate research questions or outlines.

These tools can also be used to paraphrase or summarise text or to identify grammar and punctuation mistakes. Y ou can also use Scribbr’s free paraphrasing tool , summarising tool , and grammar checker , which are designed specifically for these purposes.

Using AI writing tools (like ChatGPT ) to write your essay is usually considered plagiarism and may result in penalisation, unless it is allowed by your university. Text generated by AI tools is based on existing texts and therefore cannot provide unique insights. Furthermore, these outputs sometimes contain factual inaccuracies or grammar mistakes.

However, AI writing tools can be used effectively as a source of feedback and inspiration for your writing (e.g., to generate research questions ). Other AI tools, like grammar checkers, can help identify and eliminate grammar and punctuation mistakes to enhance your writing.

The Scribbr Knowledge Base is a collection of free resources to help you succeed in academic research, writing, and citation. Every week, we publish helpful step-by-step guides, clear examples, simple templates, engaging videos, and more.

The Knowledge Base is for students at all levels. Whether you’re writing your first essay, working on your bachelor’s or master’s dissertation, or getting to grips with your PhD research, we’ve got you covered.

As well as the Knowledge Base, Scribbr provides many other tools and services to support you in academic writing and citation:

  • Create your citations and manage your reference list with our free Reference Generators in APA and MLA style.
  • Scan your paper for in-text citation errors and inconsistencies with our innovative APA Citation Checker .
  • Avoid accidental plagiarism with our reliable Plagiarism Checker .
  • Polish your writing and get feedback on structure and clarity with our Proofreading & Editing services .

Yes! We’re happy for educators to use our content, and we’ve even adapted some of our articles into ready-made lecture slides .

You are free to display, distribute, and adapt Scribbr materials in your classes or upload them in private learning environments like Blackboard. We only ask that you credit Scribbr for any content you use.

We’re always striving to improve the Knowledge Base. If you have an idea for a topic we should cover, or you notice a mistake in any of our articles, let us know by emailing [email protected] .

The consequences of plagiarism vary depending on the type of plagiarism and the context in which it occurs. For example, submitting a whole paper by someone else will have the most severe consequences, while accidental citation errors are considered less serious.

If you’re a student, then you might fail the course, be suspended or expelled, or be obligated to attend a workshop on plagiarism. It depends on whether it’s your first offence or you’ve done it before.

As an academic or professional, plagiarising seriously damages your reputation. You might also lose your research funding or your job, and you could even face legal consequences for copyright infringement.

Paraphrasing without crediting the original author is a form of plagiarism , because you’re presenting someone else’s ideas as if they were your own.

However, paraphrasing is not plagiarism if you correctly reference the source . This means including an in-text referencing and a full reference , formatted according to your required citation style (e.g., Harvard , Vancouver ).

As well as referencing your source, make sure that any paraphrased text is completely rewritten in your own words.

Accidental plagiarism is one of the most common examples of plagiarism . Perhaps you forgot to cite a source, or paraphrased something a bit too closely. Maybe you can’t remember where you got an idea from, and aren’t totally sure if it’s original or not.

These all count as plagiarism, even though you didn’t do it on purpose. When in doubt, make sure you’re citing your sources . Also consider running your work through a plagiarism checker tool prior to submission, which work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts.

Scribbr’s Plagiarism Checker takes less than 10 minutes and can help you turn in your paper with confidence.

The accuracy depends on the plagiarism checker you use. Per our in-depth research , Scribbr is the most accurate plagiarism checker. Many free plagiarism checkers fail to detect all plagiarism or falsely flag text as plagiarism.

Plagiarism checkers work by using advanced database software to scan for matches between your text and existing texts. Their accuracy is determined by two factors: the algorithm (which recognises the plagiarism) and the size of the database (with which your document is compared).

To avoid plagiarism when summarising an article or other source, follow these two rules:

  • Write the summary entirely in your own words by   paraphrasing the author’s ideas.
  • Reference the source with an in-text citation and a full reference so your reader can easily find the original text.

Plagiarism can be detected by your professor or readers if the tone, formatting, or style of your text is different in different parts of your paper, or if they’re familiar with the plagiarised source.

Many universities also use   plagiarism detection software like Turnitin’s, which compares your text to a large database of other sources, flagging any similarities that come up.

It can be easier than you think to commit plagiarism by accident. Consider using a   plagiarism checker prior to submitting your essay to ensure you haven’t missed any citations.

Some examples of plagiarism include:

  • Copying and pasting a Wikipedia article into the body of an assignment
  • Quoting a source without including a citation
  • Not paraphrasing a source properly (e.g. maintaining wording too close to the original)
  • Forgetting to cite the source of an idea

The most surefire way to   avoid plagiarism is to always cite your sources . When in doubt, cite!

Global plagiarism means taking an entire work written by someone else and passing it off as your own. This can include getting someone else to write an essay or assignment for you, or submitting a text you found online as your own work.

Global plagiarism is one of the most serious types of plagiarism because it involves deliberately and directly lying about the authorship of a work. It can have severe consequences for students and professionals alike.

Verbatim plagiarism means copying text from a source and pasting it directly into your own document without giving proper credit.

If the structure and the majority of the words are the same as in the original source, then you are committing verbatim plagiarism. This is the case even if you delete a few words or replace them with synonyms.

If you want to use an author’s exact words, you need to quote the original source by putting the copied text in quotation marks and including an   in-text citation .

Patchwork plagiarism , also called mosaic plagiarism, means copying phrases, passages, or ideas from various existing sources and combining them to create a new text. This includes slightly rephrasing some of the content, while keeping many of the same words and the same structure as the original.

While this type of plagiarism is more insidious than simply copying and pasting directly from a source, plagiarism checkers like Turnitin’s can still easily detect it.

To avoid plagiarism in any form, remember to reference your sources .

Yes, reusing your own work without citation is considered self-plagiarism . This can range from resubmitting an entire assignment to reusing passages or data from something you’ve handed in previously.

Self-plagiarism often has the same consequences as other types of plagiarism . If you want to reuse content you wrote in the past, make sure to check your university’s policy or consult your professor.

If you are reusing content or data you used in a previous assignment, make sure to cite yourself. You can cite yourself the same way you would cite any other source: simply follow the directions for the citation style you are using.

Keep in mind that reusing prior content can be considered self-plagiarism , so make sure you ask your instructor or consult your university’s handbook prior to doing so.

Most institutions have an internal database of previously submitted student assignments. Turnitin can check for self-plagiarism by comparing your paper against this database. If you’ve reused parts of an assignment you already submitted, it will flag any similarities as potential plagiarism.

Online plagiarism checkers don’t have access to your institution’s database, so they can’t detect self-plagiarism of unpublished work. If you’re worried about accidentally self-plagiarising, you can use Scribbr’s Self-Plagiarism Checker to upload your unpublished documents and check them for similarities.

Plagiarism has serious consequences and can be illegal in certain scenarios.

While most of the time plagiarism in an undergraduate setting is not illegal, plagiarism or self-plagiarism in a professional academic setting can lead to legal action, including copyright infringement and fraud. Many scholarly journals do not allow you to submit the same work to more than one journal, and if you do not credit a coauthor, you could be legally defrauding them.

Even if you aren’t breaking the law, plagiarism can seriously impact your academic career. While the exact consequences of plagiarism vary by institution and severity, common consequences include a lower grade, automatically failing a course, academic suspension or probation, and even expulsion.

Self-plagiarism means recycling work that you’ve previously published or submitted as an assignment. It’s considered academic dishonesty to present something as brand new when you’ve already gotten credit and perhaps feedback for it in the past.

If you want to refer to ideas or data from previous work, be sure to cite yourself.

Academic integrity means being honest, ethical, and thorough in your academic work. To maintain academic integrity, you should avoid misleading your readers about any part of your research and refrain from offences like plagiarism and contract cheating, which are examples of academic misconduct.

Academic dishonesty refers to deceitful or misleading behavior in an academic setting. Academic dishonesty can occur intentionally or unintentionally, and it varies in severity.

It can encompass paying for a pre-written essay, cheating on an exam, or committing plagiarism . It can also include helping others cheat, copying a friend’s homework answers, or even pretending to be sick to miss an exam.

Academic dishonesty doesn’t just occur in a classroom setting, but also in research and other academic-adjacent fields.

Consequences of academic dishonesty depend on the severity of the offence and your institution’s policy. They can range from a warning for a first offence to a failing grade in a course to expulsion from your university.

For those in certain fields, such as nursing, engineering, or lab sciences, not learning fundamentals properly can directly impact the health and safety of others. For those working in academia or research, academic dishonesty impacts your professional reputation, leading others to doubt your future work.

Academic dishonesty can be intentional or unintentional, ranging from something as simple as claiming to have read something you didn’t to copying your neighbour’s answers on an exam.

You can commit academic dishonesty with the best of intentions, such as helping a friend cheat on a paper. Severe academic dishonesty can include buying a pre-written essay or the answers to a multiple-choice test, or falsifying a medical emergency to avoid taking a final exam.

Plagiarism means presenting someone else’s work as your own without giving proper credit to the original author. In academic writing, plagiarism involves using words, ideas, or information from a source without including a citation .

Plagiarism can have serious consequences , even when it’s done accidentally. To avoid plagiarism, it’s important to keep track of your sources and cite them correctly.

Common knowledge does not need to be cited. However, you should be extra careful when deciding what counts as common knowledge.

Common knowledge encompasses information that the average educated reader would accept as true without needing the extra validation of a source or citation.

Common knowledge should be widely known, undisputed, and easily verified. When in doubt, always cite your sources.

Most online plagiarism checkers only have access to public databases, whose software doesn’t allow you to compare two documents for plagiarism.

However, in addition to our Plagiarism Checker , Scribbr also offers an Self-Plagiarism Checker . This is an add-on tool that lets you compare your paper with unpublished or private documents. This way you can rest assured that you haven’t unintentionally plagiarised or self-plagiarised .

Compare two sources for plagiarism

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The research methods you use depend on the type of data you need to answer your research question .

  • If you want to measure something or test a hypothesis , use quantitative methods . If you want to explore ideas, thoughts, and meanings, use qualitative methods .
  • If you want to analyse a large amount of readily available data, use secondary data. If you want data specific to your purposes with control over how they are generated, collect primary data.
  • If you want to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables , use experimental methods. If you want to understand the characteristics of a research subject, use descriptive methods.

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyse data (e.g. experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).

In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .

In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.

In mixed methods research , you use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to answer your research question .

Data collection is the systematic process by which observations or measurements are gathered in research. It is used in many different contexts by academics, governments, businesses, and other organisations.

There are various approaches to qualitative data analysis , but they all share five steps in common:

  • Prepare and organise your data.
  • Review and explore your data.
  • Develop a data coding system.
  • Assign codes to the data.
  • Identify recurring themes.

The specifics of each step depend on the focus of the analysis. Some common approaches include textual analysis , thematic analysis , and discourse analysis .

There are five common approaches to qualitative research :

  • Grounded theory involves collecting data in order to develop new theories.
  • Ethnography involves immersing yourself in a group or organisation to understand its culture.
  • Narrative research involves interpreting stories to understand how people make sense of their experiences and perceptions.
  • Phenomenological research involves investigating phenomena through people’s lived experiences.
  • Action research links theory and practice in several cycles to drive innovative changes.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

Operationalisation means turning abstract conceptual ideas into measurable observations.

For example, the concept of social anxiety isn’t directly observable, but it can be operationally defined in terms of self-rating scores, behavioural avoidance of crowded places, or physical anxiety symptoms in social situations.

Before collecting data , it’s important to consider how you will operationalise the variables that you want to measure.

Triangulation in research means using multiple datasets, methods, theories and/or investigators to address a research question. It’s a research strategy that can help you enhance the validity and credibility of your findings.

Triangulation is mainly used in qualitative research , but it’s also commonly applied in quantitative research . Mixed methods research always uses triangulation.

These are four of the most common mixed methods designs :

  • Convergent parallel: Quantitative and qualitative data are collected at the same time and analysed separately. After both analyses are complete, compare your results to draw overall conclusions. 
  • Embedded: Quantitative and qualitative data are collected at the same time, but within a larger quantitative or qualitative design. One type of data is secondary to the other.
  • Explanatory sequential: Quantitative data is collected and analysed first, followed by qualitative data. You can use this design if you think your qualitative data will explain and contextualise your quantitative findings.
  • Exploratory sequential: Qualitative data is collected and analysed first, followed by quantitative data. You can use this design if you think the quantitative data will confirm or validate your qualitative findings.

An observational study could be a good fit for your research if your research question is based on things you observe. If you have ethical, logistical, or practical concerns that make an experimental design challenging, consider an observational study. Remember that in an observational study, it is critical that there be no interference or manipulation of the research subjects. Since it’s not an experiment, there are no control or treatment groups either.

The key difference between observational studies and experiments is that, done correctly, an observational study will never influence the responses or behaviours of participants. Experimental designs will have a treatment condition applied to at least a portion of participants.

Exploratory research explores the main aspects of a new or barely researched question.

Explanatory research explains the causes and effects of an already widely researched question.

Experimental designs are a set of procedures that you plan in order to examine the relationship between variables that interest you.

To design a successful experiment, first identify:

  • A testable hypothesis
  • One or more independent variables that you will manipulate
  • One or more dependent variables that you will measure

When designing the experiment, first decide:

  • How your variable(s) will be manipulated
  • How you will control for any potential confounding or lurking variables
  • How many subjects you will include
  • How you will assign treatments to your subjects

There are four main types of triangulation :

  • Data triangulation : Using data from different times, spaces, and people
  • Investigator triangulation : Involving multiple researchers in collecting or analysing data
  • Theory triangulation : Using varying theoretical perspectives in your research
  • Methodological triangulation : Using different methodologies to approach the same topic

Triangulation can help:

  • Reduce bias that comes from using a single method, theory, or investigator
  • Enhance validity by approaching the same topic with different tools
  • Establish credibility by giving you a complete picture of the research problem

But triangulation can also pose problems:

  • It’s time-consuming and labour-intensive, often involving an interdisciplinary team.
  • Your results may be inconsistent or even contradictory.

A confounding variable , also called a confounder or confounding factor, is a third variable in a study examining a potential cause-and-effect relationship.

A confounding variable is related to both the supposed cause and the supposed effect of the study. It can be difficult to separate the true effect of the independent variable from the effect of the confounding variable.

In your research design , it’s important to identify potential confounding variables and plan how you will reduce their impact.

In a between-subjects design , every participant experiences only one condition, and researchers assess group differences between participants in various conditions.

In a within-subjects design , each participant experiences all conditions, and researchers test the same participants repeatedly for differences between conditions.

The word ‘between’ means that you’re comparing different conditions between groups, while the word ‘within’ means you’re comparing different conditions within the same group.

A quasi-experiment is a type of research design that attempts to establish a cause-and-effect relationship. The main difference between this and a true experiment is that the groups are not randomly assigned.

In experimental research, random assignment is a way of placing participants from your sample into different groups using randomisation. With this method, every member of the sample has a known or equal chance of being placed in a control group or an experimental group.

Quasi-experimental design is most useful in situations where it would be unethical or impractical to run a true experiment .

Quasi-experiments have lower internal validity than true experiments, but they often have higher external validity  as they can use real-world interventions instead of artificial laboratory settings.

Within-subjects designs have many potential threats to internal validity , but they are also very statistically powerful .

Advantages:

  • Only requires small samples
  • Statistically powerful
  • Removes the effects of individual differences on the outcomes

Disadvantages:

  • Internal validity threats reduce the likelihood of establishing a direct relationship between variables
  • Time-related effects, such as growth, can influence the outcomes
  • Carryover effects mean that the specific order of different treatments affect the outcomes

Yes. Between-subjects and within-subjects designs can be combined in a single study when you have two or more independent variables (a factorial design). In a mixed factorial design, one variable is altered between subjects and another is altered within subjects.

In a factorial design, multiple independent variables are tested.

If you test two variables, each level of one independent variable is combined with each level of the other independent variable to create different conditions.

While a between-subjects design has fewer threats to internal validity , it also requires more participants for high statistical power than a within-subjects design .

  • Prevents carryover effects of learning and fatigue.
  • Shorter study duration.
  • Needs larger samples for high power.
  • Uses more resources to recruit participants, administer sessions, cover costs, etc.
  • Individual differences may be an alternative explanation for results.

Samples are used to make inferences about populations . Samples are easier to collect data from because they are practical, cost-effective, convenient, and manageable.

Probability sampling means that every member of the target population has a known chance of being included in the sample.

Probability sampling methods include simple random sampling , systematic sampling , stratified sampling , and cluster sampling .

In non-probability sampling , the sample is selected based on non-random criteria, and not every member of the population has a chance of being included.

Common non-probability sampling methods include convenience sampling , voluntary response sampling, purposive sampling , snowball sampling , and quota sampling .

In multistage sampling , or multistage cluster sampling, you draw a sample from a population using smaller and smaller groups at each stage.

This method is often used to collect data from a large, geographically spread group of people in national surveys, for example. You take advantage of hierarchical groupings (e.g., from county to city to neighbourhood) to create a sample that’s less expensive and time-consuming to collect data from.

Sampling bias occurs when some members of a population are systematically more likely to be selected in a sample than others.

Simple random sampling is a type of probability sampling in which the researcher randomly selects a subset of participants from a population . Each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Data are then collected from as large a percentage as possible of this random subset.

The American Community Survey  is an example of simple random sampling . In order to collect detailed data on the population of the US, the Census Bureau officials randomly select 3.5 million households per year and use a variety of methods to convince them to fill out the survey.

If properly implemented, simple random sampling is usually the best sampling method for ensuring both internal and external validity . However, it can sometimes be impractical and expensive to implement, depending on the size of the population to be studied,

If you have a list of every member of the population and the ability to reach whichever members are selected, you can use simple random sampling.

Cluster sampling is more time- and cost-efficient than other probability sampling methods , particularly when it comes to large samples spread across a wide geographical area.

However, it provides less statistical certainty than other methods, such as simple random sampling , because it is difficult to ensure that your clusters properly represent the population as a whole.

There are three types of cluster sampling : single-stage, double-stage and multi-stage clustering. In all three types, you first divide the population into clusters, then randomly select clusters for use in your sample.

  • In single-stage sampling , you collect data from every unit within the selected clusters.
  • In double-stage sampling , you select a random sample of units from within the clusters.
  • In multi-stage sampling , you repeat the procedure of randomly sampling elements from within the clusters until you have reached a manageable sample.

Cluster sampling is a probability sampling method in which you divide a population into clusters, such as districts or schools, and then randomly select some of these clusters as your sample.

The clusters should ideally each be mini-representations of the population as a whole.

In multistage sampling , you can use probability or non-probability sampling methods.

For a probability sample, you have to probability sampling at every stage. You can mix it up by using simple random sampling , systematic sampling , or stratified sampling to select units at different stages, depending on what is applicable and relevant to your study.

Multistage sampling can simplify data collection when you have large, geographically spread samples, and you can obtain a probability sample without a complete sampling frame.

But multistage sampling may not lead to a representative sample, and larger samples are needed for multistage samples to achieve the statistical properties of simple random samples .

In stratified sampling , researchers divide subjects into subgroups called strata based on characteristics that they share (e.g., race, gender, educational attainment).

Once divided, each subgroup is randomly sampled using another probability sampling method .

You should use stratified sampling when your sample can be divided into mutually exclusive and exhaustive subgroups that you believe will take on different mean values for the variable that you’re studying.

Using stratified sampling will allow you to obtain more precise (with lower variance ) statistical estimates of whatever you are trying to measure.

For example, say you want to investigate how income differs based on educational attainment, but you know that this relationship can vary based on race. Using stratified sampling, you can ensure you obtain a large enough sample from each racial group, allowing you to draw more precise conclusions.

Yes, you can create a stratified sample using multiple characteristics, but you must ensure that every participant in your study belongs to one and only one subgroup. In this case, you multiply the numbers of subgroups for each characteristic to get the total number of groups.

For example, if you were stratifying by location with three subgroups (urban, rural, or suburban) and marital status with five subgroups (single, divorced, widowed, married, or partnered), you would have 3 × 5 = 15 subgroups.

There are three key steps in systematic sampling :

  • Define and list your population , ensuring that it is not ordered in a cyclical or periodic order.
  • Decide on your sample size and calculate your interval, k , by dividing your population by your target sample size.
  • Choose every k th member of the population as your sample.

Systematic sampling is a probability sampling method where researchers select members of the population at a regular interval – for example, by selecting every 15th person on a list of the population. If the population is in a random order, this can imitate the benefits of simple random sampling .

Populations are used when a research question requires data from every member of the population. This is usually only feasible when the population is small and easily accessible.

A statistic refers to measures about the sample , while a parameter refers to measures about the population .

A sampling error is the difference between a population parameter and a sample statistic .

There are eight threats to internal validity : history, maturation, instrumentation, testing, selection bias , regression to the mean, social interaction, and attrition .

Internal validity is the extent to which you can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship established in a study cannot be explained by other factors.

Attrition bias is a threat to internal validity . In experiments, differential rates of attrition between treatment and control groups can skew results.

This bias can affect the relationship between your independent and dependent variables . It can make variables appear to be correlated when they are not, or vice versa.

The external validity of a study is the extent to which you can generalise your findings to different groups of people, situations, and measures.

The two types of external validity are population validity (whether you can generalise to other groups of people) and ecological validity (whether you can generalise to other situations and settings).

There are seven threats to external validity : selection bias , history, experimenter effect, Hawthorne effect , testing effect, aptitude-treatment, and situation effect.

Attrition bias can skew your sample so that your final sample differs significantly from your original sample. Your sample is biased because some groups from your population are underrepresented.

With a biased final sample, you may not be able to generalise your findings to the original population that you sampled from, so your external validity is compromised.

Construct validity is about how well a test measures the concept it was designed to evaluate. It’s one of four types of measurement validity , which includes construct validity, face validity , and criterion validity.

There are two subtypes of construct validity.

  • Convergent validity : The extent to which your measure corresponds to measures of related constructs
  • Discriminant validity: The extent to which your measure is unrelated or negatively related to measures of distinct constructs

When designing or evaluating a measure, construct validity helps you ensure you’re actually measuring the construct you’re interested in. If you don’t have construct validity, you may inadvertently measure unrelated or distinct constructs and lose precision in your research.

Construct validity is often considered the overarching type of measurement validity ,  because it covers all of the other types. You need to have face validity , content validity, and criterion validity to achieve construct validity.

Statistical analyses are often applied to test validity with data from your measures. You test convergent validity and discriminant validity with correlations to see if results from your test are positively or negatively related to those of other established tests.

You can also use regression analyses to assess whether your measure is actually predictive of outcomes that you expect it to predict theoretically. A regression analysis that supports your expectations strengthens your claim of construct validity .

Face validity is about whether a test appears to measure what it’s supposed to measure. This type of validity is concerned with whether a measure seems relevant and appropriate for what it’s assessing only on the surface.

Face validity is important because it’s a simple first step to measuring the overall validity of a test or technique. It’s a relatively intuitive, quick, and easy way to start checking whether a new measure seems useful at first glance.

Good face validity means that anyone who reviews your measure says that it seems to be measuring what it’s supposed to. With poor face validity, someone reviewing your measure may be left confused about what you’re measuring and why you’re using this method.

It’s often best to ask a variety of people to review your measurements. You can ask experts, such as other researchers, or laypeople, such as potential participants, to judge the face validity of tests.

While experts have a deep understanding of research methods , the people you’re studying can provide you with valuable insights you may have missed otherwise.

There are many different types of inductive reasoning that people use formally or informally.

Here are a few common types:

  • Inductive generalisation : You use observations about a sample to come to a conclusion about the population it came from.
  • Statistical generalisation: You use specific numbers about samples to make statements about populations.
  • Causal reasoning: You make cause-and-effect links between different things.
  • Sign reasoning: You make a conclusion about a correlational relationship between different things.
  • Analogical reasoning: You make a conclusion about something based on its similarities to something else.

Inductive reasoning is a bottom-up approach, while deductive reasoning is top-down.

Inductive reasoning takes you from the specific to the general, while in deductive reasoning, you make inferences by going from general premises to specific conclusions.

In inductive research , you start by making observations or gathering data. Then, you take a broad scan of your data and search for patterns. Finally, you make general conclusions that you might incorporate into theories.

Inductive reasoning is a method of drawing conclusions by going from the specific to the general. It’s usually contrasted with deductive reasoning, where you proceed from general information to specific conclusions.

Inductive reasoning is also called inductive logic or bottom-up reasoning.

Deductive reasoning is a logical approach where you progress from general ideas to specific conclusions. It’s often contrasted with inductive reasoning , where you start with specific observations and form general conclusions.

Deductive reasoning is also called deductive logic.

Deductive reasoning is commonly used in scientific research, and it’s especially associated with quantitative research .

In research, you might have come across something called the hypothetico-deductive method . It’s the scientific method of testing hypotheses to check whether your predictions are substantiated by real-world data.

A dependent variable is what changes as a result of the independent variable manipulation in experiments . It’s what you’re interested in measuring, and it ‘depends’ on your independent variable.

In statistics, dependent variables are also called:

  • Response variables (they respond to a change in another variable)
  • Outcome variables (they represent the outcome you want to measure)
  • Left-hand-side variables (they appear on the left-hand side of a regression equation)

An independent variable is the variable you manipulate, control, or vary in an experimental study to explore its effects. It’s called ‘independent’ because it’s not influenced by any other variables in the study.

Independent variables are also called:

  • Explanatory variables (they explain an event or outcome)
  • Predictor variables (they can be used to predict the value of a dependent variable)
  • Right-hand-side variables (they appear on the right-hand side of a regression equation)

A correlation is usually tested for two variables at a time, but you can test correlations between three or more variables.

On graphs, the explanatory variable is conventionally placed on the x -axis, while the response variable is placed on the y -axis.

  • If you have quantitative variables , use a scatterplot or a line graph.
  • If your response variable is categorical, use a scatterplot or a line graph.
  • If your explanatory variable is categorical, use a bar graph.

The term ‘ explanatory variable ‘ is sometimes preferred over ‘ independent variable ‘ because, in real-world contexts, independent variables are often influenced by other variables. This means they aren’t totally independent.

Multiple independent variables may also be correlated with each other, so ‘explanatory variables’ is a more appropriate term.

The difference between explanatory and response variables is simple:

  • An explanatory variable is the expected cause, and it explains the results.
  • A response variable is the expected effect, and it responds to other variables.

There are 4 main types of extraneous variables :

  • Demand characteristics : Environmental cues that encourage participants to conform to researchers’ expectations
  • Experimenter effects : Unintentional actions by researchers that influence study outcomes
  • Situational variables : Eenvironmental variables that alter participants’ behaviours
  • Participant variables : Any characteristic or aspect of a participant’s background that could affect study results

An extraneous variable is any variable that you’re not investigating that can potentially affect the dependent variable of your research study.

A confounding variable is a type of extraneous variable that not only affects the dependent variable, but is also related to the independent variable.

‘Controlling for a variable’ means measuring extraneous variables and accounting for them statistically to remove their effects on other variables.

Researchers often model control variable data along with independent and dependent variable data in regression analyses and ANCOVAs . That way, you can isolate the control variable’s effects from the relationship between the variables of interest.

Control variables help you establish a correlational or causal relationship between variables by enhancing internal validity .

If you don’t control relevant extraneous variables , they may influence the outcomes of your study, and you may not be able to demonstrate that your results are really an effect of your independent variable .

A control variable is any variable that’s held constant in a research study. It’s not a variable of interest in the study, but it’s controlled because it could influence the outcomes.

In statistics, ordinal and nominal variables are both considered categorical variables .

Even though ordinal data can sometimes be numerical, not all mathematical operations can be performed on them.

In scientific research, concepts are the abstract ideas or phenomena that are being studied (e.g., educational achievement). Variables are properties or characteristics of the concept (e.g., performance at school), while indicators are ways of measuring or quantifying variables (e.g., yearly grade reports).

The process of turning abstract concepts into measurable variables and indicators is called operationalisation .

There are several methods you can use to decrease the impact of confounding variables on your research: restriction, matching, statistical control, and randomisation.

In restriction , you restrict your sample by only including certain subjects that have the same values of potential confounding variables.

In matching , you match each of the subjects in your treatment group with a counterpart in the comparison group. The matched subjects have the same values on any potential confounding variables, and only differ in the independent variable .

In statistical control , you include potential confounders as variables in your regression .

In randomisation , you randomly assign the treatment (or independent variable) in your study to a sufficiently large number of subjects, which allows you to control for all potential confounding variables.

A confounding variable is closely related to both the independent and dependent variables in a study. An independent variable represents the supposed cause , while the dependent variable is the supposed effect . A confounding variable is a third variable that influences both the independent and dependent variables.

Failing to account for confounding variables can cause you to wrongly estimate the relationship between your independent and dependent variables.

To ensure the internal validity of your research, you must consider the impact of confounding variables. If you fail to account for them, you might over- or underestimate the causal relationship between your independent and dependent variables , or even find a causal relationship where none exists.

Yes, but including more than one of either type requires multiple research questions .

For example, if you are interested in the effect of a diet on health, you can use multiple measures of health: blood sugar, blood pressure, weight, pulse, and many more. Each of these is its own dependent variable with its own research question.

You could also choose to look at the effect of exercise levels as well as diet, or even the additional effect of the two combined. Each of these is a separate independent variable .

To ensure the internal validity of an experiment , you should only change one independent variable at a time.

No. The value of a dependent variable depends on an independent variable, so a variable cannot be both independent and dependent at the same time. It must be either the cause or the effect, not both.

You want to find out how blood sugar levels are affected by drinking diet cola and regular cola, so you conduct an experiment .

  • The type of cola – diet or regular – is the independent variable .
  • The level of blood sugar that you measure is the dependent variable – it changes depending on the type of cola.

Determining cause and effect is one of the most important parts of scientific research. It’s essential to know which is the cause – the independent variable – and which is the effect – the dependent variable.

Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).

Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups. This includes rankings (e.g. finishing places in a race), classifications (e.g. brands of cereal), and binary outcomes (e.g. coin flips).

You need to know what type of variables you are working with to choose the right statistical test for your data and interpret your results .

Discrete and continuous variables are two types of quantitative variables :

  • Discrete variables represent counts (e.g., the number of objects in a collection).
  • Continuous variables represent measurable amounts (e.g., water volume or weight).

You can think of independent and dependent variables in terms of cause and effect: an independent variable is the variable you think is the cause , while a dependent variable is the effect .

In an experiment, you manipulate the independent variable and measure the outcome in the dependent variable. For example, in an experiment about the effect of nutrients on crop growth:

  • The  independent variable  is the amount of nutrients added to the crop field.
  • The  dependent variable is the biomass of the crops at harvest time.

Defining your variables, and deciding how you will manipulate and measure them, is an important part of experimental design .

Including mediators and moderators in your research helps you go beyond studying a simple relationship between two variables for a fuller picture of the real world. They are important to consider when studying complex correlational or causal relationships.

Mediators are part of the causal pathway of an effect, and they tell you how or why an effect takes place. Moderators usually help you judge the external validity of your study by identifying the limitations of when the relationship between variables holds.

If something is a mediating variable :

  • It’s caused by the independent variable
  • It influences the dependent variable
  • When it’s taken into account, the statistical correlation between the independent and dependent variables is higher than when it isn’t considered

A confounder is a third variable that affects variables of interest and makes them seem related when they are not. In contrast, a mediator is the mechanism of a relationship between two variables: it explains the process by which they are related.

A mediator variable explains the process through which two variables are related, while a moderator variable affects the strength and direction of that relationship.

When conducting research, collecting original data has significant advantages:

  • You can tailor data collection to your specific research aims (e.g., understanding the needs of your consumers or user testing your website).
  • You can control and standardise the process for high reliability and validity (e.g., choosing appropriate measurements and sampling methods ).

However, there are also some drawbacks: data collection can be time-consuming, labour-intensive, and expensive. In some cases, it’s more efficient to use secondary data that has already been collected by someone else, but the data might be less reliable.

A structured interview is a data collection method that relies on asking questions in a set order to collect data on a topic. They are often quantitative in nature. Structured interviews are best used when:

  • You already have a very clear understanding of your topic. Perhaps significant research has already been conducted, or you have done some prior research yourself, but you already possess a baseline for designing strong structured questions.
  • You are constrained in terms of time or resources and need to analyse your data quickly and efficiently
  • Your research question depends on strong parity between participants, with environmental conditions held constant

More flexible interview options include semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .

The interviewer effect is a type of bias that emerges when a characteristic of an interviewer (race, age, gender identity, etc.) influences the responses given by the interviewee.

There is a risk of an interviewer effect in all types of interviews , but it can be mitigated by writing really high-quality interview questions.

A semi-structured interview is a blend of structured and unstructured types of interviews. Semi-structured interviews are best used when:

  • You have prior interview experience. Spontaneous questions are deceptively challenging, and it’s easy to accidentally ask a leading question or make a participant uncomfortable.
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature. Participant answers can guide future research questions and help you develop a more robust knowledge base for future research.

An unstructured interview is the most flexible type of interview, but it is not always the best fit for your research topic.

Unstructured interviews are best used when:

  • You are an experienced interviewer and have a very strong background in your research topic, since it is challenging to ask spontaneous, colloquial questions
  • Your research question is exploratory in nature. While you may have developed hypotheses, you are open to discovering new or shifting viewpoints through the interview process.
  • You are seeking descriptive data, and are ready to ask questions that will deepen and contextualise your initial thoughts and hypotheses
  • Your research depends on forming connections with your participants and making them feel comfortable revealing deeper emotions, lived experiences, or thoughts

The four most common types of interviews are:

  • Structured interviews : The questions are predetermined in both topic and order.
  • Semi-structured interviews : A few questions are predetermined, but other questions aren’t planned.
  • Unstructured interviews : None of the questions are predetermined.
  • Focus group interviews : The questions are presented to a group instead of one individual.

A focus group is a research method that brings together a small group of people to answer questions in a moderated setting. The group is chosen due to predefined demographic traits, and the questions are designed to shed light on a topic of interest. It is one of four types of interviews .

Social desirability bias is the tendency for interview participants to give responses that will be viewed favourably by the interviewer or other participants. It occurs in all types of interviews and surveys , but is most common in semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .

Social desirability bias can be mitigated by ensuring participants feel at ease and comfortable sharing their views. Make sure to pay attention to your own body language and any physical or verbal cues, such as nodding or widening your eyes.

This type of bias in research can also occur in observations if the participants know they’re being observed. They might alter their behaviour accordingly.

As a rule of thumb, questions related to thoughts, beliefs, and feelings work well in focus groups . Take your time formulating strong questions, paying special attention to phrasing. Be careful to avoid leading questions , which can bias your responses.

Overall, your focus group questions should be:

  • Open-ended and flexible
  • Impossible to answer with ‘yes’ or ‘no’ (questions that start with ‘why’ or ‘how’ are often best)
  • Unambiguous, getting straight to the point while still stimulating discussion
  • Unbiased and neutral

The third variable and directionality problems are two main reasons why correlation isn’t causation .

The third variable problem means that a confounding variable affects both variables to make them seem causally related when they are not.

The directionality problem is when two variables correlate and might actually have a causal relationship, but it’s impossible to conclude which variable causes changes in the other.

Controlled experiments establish causality, whereas correlational studies only show associations between variables.

  • In an experimental design , you manipulate an independent variable and measure its effect on a dependent variable. Other variables are controlled so they can’t impact the results.
  • In a correlational design , you measure variables without manipulating any of them. You can test whether your variables change together, but you can’t be sure that one variable caused a change in another.

In general, correlational research is high in external validity while experimental research is high in internal validity .

A correlation coefficient is a single number that describes the strength and direction of the relationship between your variables.

Different types of correlation coefficients might be appropriate for your data based on their levels of measurement and distributions . The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r ) is commonly used to assess a linear relationship between two quantitative variables.

A correlational research design investigates relationships between two variables (or more) without the researcher controlling or manipulating any of them. It’s a non-experimental type of quantitative research .

A correlation reflects the strength and/or direction of the association between two or more variables.

  • A positive correlation means that both variables change in the same direction.
  • A negative correlation means that the variables change in opposite directions.
  • A zero correlation means there’s no relationship between the variables.

Longitudinal studies can last anywhere from weeks to decades, although they tend to be at least a year long.

The 1970 British Cohort Study , which has collected data on the lives of 17,000 Brits since their births in 1970, is one well-known example of a longitudinal study .

Longitudinal studies are better to establish the correct sequence of events, identify changes over time, and provide insight into cause-and-effect relationships, but they also tend to be more expensive and time-consuming than other types of studies.

Longitudinal studies and cross-sectional studies are two different types of research design . In a cross-sectional study you collect data from a population at a specific point in time; in a longitudinal study you repeatedly collect data from the same sample over an extended period of time.

Longitudinal study Cross-sectional study
observations Observations at a in time
Observes the multiple times Observes (a ‘cross-section’) in the population
Follows in participants over time Provides of society at a given point

Cross-sectional studies cannot establish a cause-and-effect relationship or analyse behaviour over a period of time. To investigate cause and effect, you need to do a longitudinal study or an experimental study .

Cross-sectional studies are less expensive and time-consuming than many other types of study. They can provide useful insights into a population’s characteristics and identify correlations for further research.

Sometimes only cross-sectional data are available for analysis; other times your research question may only require a cross-sectional study to answer it.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

Individual Likert-type questions are generally considered ordinal data , because the items have clear rank order, but don’t have an even distribution.

Overall Likert scale scores are sometimes treated as interval data. These scores are considered to have directionality and even spacing between them.

The type of data determines what statistical tests you should use to analyse your data.

A Likert scale is a rating scale that quantitatively assesses opinions, attitudes, or behaviours. It is made up of four or more questions that measure a single attitude or trait when response scores are combined.

To use a Likert scale in a survey , you present participants with Likert-type questions or statements, and a continuum of items, usually with five or seven possible responses, to capture their degree of agreement.

A questionnaire is a data collection tool or instrument, while a survey is an overarching research method that involves collecting and analysing data from people using questionnaires.

A true experiment (aka a controlled experiment) always includes at least one control group that doesn’t receive the experimental treatment.

However, some experiments use a within-subjects design to test treatments without a control group. In these designs, you usually compare one group’s outcomes before and after a treatment (instead of comparing outcomes between different groups).

For strong internal validity , it’s usually best to include a control group if possible. Without a control group, it’s harder to be certain that the outcome was caused by the experimental treatment and not by other variables.

An experimental group, also known as a treatment group, receives the treatment whose effect researchers wish to study, whereas a control group does not. They should be identical in all other ways.

In a controlled experiment , all extraneous variables are held constant so that they can’t influence the results. Controlled experiments require:

  • A control group that receives a standard treatment, a fake treatment, or no treatment
  • Random assignment of participants to ensure the groups are equivalent

Depending on your study topic, there are various other methods of controlling variables .

Questionnaires can be self-administered or researcher-administered.

Self-administered questionnaires can be delivered online or in paper-and-pen formats, in person or by post. All questions are standardised so that all respondents receive the same questions with identical wording.

Researcher-administered questionnaires are interviews that take place by phone, in person, or online between researchers and respondents. You can gain deeper insights by clarifying questions for respondents or asking follow-up questions.

You can organise the questions logically, with a clear progression from simple to complex, or randomly between respondents. A logical flow helps respondents process the questionnaire easier and quicker, but it may lead to bias. Randomisation can minimise the bias from order effects.

Closed-ended, or restricted-choice, questions offer respondents a fixed set of choices to select from. These questions are easier to answer quickly.

Open-ended or long-form questions allow respondents to answer in their own words. Because there are no restrictions on their choices, respondents can answer in ways that researchers may not have otherwise considered.

Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research method where you record the behaviours of your research subjects in real-world settings. You avoid interfering or influencing anything in a naturalistic observation.

You can think of naturalistic observation as ‘people watching’ with a purpose.

Naturalistic observation is a valuable tool because of its flexibility, external validity , and suitability for topics that can’t be studied in a lab setting.

The downsides of naturalistic observation include its lack of scientific control , ethical considerations , and potential for bias from observers and subjects.

You can use several tactics to minimise observer bias .

  • Use masking (blinding) to hide the purpose of your study from all observers.
  • Triangulate your data with different data collection methods or sources.
  • Use multiple observers and ensure inter-rater reliability.
  • Train your observers to make sure data is consistently recorded between them.
  • Standardise your observation procedures to make sure they are structured and clear.

The observer-expectancy effect occurs when researchers influence the results of their own study through interactions with participants.

Researchers’ own beliefs and expectations about the study results may unintentionally influence participants through demand characteristics .

Observer bias occurs when a researcher’s expectations, opinions, or prejudices influence what they perceive or record in a study. It usually affects studies when observers are aware of the research aims or hypotheses. This type of research bias is also called detection bias or ascertainment bias .

Data cleaning is necessary for valid and appropriate analyses. Dirty data contain inconsistencies or errors , but cleaning your data helps you minimise or resolve these.

Without data cleaning, you could end up with a Type I or II error in your conclusion. These types of erroneous conclusions can be practically significant with important consequences, because they lead to misplaced investments or missed opportunities.

Data cleaning involves spotting and resolving potential data inconsistencies or errors to improve your data quality. An error is any value (e.g., recorded weight) that doesn’t reflect the true value (e.g., actual weight) of something that’s being measured.

In this process, you review, analyse, detect, modify, or remove ‘dirty’ data to make your dataset ‘clean’. Data cleaning is also called data cleansing or data scrubbing.

Data cleaning takes place between data collection and data analyses. But you can use some methods even before collecting data.

For clean data, you should start by designing measures that collect valid data. Data validation at the time of data entry or collection helps you minimize the amount of data cleaning you’ll need to do.

After data collection, you can use data standardisation and data transformation to clean your data. You’ll also deal with any missing values, outliers, and duplicate values.

Clean data are valid, accurate, complete, consistent, unique, and uniform. Dirty data include inconsistencies and errors.

Dirty data can come from any part of the research process, including poor research design , inappropriate measurement materials, or flawed data entry.

Random assignment is used in experiments with a between-groups or independent measures design. In this research design, there’s usually a control group and one or more experimental groups. Random assignment helps ensure that the groups are comparable.

In general, you should always use random assignment in this type of experimental design when it is ethically possible and makes sense for your study topic.

Random selection, or random sampling , is a way of selecting members of a population for your study’s sample.

In contrast, random assignment is a way of sorting the sample into control and experimental groups.

Random sampling enhances the external validity or generalisability of your results, while random assignment improves the internal validity of your study.

To implement random assignment , assign a unique number to every member of your study’s sample .

Then, you can use a random number generator or a lottery method to randomly assign each number to a control or experimental group. You can also do so manually, by flipping a coin or rolling a die to randomly assign participants to groups.

Exploratory research is often used when the issue you’re studying is new or when the data collection process is challenging for some reason.

You can use exploratory research if you have a general idea or a specific question that you want to study but there is no preexisting knowledge or paradigm with which to study it.

Exploratory research is a methodology approach that explores research questions that have not previously been studied in depth. It is often used when the issue you’re studying is new, or the data collection process is challenging in some way.

Explanatory research is used to investigate how or why a phenomenon occurs. Therefore, this type of research is often one of the first stages in the research process , serving as a jumping-off point for future research.

Explanatory research is a research method used to investigate how or why something occurs when only a small amount of information is available pertaining to that topic. It can help you increase your understanding of a given topic.

Blinding means hiding who is assigned to the treatment group and who is assigned to the control group in an experiment .

Blinding is important to reduce bias (e.g., observer bias , demand characteristics ) and ensure a study’s internal validity .

If participants know whether they are in a control or treatment group , they may adjust their behaviour in ways that affect the outcome that researchers are trying to measure. If the people administering the treatment are aware of group assignment, they may treat participants differently and thus directly or indirectly influence the final results.

  • In a single-blind study , only the participants are blinded.
  • In a double-blind study , both participants and experimenters are blinded.
  • In a triple-blind study , the assignment is hidden not only from participants and experimenters, but also from the researchers analysing the data.

Many academic fields use peer review , largely to determine whether a manuscript is suitable for publication. Peer review enhances the credibility of the published manuscript.

However, peer review is also common in non-academic settings. The United Nations, the European Union, and many individual nations use peer review to evaluate grant applications. It is also widely used in medical and health-related fields as a teaching or quality-of-care measure.

Peer assessment is often used in the classroom as a pedagogical tool. Both receiving feedback and providing it are thought to enhance the learning process, helping students think critically and collaboratively.

Peer review can stop obviously problematic, falsified, or otherwise untrustworthy research from being published. It also represents an excellent opportunity to get feedback from renowned experts in your field.

It acts as a first defence, helping you ensure your argument is clear and that there are no gaps, vague terms, or unanswered questions for readers who weren’t involved in the research process.

Peer-reviewed articles are considered a highly credible source due to this stringent process they go through before publication.

In general, the peer review process follows the following steps:

  • First, the author submits the manuscript to the editor.
  • Reject the manuscript and send it back to author, or
  • Send it onward to the selected peer reviewer(s)
  • Next, the peer review process occurs. The reviewer provides feedback, addressing any major or minor issues with the manuscript, and gives their advice regarding what edits should be made.
  • Lastly, the edited manuscript is sent back to the author. They input the edits, and resubmit it to the editor for publication.

Peer review is a process of evaluating submissions to an academic journal. Utilising rigorous criteria, a panel of reviewers in the same subject area decide whether to accept each submission for publication.

For this reason, academic journals are often considered among the most credible sources you can use in a research project – provided that the journal itself is trustworthy and well regarded.

Anonymity means you don’t know who the participants are, while confidentiality means you know who they are but remove identifying information from your research report. Both are important ethical considerations .

You can only guarantee anonymity by not collecting any personally identifying information – for example, names, phone numbers, email addresses, IP addresses, physical characteristics, photos, or videos.

You can keep data confidential by using aggregate information in your research report, so that you only refer to groups of participants rather than individuals.

Research misconduct means making up or falsifying data, manipulating data analyses, or misrepresenting results in research reports. It’s a form of academic fraud.

These actions are committed intentionally and can have serious consequences; research misconduct is not a simple mistake or a point of disagreement but a serious ethical failure.

Research ethics matter for scientific integrity, human rights and dignity, and collaboration between science and society. These principles make sure that participation in studies is voluntary, informed, and safe.

Ethical considerations in research are a set of principles that guide your research designs and practices. These principles include voluntary participation, informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, potential for harm, and results communication.

Scientists and researchers must always adhere to a certain code of conduct when collecting data from others .

These considerations protect the rights of research participants, enhance research validity , and maintain scientific integrity.

A systematic review is secondary research because it uses existing research. You don’t collect new data yourself.

The two main types of social desirability bias are:

  • Self-deceptive enhancement (self-deception): The tendency to see oneself in a favorable light without realizing it.
  • Impression managemen t (other-deception): The tendency to inflate one’s abilities or achievement in order to make a good impression on other people.

Demand characteristics are aspects of experiments that may give away the research objective to participants. Social desirability bias occurs when participants automatically try to respond in ways that make them seem likeable in a study, even if it means misrepresenting how they truly feel.

Participants may use demand characteristics to infer social norms or experimenter expectancies and act in socially desirable ways, so you should try to control for demand characteristics wherever possible.

Response bias refers to conditions or factors that take place during the process of responding to surveys, affecting the responses. One type of response bias is social desirability bias .

When your population is large in size, geographically dispersed, or difficult to contact, it’s necessary to use a sampling method .

This allows you to gather information from a smaller part of the population, i.e. the sample, and make accurate statements by using statistical analysis. A few sampling methods include simple random sampling , convenience sampling , and snowball sampling .

Stratified and cluster sampling may look similar, but bear in mind that groups created in cluster sampling are heterogeneous , so the individual characteristics in the cluster vary. In contrast, groups created in stratified sampling are homogeneous , as units share characteristics.

Relatedly, in cluster sampling you randomly select entire groups and include all units of each group in your sample. However, in stratified sampling, you select some units of all groups and include them in your sample. In this way, both methods can ensure that your sample is representative of the target population .

A sampling frame is a list of every member in the entire population . It is important that the sampling frame is as complete as possible, so that your sample accurately reflects your population.

Convenience sampling and quota sampling are both non-probability sampling methods. They both use non-random criteria like availability, geographical proximity, or expert knowledge to recruit study participants.

However, in convenience sampling, you continue to sample units or cases until you reach the required sample size.

In quota sampling, you first need to divide your population of interest into subgroups (strata) and estimate their proportions (quota) in the population. Then you can start your data collection , using convenience sampling to recruit participants, until the proportions in each subgroup coincide with the estimated proportions in the population.

Random sampling or probability sampling is based on random selection. This means that each unit has an equal chance (i.e., equal probability) of being included in the sample.

On the other hand, convenience sampling involves stopping people at random, which means that not everyone has an equal chance of being selected depending on the place, time, or day you are collecting your data.

Stratified sampling and quota sampling both involve dividing the population into subgroups and selecting units from each subgroup. The purpose in both cases is to select a representative sample and/or to allow comparisons between subgroups.

The main difference is that in stratified sampling, you draw a random sample from each subgroup ( probability sampling ). In quota sampling you select a predetermined number or proportion of units, in a non-random manner ( non-probability sampling ).

Snowball sampling is best used in the following cases:

  • If there is no sampling frame available (e.g., people with a rare disease)
  • If the population of interest is hard to access or locate (e.g., people experiencing homelessness)
  • If the research focuses on a sensitive topic (e.g., extra-marital affairs)

Snowball sampling relies on the use of referrals. Here, the researcher recruits one or more initial participants, who then recruit the next ones. 

Participants share similar characteristics and/or know each other. Because of this, not every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, giving rise to sampling bias .

Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method , where there is not an equal chance for every member of the population to be included in the sample .

This means that you cannot use inferential statistics and make generalisations – often the goal of quantitative research . As such, a snowball sample is not representative of the target population, and is usually a better fit for qualitative research .

Snowball sampling is a non-probability sampling method . Unlike probability sampling (which involves some form of random selection ), the initial individuals selected to be studied are the ones who recruit new participants.

Because not every member of the target population has an equal chance of being recruited into the sample, selection in snowball sampling is non-random.

Reproducibility and replicability are related terms.

  • Reproducing research entails reanalysing the existing data in the same manner.
  • Replicating (or repeating ) the research entails reconducting the entire analysis, including the collection of new data . 
  • A successful reproduction shows that the data analyses were conducted in a fair and honest manner.
  • A successful replication shows that the reliability of the results is high.

The reproducibility and replicability of a study can be ensured by writing a transparent, detailed method section and using clear, unambiguous language.

Convergent validity and discriminant validity are both subtypes of construct validity . Together, they help you evaluate whether a test measures the concept it was designed to measure.

  • Convergent validity indicates whether a test that is designed to measure a particular construct correlates with other tests that assess the same or similar construct.
  • Discriminant validity indicates whether two tests that should not be highly related to each other are indeed not related

You need to assess both in order to demonstrate construct validity. Neither one alone is sufficient for establishing construct validity.

Construct validity has convergent and discriminant subtypes. They assist determine if a test measures the intended notion.

Content validity shows you how accurately a test or other measurement method taps  into the various aspects of the specific construct you are researching.

In other words, it helps you answer the question: “does the test measure all aspects of the construct I want to measure?” If it does, then the test has high content validity.

The higher the content validity, the more accurate the measurement of the construct.

If the test fails to include parts of the construct, or irrelevant parts are included, the validity of the instrument is threatened, which brings your results into question.

Construct validity refers to how well a test measures the concept (or construct) it was designed to measure. Assessing construct validity is especially important when you’re researching concepts that can’t be quantified and/or are intangible, like introversion. To ensure construct validity your test should be based on known indicators of introversion ( operationalisation ).

On the other hand, content validity assesses how well the test represents all aspects of the construct. If some aspects are missing or irrelevant parts are included, the test has low content validity.

Face validity and content validity are similar in that they both evaluate how suitable the content of a test is. The difference is that face validity is subjective, and assesses content at surface level.

When a test has strong face validity, anyone would agree that the test’s questions appear to measure what they are intended to measure.

For example, looking at a 4th grade math test consisting of problems in which students have to add and multiply, most people would agree that it has strong face validity (i.e., it looks like a math test).

On the other hand, content validity evaluates how well a test represents all the aspects of a topic. Assessing content validity is more systematic and relies on expert evaluation. of each question, analysing whether each one covers the aspects that the test was designed to cover.

A 4th grade math test would have high content validity if it covered all the skills taught in that grade. Experts(in this case, math teachers), would have to evaluate the content validity by comparing the test to the learning objectives.

  • Discriminant validity indicates whether two tests that should not be highly related to each other are indeed not related. This type of validity is also called divergent validity .

Criterion validity and construct validity are both types of measurement validity . In other words, they both show you how accurately a method measures something.

While construct validity is the degree to which a test or other measurement method measures what it claims to measure, criterion validity is the degree to which a test can predictively (in the future) or concurrently (in the present) measure something.

Construct validity is often considered the overarching type of measurement validity . You need to have face validity , content validity , and criterion validity in order to achieve construct validity.

Attrition refers to participants leaving a study. It always happens to some extent – for example, in randomised control trials for medical research.

Differential attrition occurs when attrition or dropout rates differ systematically between the intervention and the control group . As a result, the characteristics of the participants who drop out differ from the characteristics of those who stay in the study. Because of this, study results may be biased .

Criterion validity evaluates how well a test measures the outcome it was designed to measure. An outcome can be, for example, the onset of a disease.

Criterion validity consists of two subtypes depending on the time at which the two measures (the criterion and your test) are obtained:

  • Concurrent validity is a validation strategy where the the scores of a test and the criterion are obtained at the same time
  • Predictive validity is a validation strategy where the criterion variables are measured after the scores of the test

Validity tells you how accurately a method measures what it was designed to measure. There are 4 main types of validity :

  • Construct validity : Does the test measure the construct it was designed to measure?
  • Face validity : Does the test appear to be suitable for its objectives ?
  • Content validity : Does the test cover all relevant parts of the construct it aims to measure.
  • Criterion validity : Do the results accurately measure the concrete outcome they are designed to measure?

Convergent validity shows how much a measure of one construct aligns with other measures of the same or related constructs .

On the other hand, concurrent validity is about how a measure matches up to some known criterion or gold standard, which can be another measure.

Although both types of validity are established by calculating the association or correlation between a test score and another variable , they represent distinct validation methods.

The purpose of theory-testing mode is to find evidence in order to disprove, refine, or support a theory. As such, generalisability is not the aim of theory-testing mode.

Due to this, the priority of researchers in theory-testing mode is to eliminate alternative causes for relationships between variables . In other words, they prioritise internal validity over external validity , including ecological validity .

Inclusion and exclusion criteria are typically presented and discussed in the methodology section of your thesis or dissertation .

Inclusion and exclusion criteria are predominantly used in non-probability sampling . In purposive sampling and snowball sampling , restrictions apply as to who can be included in the sample .

Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.

Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .

To define your scope of research, consider the following:

  • Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
  • Your proposed timeline and duration
  • Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
  • Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.

To make quantitative observations , you need to use instruments that are capable of measuring the quantity you want to observe. For example, you might use a ruler to measure the length of an object or a thermometer to measure its temperature.

Quantitative observations involve measuring or counting something and expressing the result in numerical form, while qualitative observations involve describing something in non-numerical terms, such as its appearance, texture, or color.

The Scribbr Reference Generator is developed using the open-source Citation Style Language (CSL) project and Frank Bennett’s citeproc-js . It’s the same technology used by dozens of other popular citation tools, including Mendeley and Zotero.

You can find all the citation styles and locales used in the Scribbr Reference Generator in our publicly accessible repository on Github .

To paraphrase effectively, don’t just take the original sentence and swap out some of the words for synonyms. Instead, try:

  • Reformulating the sentence (e.g., change active to passive , or start from a different point)
  • Combining information from multiple sentences into one
  • Leaving out information from the original that isn’t relevant to your point
  • Using synonyms where they don’t distort the meaning

The main point is to ensure you don’t just copy the structure of the original text, but instead reformulate the idea in your own words.

Plagiarism means using someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own. Paraphrasing means putting someone else’s ideas into your own words.

So when does paraphrasing count as plagiarism?

  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if you don’t properly credit the original author.
  • Paraphrasing is plagiarism if your text is too close to the original wording (even if you cite the source). If you directly copy a sentence or phrase, you should quote it instead.
  • Paraphrasing  is not plagiarism if you put the author’s ideas completely into your own words and properly reference the source .

To present information from other sources in academic writing , it’s best to paraphrase in most cases. This shows that you’ve understood the ideas you’re discussing and incorporates them into your text smoothly.

It’s appropriate to quote when:

  • Changing the phrasing would distort the meaning of the original text
  • You want to discuss the author’s language choices (e.g., in literary analysis )
  • You’re presenting a precise definition
  • You’re looking in depth at a specific claim

A quote is an exact copy of someone else’s words, usually enclosed in quotation marks and credited to the original author or speaker.

Every time you quote a source , you must include a correctly formatted in-text citation . This looks slightly different depending on the citation style .

For example, a direct quote in APA is cited like this: ‘This is a quote’ (Streefkerk, 2020, p. 5).

Every in-text citation should also correspond to a full reference at the end of your paper.

In scientific subjects, the information itself is more important than how it was expressed, so quoting should generally be kept to a minimum. In the arts and humanities, however, well-chosen quotes are often essential to a good paper.

In social sciences, it varies. If your research is mainly quantitative , you won’t include many quotes, but if it’s more qualitative , you may need to quote from the data you collected .

As a general guideline, quotes should take up no more than 5–10% of your paper. If in doubt, check with your instructor or supervisor how much quoting is appropriate in your field.

If you’re quoting from a text that paraphrases or summarises other sources and cites them in parentheses , APA recommends retaining the citations as part of the quote:

  • Smith states that ‘the literature on this topic (Jones, 2015; Sill, 2019; Paulson, 2020) shows no clear consensus’ (Smith, 2019, p. 4).

Footnote or endnote numbers that appear within quoted text should be omitted.

If you want to cite an indirect source (one you’ve only seen quoted in another source), either locate the original source or use the phrase ‘as cited in’ in your citation.

A block quote is a long quote formatted as a separate ‘block’ of text. Instead of using quotation marks , you place the quote on a new line, and indent the entire quote to mark it apart from your own words.

APA uses block quotes for quotes that are 40 words or longer.

A credible source should pass the CRAAP test  and follow these guidelines:

  • The information should be up to date and current.
  • The author and publication should be a trusted authority on the subject you are researching.
  • The sources the author cited should be easy to find, clear, and unbiased.
  • For a web source, the URL and layout should signify that it is trustworthy.

Common examples of primary sources include interview transcripts , photographs, novels, paintings, films, historical documents, and official statistics.

Anything you directly analyze or use as first-hand evidence can be a primary source, including qualitative or quantitative data that you collected yourself.

Common examples of secondary sources include academic books, journal articles , reviews, essays , and textbooks.

Anything that summarizes, evaluates or interprets primary sources can be a secondary source. If a source gives you an overview of background information or presents another researcher’s ideas on your topic, it is probably a secondary source.

To determine if a source is primary or secondary, ask yourself:

  • Was the source created by someone directly involved in the events you’re studying (primary), or by another researcher (secondary)?
  • Does the source provide original information (primary), or does it summarize information from other sources (secondary)?
  • Are you directly analyzing the source itself (primary), or only using it for background information (secondary)?

Some types of sources are nearly always primary: works of art and literature, raw statistical data, official documents and records, and personal communications (e.g. letters, interviews ). If you use one of these in your research, it is probably a primary source.

Primary sources are often considered the most credible in terms of providing evidence for your argument, as they give you direct evidence of what you are researching. However, it’s up to you to ensure the information they provide is reliable and accurate.

Always make sure to properly cite your sources to avoid plagiarism .

A fictional movie is usually a primary source. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context.

If you are directly analysing some aspect of the movie itself – for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context – the movie is a primary source.

If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic – for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery – the movie is a secondary source.

Whether it’s primary or secondary, always properly cite the movie in the citation style you are using. Learn how to create an MLA movie citation or an APA movie citation .

Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research.

In historical studies, old articles are used as primary sources that give direct evidence about the time period. In social and communication studies, articles are used as primary sources to analyse language and social relations (for example, by conducting content analysis or discourse analysis ).

If you are not analysing the article itself, but only using it for background information or facts about your topic, then the article is a secondary source.

In academic writing , there are three main situations where quoting is the best choice:

  • To analyse the author’s language (e.g., in a literary analysis essay )
  • To give evidence from primary sources
  • To accurately present a precise definition or argument

Don’t overuse quotes; your own voice should be dominant. If you just want to provide information from a source, it’s usually better to paraphrase or summarise .

Your list of tables and figures should go directly after your table of contents in your thesis or dissertation.

Lists of figures and tables are often not required, and they aren’t particularly common. They specifically aren’t required for APA Style, though you should be careful to follow their other guidelines for figures and tables .

If you have many figures and tables in your thesis or dissertation, include one may help you stay organised. Your educational institution may require them, so be sure to check their guidelines.

Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. For example, for a diagram in a journal article , look on the journal’s website or the database where you found the article. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information.

If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it.

A list of figures and tables compiles all of the figures and tables that you used in your thesis or dissertation and displays them with the page number where they can be found.

APA doesn’t require you to include a list of tables or a list of figures . However, it is advisable to do so if your text is long enough to feature a table of contents and it includes a lot of tables and/or figures .

A list of tables and list of figures appear (in that order) after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. Your glossary only needs to include terms that your reader may not be familiar with, and is intended to enhance their understanding of your work.

Definitional terms often fall into the category of common knowledge , meaning that they don’t necessarily have to be cited. This guidance can apply to your thesis or dissertation glossary as well.

However, if you’d prefer to cite your sources , you can follow guidance for citing dictionary entries in MLA or APA style for your glossary.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. In contrast, an index is a list of the contents of your work organised by page number.

Glossaries are not mandatory, but if you use a lot of technical or field-specific terms, it may improve readability to add one to your thesis or dissertation. Your educational institution may also require them, so be sure to check their specific guidelines.

A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it’s a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. In contrast, dictionaries are more general collections of words.

The title page of your thesis or dissertation should include your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date.

The title page of your thesis or dissertation goes first, before all other content or lists that you may choose to include.

Usually, no title page is needed in an MLA paper . A header is generally included at the top of the first page instead. The exceptions are when:

  • Your instructor requires one, or
  • Your paper is a group project

In those cases, you should use a title page instead of a header, listing the same information but on a separate page.

When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organise your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation, such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review, research methods, avenues for future research, etc.)

While a theoretical framework describes the theoretical underpinnings of your work based on existing research, a conceptual framework allows you to draw your own conclusions, mapping out the variables you may use in your study and the interplay between them.

A literature review and a theoretical framework are not the same thing and cannot be used interchangeably. While a theoretical framework describes the theoretical underpinnings of your work, a literature review critically evaluates existing research relating to your topic. You’ll likely need both in your dissertation .

A theoretical framework can sometimes be integrated into a  literature review chapter , but it can also be included as its own chapter or section in your dissertation . As a rule of thumb, if your research involves dealing with a lot of complex theories, it’s a good idea to include a separate theoretical framework chapter.

An abstract is a concise summary of an academic text (such as a journal article or dissertation ). It serves two main purposes:

  • To help potential readers determine the relevance of your paper for their own research.
  • To communicate your key findings to those who don’t have time to read the whole paper.

Abstracts are often indexed along with keywords on academic databases, so they make your work more easily findable. Since the abstract is the first thing any reader sees, it’s important that it clearly and accurately summarises the contents of your paper.

The abstract is the very last thing you write. You should only write it after your research is complete, so that you can accurately summarize the entirety of your thesis or paper.

Avoid citing sources in your abstract . There are two reasons for this:

  • The abstract should focus on your original research, not on the work of others.
  • The abstract should be self-contained and fully understandable without reference to other sources.

There are some circumstances where you might need to mention other sources in an abstract: for example, if your research responds directly to another study or focuses on the work of a single theorist. In general, though, don’t include citations unless absolutely necessary.

The abstract appears on its own page, after the title page and acknowledgements but before the table of contents .

Results are usually written in the past tense , because they are describing the outcome of completed actions.

The results chapter or section simply and objectively reports what you found, without speculating on why you found these results. The discussion interprets the meaning of the results, puts them in context, and explains why they matter.

In qualitative research , results and discussion are sometimes combined. But in quantitative research , it’s considered important to separate the objective results from your interpretation of them.

Formulating a main research question can be a difficult task. Overall, your question should contribute to solving the problem that you have defined in your problem statement .

However, it should also fulfill criteria in three main areas:

  • Researchability
  • Feasibility and specificity
  • Relevance and originality

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

A noun is a word that represents a person, thing, concept, or place (e.g., ‘John’, ‘house’, ‘affinity’, ‘river’). Most sentences contain at least one noun or pronoun .

Nouns are often, but not always, preceded by an article (‘the’, ‘a’, or ‘an’) and/or another determiner such as an adjective.

There are many ways to categorize nouns into various types, and the same noun can fall into multiple categories or even change types depending on context.

Some of the main types of nouns are:

  • Common nouns and proper nouns
  • Countable and uncountable nouns
  • Concrete and abstract nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Possessive nouns
  • Attributive nouns
  • Appositive nouns
  • Generic nouns

Pronouns are words like ‘I’, ‘she’, and ‘they’ that are used in a similar way to nouns . They stand in for a noun that has already been mentioned or refer to yourself and other people.

Pronouns can function just like nouns as the head of a noun phrase and as the subject or object of a verb. However, pronouns change their forms (e.g., from ‘I’ to ‘me’) depending on the grammatical context they’re used in, whereas nouns usually don’t.

Common nouns are words for types of things, people, and places, such as ‘dog’, ‘professor’, and ‘city’. They are not capitalised and are typically used in combination with articles and other determiners.

Proper nouns are words for specific things, people, and places, such as ‘Max’, ‘Dr Prakash’, and ‘London’. They are always capitalised and usually aren’t combined with articles and other determiners.

A proper adjective is an adjective that was derived from a proper noun and is therefore capitalised .

Proper adjectives include words for nationalities, languages, and ethnicities (e.g., ‘Japanese’, ‘Inuit’, ‘French’) and words derived from people’s names (e.g., ‘Bayesian’, ‘Orwellian’).

The names of seasons (e.g., ‘spring’) are treated as common nouns in English and therefore not capitalised . People often assume they are proper nouns, but this is an error.

The names of days and months, however, are capitalised since they’re treated as proper nouns in English (e.g., ‘Wednesday’, ‘January’).

No, as a general rule, academic concepts, disciplines, theories, models, etc. are treated as common nouns , not proper nouns , and therefore not capitalised . For example, ‘five-factor model of personality’ or ‘analytic philosophy’.

However, proper nouns that appear within the name of an academic concept (such as the name of the inventor) are capitalised as usual. For example, ‘Darwin’s theory of evolution’ or ‘ Student’s t table ‘.

Collective nouns are most commonly treated as singular (e.g., ‘the herd is grazing’), but usage differs between US and UK English :

  • In US English, it’s standard to treat all collective nouns as singular, even when they are plural in appearance (e.g., ‘The Rolling Stones is …’). Using the plural form is usually seen as incorrect.
  • In UK English, collective nouns can be treated as singular or plural depending on context. It’s quite common to use the plural form, especially when the noun looks plural (e.g., ‘The Rolling Stones are …’).

The plural of “crisis” is “crises”. It’s a loanword from Latin and retains its original Latin plural noun form (similar to “analyses” and “bases”). It’s wrong to write “crisises”.

For example, you might write “Several crises destabilized the regime.”

Normally, the plural of “fish” is the same as the singular: “fish”. It’s one of a group of irregular plural nouns in English that are identical to the corresponding singular nouns (e.g., “moose”, “sheep”). For example, you might write “The fish scatter as the shark approaches.”

If you’re referring to several species of fish, though, the regular plural “fishes” is often used instead. For example, “The aquarium contains many different fishes , including trout and carp.”

The correct plural of “octopus” is “octopuses”.

People often write “octopi” instead because they assume that the plural noun is formed in the same way as Latin loanwords such as “fungus/fungi”. But “octopus” actually comes from Greek, where its original plural is “octopodes”. In English, it instead has the regular plural form “octopuses”.

For example, you might write “There are four octopuses in the aquarium.”

The plural of “moose” is the same as the singular: “moose”. It’s one of a group of plural nouns in English that are identical to the corresponding singular nouns. So it’s wrong to write “mooses”.

For example, you might write “There are several moose in the forest.”

Bias in research affects the validity and reliability of your findings, leading to false conclusions and a misinterpretation of the truth. This can have serious implications in areas like medical research where, for example, a new form of treatment may be evaluated.

Observer bias occurs when the researcher’s assumptions, views, or preconceptions influence what they see and record in a study, while actor–observer bias refers to situations where respondents attribute internal factors (e.g., bad character) to justify other’s behaviour and external factors (difficult circumstances) to justify the same behaviour in themselves.

Response bias is a general term used to describe a number of different conditions or factors that cue respondents to provide inaccurate or false answers during surveys or interviews . These factors range from the interviewer’s perceived social position or appearance to the the phrasing of questions in surveys.

Nonresponse bias occurs when the people who complete a survey are different from those who did not, in ways that are relevant to the research topic. Nonresponse can happen either because people are not willing or not able to participate.

In research, demand characteristics are cues that might indicate the aim of a study to participants. These cues can lead to participants changing their behaviors or responses based on what they think the research is about.

Demand characteristics are common problems in psychology experiments and other social science studies because they can bias your research findings.

Demand characteristics are a type of extraneous variable that can affect the outcomes of the study. They can invalidate studies by providing an alternative explanation for the results.

These cues may nudge participants to consciously or unconsciously change their responses, and they pose a threat to both internal and external validity . You can’t be sure that your independent variable manipulation worked, or that your findings can be applied to other people or settings.

You can control demand characteristics by taking a few precautions in your research design and materials.

Use these measures:

  • Deception: Hide the purpose of the study from participants
  • Between-groups design : Give each participant only one independent variable treatment
  • Double-blind design : Conceal the assignment of groups from participants and yourself
  • Implicit measures: Use indirect or hidden measurements for your variables

Some attrition is normal and to be expected in research. However, the type of attrition is important because systematic research bias can distort your findings. Attrition bias can lead to inaccurate results because it affects internal and/or external validity .

To avoid attrition bias , applying some of these measures can help you reduce participant dropout (attrition) by making it easy and appealing for participants to stay.

  • Provide compensation (e.g., cash or gift cards) for attending every session
  • Minimise the number of follow-ups as much as possible
  • Make all follow-ups brief, flexible, and convenient for participants
  • Send participants routine reminders to schedule follow-ups
  • Recruit more participants than you need for your sample (oversample)
  • Maintain detailed contact information so you can get in touch with participants even if they move

If you have a small amount of attrition bias , you can use a few statistical methods to try to make up for this research bias .

Multiple imputation involves using simulations to replace the missing data with likely values. Alternatively, you can use sample weighting to make up for the uneven balance of participants in your sample.

Placebos are used in medical research for new medication or therapies, called clinical trials. In these trials some people are given a placebo, while others are given the new medication being tested.

The purpose is to determine how effective the new medication is: if it benefits people beyond a predefined threshold as compared to the placebo, it’s considered effective.

Although there is no definite answer to what causes the placebo effect , researchers propose a number of explanations such as the power of suggestion, doctor-patient interaction, classical conditioning, etc.

Belief bias and confirmation bias are both types of cognitive bias that impact our judgment and decision-making.

Confirmation bias relates to how we perceive and judge evidence. We tend to seek out and prefer information that supports our preexisting beliefs, ignoring any information that contradicts those beliefs.

Belief bias describes the tendency to judge an argument based on how plausible the conclusion seems to us, rather than how much evidence is provided to support it during the course of the argument.

Positivity bias is phenomenon that occurs when a person judges individual members of a group positively, even when they have negative impressions or judgments of the group as a whole. Positivity bias is closely related to optimism bias , or the e xpectation that things will work out well, even if rationality suggests that problems are inevitable in life.

Perception bias is a problem because it prevents us from seeing situations or people objectively. Rather, our expectations, beliefs, or emotions interfere with how we interpret reality. This, in turn, can cause us to misjudge ourselves or others. For example, our prejudices can interfere with whether we perceive people’s faces as friendly or unfriendly.

There are many ways to categorize adjectives into various types. An adjective can fall into one or more of these categories depending on how it is used.

Some of the main types of adjectives are:

  • Attributive adjectives
  • Predicative adjectives
  • Comparative adjectives
  • Superlative adjectives
  • Coordinate adjectives
  • Appositive adjectives
  • Compound adjectives
  • Participial adjectives
  • Proper adjectives
  • Denominal adjectives
  • Nominal adjectives

Cardinal numbers (e.g., one, two, three) can be placed before a noun to indicate quantity (e.g., one apple). While these are sometimes referred to as ‘numeral adjectives ‘, they are more accurately categorised as determiners or quantifiers.

Proper adjectives are adjectives formed from a proper noun (i.e., the name of a specific person, place, or thing) that are used to indicate origin. Like proper nouns, proper adjectives are always capitalised (e.g., Newtonian, Marxian, African).

The cost of proofreading depends on the type and length of text, the turnaround time, and the level of services required. Most proofreading companies charge per word or page, while freelancers sometimes charge an hourly rate.

For proofreading alone, which involves only basic corrections of typos and formatting mistakes, you might pay as little as £0.01 per word, but in many cases, your text will also require some level of editing , which costs slightly more.

It’s often possible to purchase combined proofreading and editing services and calculate the price in advance based on your requirements.

Then and than are two commonly confused words . In the context of ‘better than’, you use ‘than’ with an ‘a’.

  • Julie is better than Jesse.
  • I’d rather spend my time with you than with him.
  • I understand Eoghan’s point of view better than Claudia’s.

Use to and used to are commonly confused words . In the case of ‘used to do’, the latter (with ‘d’) is correct, since you’re describing an action or state in the past.

  • I used to do laundry once a week.
  • They used to do each other’s hair.
  • We used to do the dishes every day .

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the various meanings of “ favour ”:

Advocate Adoration
Approve of Appreciation
Endorse Praise
Support Respect

There are numerous synonyms and near synonyms for the two meanings of “ favoured ”:

Advocated Adored
Approved of Appreciated
Endorsed Praised
Supported Preferred

No one (two words) is an indefinite pronoun meaning ‘nobody’. People sometimes mistakenly write ‘noone’, but this is incorrect and should be avoided. ‘No-one’, with a hyphen, is also acceptable in UK English .

Nobody and no one are both indefinite pronouns meaning ‘no person’. They can be used interchangeably (e.g., ‘nobody is home’ means the same as ‘no one is home’).

Some synonyms and near synonyms of  every time include:

  • Without exception

‘Everytime’ is sometimes used to mean ‘each time’ or ‘whenever’. However, this is incorrect and should be avoided. The correct phrase is every time   (two words).

Yes, the conjunction because is a compound word , but one with a long history. It originates in Middle English from the preposition “bi” (“by”) and the noun “cause”. Over time, the open compound “bi cause” became the closed compound “because”, which we use today.

Though it’s spelled this way now, the verb “be” is not one of the words that makes up “because”.

Yes, today is a compound word , but a very old one. It wasn’t originally formed from the preposition “to” and the noun “day”; rather, it originates from their Old English equivalents, “tō” and “dæġe”.

In the past, it was sometimes written as a hyphenated compound: “to-day”. But the hyphen is no longer included; it’s always “today” now (“to day” is also wrong).

IEEE citation format is defined by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and used in their publications.

It’s also a widely used citation style for students in technical fields like electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, telecommunications, and computer engineering.

An IEEE in-text citation consists of a number in brackets at the relevant point in the text, which points the reader to the right entry in the numbered reference list at the end of the paper. For example, ‘Smith [1] states that …’

A location marker such as a page number is also included within the brackets when needed: ‘Smith [1, p. 13] argues …’

The IEEE reference page consists of a list of references numbered in the order they were cited in the text. The title ‘References’ appears in bold at the top, either left-aligned or centered.

The numbers appear in square brackets on the left-hand side of the page. The reference entries are indented consistently to separate them from the numbers. Entries are single-spaced, with a normal paragraph break between them.

If you cite the same source more than once in your writing, use the same number for all of the IEEE in-text citations for that source, and only include it on the IEEE reference page once. The source is numbered based on the first time you cite it.

For example, the fourth source you cite in your paper is numbered [4]. If you cite it again later, you still cite it as [4]. You can cite different parts of the source each time by adding page numbers [4, p. 15].

A verb is a word that indicates a physical action (e.g., ‘drive’), a mental action (e.g., ‘think’) or a state of being (e.g., ‘exist’). Every sentence contains a verb.

Verbs are almost always used along with a noun or pronoun to describe what the noun or pronoun is doing.

There are many ways to categorize verbs into various types. A verb can fall into one or more of these categories depending on how it is used.

Some of the main types of verbs are:

  • Regular verbs
  • Irregular verbs
  • Transitive verbs
  • Intransitive verbs
  • Dynamic verbs
  • Stative verbs
  • Linking verbs
  • Auxiliary verbs
  • Modal verbs
  • Phrasal verbs

Regular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participle are formed by adding the suffix ‘-ed’ (e.g., ‘walked’).

Irregular verbs are verbs that form their simple past and past participles in some way other than by adding the suffix ‘-ed’ (e.g., ‘sat’).

The indefinite articles a and an are used to refer to a general or unspecified version of a noun (e.g., a house). Which indefinite article you use depends on the pronunciation of the word that follows it.

  • A is used for words that begin with a consonant sound (e.g., a bear).
  • An is used for words that begin with a vowel sound (e.g., an eagle).

Indefinite articles can only be used with singular countable nouns . Like definite articles, they are a type of determiner .

Editing and proofreading are different steps in the process of revising a text.

Editing comes first, and can involve major changes to content, structure and language. The first stages of editing are often done by authors themselves, while a professional editor makes the final improvements to grammar and style (for example, by improving sentence structure and word choice ).

Proofreading is the final stage of checking a text before it is published or shared. It focuses on correcting minor errors and inconsistencies (for example, in punctuation and capitalization ). Proofreaders often also check for formatting issues, especially in print publishing.

Whether you’re publishing a blog, submitting a research paper , or even just writing an important email, there are a few techniques you can use to make sure it’s error-free:

  • Take a break : Set your work aside for at least a few hours so that you can look at it with fresh eyes.
  • Proofread a printout : Staring at a screen for too long can cause fatigue – sit down with a pen and paper to check the final version.
  • Use digital shortcuts : Take note of any recurring mistakes (for example, misspelling a particular word, switching between US and UK English , or inconsistently capitalizing a term), and use Find and Replace to fix it throughout the document.

If you want to be confident that an important text is error-free, it might be worth choosing a professional proofreading service instead.

There are many different routes to becoming a professional proofreader or editor. The necessary qualifications depend on the field – to be an academic or scientific proofreader, for example, you will need at least a university degree in a relevant subject.

For most proofreading jobs, experience and demonstrated skills are more important than specific qualifications. Often your skills will be tested as part of the application process.

To learn practical proofreading skills, you can choose to take a course with a professional organisation such as the Society for Editors and Proofreaders . Alternatively, you can apply to companies that offer specialised on-the-job training programmes, such as the Scribbr Academy .

Though they’re pronounced the same, there’s a big difference in meaning between its and it’s .

  • ‘The cat ate its food’.
  • ‘It’s almost Christmas’.

Its and it’s are often confused, but its (without apostrophe) is the possessive form of ‘it’ (e.g., its tail, its argument, its wing). You use ‘its’ instead of ‘his’ and ‘her’ for neuter, inanimate nouns.

Then and than are two commonly confused words with different meanings and grammatical roles.

  • Then (pronounced with a short ‘e’ sound) refers to time. It’s often an adverb , but it can also be used as a noun meaning ‘that time’ and as an adjective referring to a previous status.
  • Than (pronounced with a short ‘a’ sound) is used for comparisons. Grammatically, it usually functions as a conjunction , but sometimes it’s a preposition .
Examples: Then in a sentence Examples: Than in a sentence
Mix the dry ingredients first, and add the wet ingredients. Max is a better saxophonist you.
I was working as a teacher . I usually like coaching a team more I like playing soccer myself.

Use to and used to are commonly confused words . In the case of ‘used to be’, the latter (with ‘d’) is correct, since you’re describing an action or state in the past.

  • I used to be the new coworker.
  • There used to be 4 cookies left.
  • We used to walk to school every day .

A grammar checker is a tool designed to automatically check your text for spelling errors, grammatical issues, punctuation mistakes , and problems with sentence structure . You can check out our analysis of the best free grammar checkers to learn more.

A paraphrasing tool edits your text more actively, changing things whether they were grammatically incorrect or not. It can paraphrase your sentences to make them more concise and readable or for other purposes. You can check out our analysis of the best free paraphrasing tools to learn more.

Some tools available online combine both functions. Others, such as QuillBot , have separate grammar checker and paraphrasing tools. Be aware of what exactly the tool you’re using does to avoid introducing unwanted changes.

Good grammar is the key to expressing yourself clearly and fluently, especially in professional communication and academic writing . Word processors, browsers, and email programs typically have built-in grammar checkers, but they’re quite limited in the kinds of problems they can fix.

If you want to go beyond detecting basic spelling errors, there are many online grammar checkers with more advanced functionality. They can often detect issues with punctuation , word choice, and sentence structure that more basic tools would miss.

Not all of these tools are reliable, though. You can check out our research into the best free grammar checkers to explore the options.

Our research indicates that the best free grammar checker available online is the QuillBot grammar checker .

We tested 10 of the most popular checkers with the same sample text (containing 20 grammatical errors) and found that QuillBot easily outperformed the competition, scoring 18 out of 20, a drastic improvement over the second-place score of 13 out of 20.

It even appeared to outperform the premium versions of other grammar checkers, despite being entirely free.

A teacher’s aide is a person who assists in teaching classes but is not a qualified teacher. Aide is a noun meaning ‘assistant’, so it will always refer to a person.

‘Teacher’s aid’ is incorrect.

A visual aid is an instructional device (e.g., a photo, a chart) that appeals to vision to help you understand written or spoken information. Aid is often placed after an attributive noun or adjective (like ‘visual’) that describes the type of help provided.

‘Visual aide’ is incorrect.

A job aid is an instructional tool (e.g., a checklist, a cheat sheet) that helps you work efficiently. Aid is a noun meaning ‘assistance’. It’s often placed after an adjective or attributive noun (like ‘job’) that describes the specific type of help provided.

‘Job aide’ is incorrect.

There are numerous synonyms for the various meanings of truly :

Candidly Completely Accurately
Honestly Really Correctly
Openly Totally Exactly
Truthfully Precisely

Yours truly is a phrase used at the end of a formal letter or email. It can also be used (typically in a humorous way) as a pronoun to refer to oneself (e.g., ‘The dinner was cooked by yours truly ‘). The latter usage should be avoided in formal writing.

It’s formed by combining the second-person possessive pronoun ‘yours’ with the adverb ‘ truly ‘.

A pathetic fallacy can be a short phrase or a whole sentence and is often used in novels and poetry. Pathetic fallacies serve multiple purposes, such as:

  • Conveying the emotional state of the characters or the narrator
  • Creating an atmosphere or set the mood of a scene
  • Foreshadowing events to come
  • Giving texture and vividness to a piece of writing
  • Communicating emotion to the reader in a subtle way, by describing the external world.
  • Bringing inanimate objects to life so that they seem more relatable.

AMA citation format is a citation style designed by the American Medical Association. It’s frequently used in the field of medicine.

You may be told to use AMA style for your student papers. You will also have to follow this style if you’re submitting a paper to a journal published by the AMA.

An AMA in-text citation consists of the number of the relevant reference on your AMA reference page , written in superscript 1 at the point in the text where the source is used.

It may also include the page number or range of the relevant material in the source (e.g., the part you quoted 2(p46) ). Multiple sources can be cited at one point, presented as a range or list (with no spaces 3,5–9 ).

An AMA reference usually includes the author’s last name and initials, the title of the source, information about the publisher or the publication it’s contained in, and the publication date. The specific details included, and the formatting, depend on the source type.

References in AMA style are presented in numerical order (numbered by the order in which they were first cited in the text) on your reference page. A source that’s cited repeatedly in the text still only appears once on the reference page.

An AMA in-text citation just consists of the number of the relevant entry on your AMA reference page , written in superscript at the point in the text where the source is referred to.

You don’t need to mention the author of the source in your sentence, but you can do so if you want. It’s not an official part of the citation, but it can be useful as part of a signal phrase introducing the source.

On your AMA reference page , author names are written with the last name first, followed by the initial(s) of their first name and middle name if mentioned.

There’s a space between the last name and the initials, but no space or punctuation between the initials themselves. The names of multiple authors are separated by commas , and the whole list ends in a period, e.g., ‘Andreessen F, Smith PW, Gonzalez E’.

The names of up to six authors should be listed for each source on your AMA reference page , separated by commas . For a source with seven or more authors, you should list the first three followed by ‘ et al’ : ‘Isidore, Gilbert, Gunvor, et al’.

In the text, mentioning author names is optional (as they aren’t an official part of AMA in-text citations ). If you do mention them, though, you should use the first author’s name followed by ‘et al’ when there are three or more : ‘Isidore et al argue that …’

Note that according to AMA’s rather minimalistic punctuation guidelines, there’s no period after ‘et al’ unless it appears at the end of a sentence. This is different from most other styles, where there is normally a period.

Yes, you should normally include an access date in an AMA website citation (or when citing any source with a URL). This is because webpages can change their content over time, so it’s useful for the reader to know when you accessed the page.

When a publication or update date is provided on the page, you should include it in addition to the access date. The access date appears second in this case, e.g., ‘Published June 19, 2021. Accessed August 29, 2022.’

Don’t include an access date when citing a source with a DOI (such as in an AMA journal article citation ).

Some variables have fixed levels. For example, gender and ethnicity are always nominal level data because they cannot be ranked.

However, for other variables, you can choose the level of measurement . For example, income is a variable that can be recorded on an ordinal or a ratio scale:

  • At an ordinal level , you could create 5 income groupings and code the incomes that fall within them from 1–5.
  • At a ratio level , you would record exact numbers for income.

If you have a choice, the ratio level is always preferable because you can analyse data in more ways. The higher the level of measurement, the more precise your data is.

The level at which you measure a variable determines how you can analyse your data.

Depending on the level of measurement , you can perform different descriptive statistics to get an overall summary of your data and inferential statistics to see if your results support or refute your hypothesis .

Levels of measurement tell you how precisely variables are recorded. There are 4 levels of measurement, which can be ranked from low to high:

  • Nominal : the data can only be categorised.
  • Ordinal : the data can be categorised and ranked.
  • Interval : the data can be categorised and ranked, and evenly spaced.
  • Ratio : the data can be categorised, ranked, evenly spaced and has a natural zero.

Statistical analysis is the main method for analyzing quantitative research data . It uses probabilities and models to test predictions about a population from sample data.

The null hypothesis is often abbreviated as H 0 . When the null hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an equality symbol (usually =, but sometimes ≥ or ≤).

The alternative hypothesis is often abbreviated as H a or H 1 . When the alternative hypothesis is written using mathematical symbols, it always includes an inequality symbol (usually ≠, but sometimes < or >).

As the degrees of freedom increase, Student’s t distribution becomes less leptokurtic , meaning that the probability of extreme values decreases. The distribution becomes more and more similar to a standard normal distribution .

When there are only one or two degrees of freedom , the chi-square distribution is shaped like a backwards ‘J’. When there are three or more degrees of freedom, the distribution is shaped like a right-skewed hump. As the degrees of freedom increase, the hump becomes less right-skewed and the peak of the hump moves to the right. The distribution becomes more and more similar to a normal distribution .

‘Looking forward in hearing from you’ is an incorrect version of the phrase looking forward to hearing from you . The phrasal verb ‘looking forward to’ always needs the preposition ‘to’, not ‘in’.

  • I am looking forward in hearing from you.
  • I am looking forward to hearing from you.

Some synonyms and near synonyms for the expression looking forward to hearing from you include:

  • Eagerly awaiting your response
  • Hoping to hear from you soon
  • It would be great to hear back from you
  • Thanks in advance for your reply

People sometimes mistakenly write ‘looking forward to hear from you’, but this is incorrect. The correct phrase is looking forward to hearing from you .

The phrasal verb ‘look forward to’ is always followed by a direct object, the thing you’re looking forward to. As the direct object has to be a noun phrase , it should be the gerund ‘hearing’, not the verb ‘hear’.

  • I’m looking forward to hear from you soon.
  • I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.

Traditionally, the sign-off Yours sincerely is used in an email message or letter when you are writing to someone you have interacted with before, not a complete stranger.

Yours faithfully is used instead when you are writing to someone you have had no previous correspondence with, especially if you greeted them as ‘ Dear Sir or Madam ’.

Just checking in   is a standard phrase used to start an email (or other message) that’s intended to ask someone for a response or follow-up action in a friendly, informal way. However, it’s a cliché opening that can come across as passive-aggressive, so we recommend avoiding it in favor of a more direct opening like “We previously discussed …”

In a more personal context, you might encounter “just checking in” as part of a longer phrase such as “I’m just checking in to see how you’re doing”. In this case, it’s not asking the other person to do anything but rather asking about their well-being (emotional or physical) in a friendly way.

“Earliest convenience” is part of the phrase at your earliest convenience , meaning “as soon as you can”. 

It’s typically used to end an email in a formal context by asking the recipient to do something when it’s convenient for them to do so.

ASAP is an abbreviation of the phrase “as soon as possible”. 

It’s typically used to indicate a sense of urgency in highly informal contexts (e.g., “Let me know ASAP if you need me to drive you to the airport”).

“ASAP” should be avoided in more formal correspondence. Instead, use an alternative like at your earliest convenience .

Some synonyms and near synonyms of the verb   compose   (meaning “to make up”) are:

People increasingly use “comprise” as a synonym of “compose.” However, this is normally still seen as a mistake, and we recommend avoiding it in your academic writing . “Comprise” traditionally means “to be made up of,” not “to make up.”

Some synonyms and near synonyms of the verb comprise are:

  • Be composed of
  • Be made up of

People increasingly use “comprise” interchangeably with “compose,” meaning that they consider words like “compose,” “constitute,” and “form” to be synonymous with “comprise.” However, this is still normally regarded as an error, and we advise against using these words interchangeably in academic writing .

A fallacy is a mistaken belief, particularly one based on unsound arguments or one that lacks the evidence to support it. Common types of fallacy that may compromise the quality of your research are:

  • Correlation/causation fallacy: Claiming that two events that occur together have a cause-and-effect relationship even though this can’t be proven
  • Ecological fallacy : Making inferences about the nature of individuals based on aggregate data for the group
  • The sunk cost fallacy : Following through on a project or decision because we have already invested time, effort, or money into it, even if the current costs outweigh the benefits
  • The base-rate fallacy : Ignoring base-rate or statistically significant information, such as sample size or the relative frequency of an event, in favor of  less relevant information e.g., pertaining to a single case, or a small number of cases
  • The planning fallacy : Underestimating the time needed to complete a future task, even when we know that similar tasks in the past have taken longer than planned

The planning fallacy refers to people’s tendency to underestimate the resources needed to complete a future task, despite knowing that previous tasks have also taken longer than planned.

For example, people generally tend to underestimate the cost and time needed for construction projects. The planning fallacy occurs due to people’s tendency to overestimate the chances that positive events, such as a shortened timeline, will happen to them. This phenomenon is called optimism bias or positivity bias.

Although both red herring fallacy and straw man fallacy are logical fallacies or reasoning errors, they denote different attempts to “win” an argument. More specifically:

  • A red herring fallacy refers to an attempt to change the subject and divert attention from the original issue. In other words, a seemingly solid but ultimately irrelevant argument is introduced into the discussion, either on purpose or by mistake.
  • A straw man argument involves the deliberate distortion of another person’s argument. By oversimplifying or exaggerating it, the other party creates an easy-to-refute argument and then attacks it.

The red herring fallacy is a problem because it is flawed reasoning. It is a distraction device that causes people to become sidetracked from the main issue and draw wrong conclusions.

Although a red herring may have some kernel of truth, it is used as a distraction to keep our eyes on a different matter. As a result, it can cause us to accept and spread misleading information.

The sunk cost fallacy and escalation of commitment (or commitment bias ) are two closely related terms. However, there is a slight difference between them:

  • Escalation of commitment (aka commitment bias ) is the tendency to be consistent with what we have already done or said we will do in the past, especially if we did so in public. In other words, it is an attempt to save face and appear consistent.
  • Sunk cost fallacy is the tendency to stick with a decision or a plan even when it’s failing. Because we have already invested valuable time, money, or energy, quitting feels like these resources were wasted.

In other words, escalating commitment is a manifestation of the sunk cost fallacy: an irrational escalation of commitment frequently occurs when people refuse to accept that the resources they’ve already invested cannot be recovered. Instead, they insist on more spending to justify the initial investment (and the incurred losses).

When you are faced with a straw man argument , the best way to respond is to draw attention to the fallacy and ask your discussion partner to show how your original statement and their distorted version are the same. Since these are different, your partner will either have to admit that their argument is invalid or try to justify it by using more flawed reasoning, which you can then attack.

The straw man argument is a problem because it occurs when we fail to take an opposing point of view seriously. Instead, we intentionally misrepresent our opponent’s ideas and avoid genuinely engaging with them. Due to this, resorting to straw man fallacy lowers the standard of constructive debate.

A straw man argument is a distorted (and weaker) version of another person’s argument that can easily be refuted (e.g., when a teacher proposes that the class spend more time on math exercises, a parent complains that the teacher doesn’t care about reading and writing).

This is a straw man argument because it misrepresents the teacher’s position, which didn’t mention anything about cutting down on reading and writing. The straw man argument is also known as the straw man fallacy .

A slippery slope argument is not always a fallacy.

  • When someone claims adopting a certain policy or taking a certain action will automatically lead to a series of other policies or actions also being taken, this is a slippery slope argument.
  • If they don’t show a causal connection between the advocated policy and the consequent policies, then they commit a slippery slope fallacy .

There are a number of ways you can deal with slippery slope arguments especially when you suspect these are fallacious:

  • Slippery slope arguments take advantage of the gray area between an initial action or decision and the possible next steps that might lead to the undesirable outcome. You can point out these missing steps and ask your partner to indicate what evidence exists to support the claimed relationship between two or more events.
  • Ask yourself if each link in the chain of events or action is valid. Every proposition has to be true for the overall argument to work, so even if one link is irrational or not supported by evidence, then the argument collapses.
  • Sometimes people commit a slippery slope fallacy unintentionally. In these instances, use an example that demonstrates the problem with slippery slope arguments in general (e.g., by using statements to reach a conclusion that is not necessarily relevant to the initial statement). By attacking the concept of slippery slope arguments you can show that they are often fallacious.

People sometimes confuse cognitive bias and logical fallacies because they both relate to flawed thinking. However, they are not the same:

  • Cognitive bias is the tendency to make decisions or take action in an illogical way because of our values, memory, socialization, and other personal attributes. In other words, it refers to a fixed pattern of thinking rooted in the way our brain works.
  • Logical fallacies relate to how we make claims and construct our arguments in the moment. They are statements that sound convincing at first but can be disproven through logical reasoning.

In other words, cognitive bias refers to an ongoing predisposition, while logical fallacy refers to mistakes of reasoning that occur in the moment.

An appeal to ignorance (ignorance here meaning lack of evidence) is a type of informal logical fallacy .

It asserts that something must be true because it hasn’t been proven false—or that something must be false because it has not yet been proven true.

For example, “unicorns exist because there is no evidence that they don’t.” The appeal to ignorance is also called the burden of proof fallacy .

An ad hominem (Latin for “to the person”) is a type of informal logical fallacy . Instead of arguing against a person’s position, an ad hominem argument attacks the person’s character or actions in an effort to discredit them.

This rhetorical strategy is fallacious because a person’s character, motive, education, or other personal trait is logically irrelevant to whether their argument is true or false.

Name-calling is common in ad hominem fallacy (e.g., “environmental activists are ineffective because they’re all lazy tree-huggers”).

Ad hominem is a persuasive technique where someone tries to undermine the opponent’s argument by personally attacking them.

In this way, one can redirect the discussion away from the main topic and to the opponent’s personality without engaging with their viewpoint. When the opponent’s personality is irrelevant to the discussion, we call it an ad hominem fallacy .

Ad hominem tu quoque (‘you too”) is an attempt to rebut a claim by attacking its proponent on the grounds that they uphold a double standard or that they don’t practice what they preach. For example, someone is telling you that you should drive slowly otherwise you’ll get a speeding ticket one of these days, and you reply “but you used to get them all the time!”

Argumentum ad hominem means “argument to the person” in Latin and it is commonly referred to as ad hominem argument or personal attack. Ad hominem arguments are used in debates to refute an argument by attacking the character of the person making it, instead of the logic or premise of the argument itself.

The opposite of the hasty generalization fallacy is called slothful induction fallacy or appeal to coincidence .

It is the tendency to deny a conclusion even though there is sufficient evidence that supports it. Slothful induction occurs due to our natural tendency to dismiss events or facts that do not align with our personal biases and expectations. For example, a researcher may try to explain away unexpected results by claiming it is just a coincidence.

To avoid a hasty generalization fallacy we need to ensure that the conclusions drawn are well-supported by the appropriate evidence. More specifically:

  • In statistics , if we want to draw inferences about an entire population, we need to make sure that the sample is random and representative of the population . We can achieve that by using a probability sampling method , like simple random sampling or stratified sampling .
  • In academic writing , use precise language and measured phases. Try to avoid making absolute claims, cite specific instances and examples without applying the findings to a larger group.
  • As readers, we need to ask ourselves “does the writer demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the situation or phenomenon that would allow them to make a generalization?”

The hasty generalization fallacy and the anecdotal evidence fallacy are similar in that they both result in conclusions drawn from insufficient evidence. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • The hasty generalization fallacy involves genuinely considering an example or case (i.e., the evidence comes first and then an incorrect conclusion is drawn from this).
  • The anecdotal evidence fallacy (also known as “cherry-picking” ) is knowing in advance what conclusion we want to support, and then selecting the story (or a few stories) that support it. By overemphasizing anecdotal evidence that fits well with the point we are trying to make, we overlook evidence that would undermine our argument.

Although many sources use circular reasoning fallacy and begging the question interchangeably, others point out that there is a subtle difference between the two:

  • Begging the question fallacy occurs when you assume that an argument is true in order to justify a conclusion. If something begs the question, what you are actually asking is, “Is the premise of that argument actually true?” For example, the statement “Snakes make great pets. That’s why we should get a snake” begs the question “are snakes really great pets?”
  • Circular reasoning fallacy on the other hand, occurs when the evidence used to support a claim is just a repetition of the claim itself.  For example, “People have free will because they can choose what to do.”

In other words, we could say begging the question is a form of circular reasoning.

Circular reasoning fallacy uses circular reasoning to support an argument. More specifically, the evidence used to support a claim is just a repetition of the claim itself. For example: “The President of the United States is a good leader (claim), because they are the leader of this country (supporting evidence)”.

An example of a non sequitur is the following statement:

“Giving up nuclear weapons weakened the United States’ military. Giving up nuclear weapons also weakened China. For this reason, it is wrong to try to outlaw firearms in the United States today.”

Clearly there is a step missing in this line of reasoning and the conclusion does not follow from the premise, resulting in a non sequitur fallacy .

The difference between the post hoc fallacy and the non sequitur fallacy is that post hoc fallacy infers a causal connection between two events where none exists, whereas the non sequitur fallacy infers a conclusion that lacks a logical connection to the premise.

In other words, a post hoc fallacy occurs when there is a lack of a cause-and-effect relationship, while a non sequitur fallacy occurs when there is a lack of logical connection.

An example of post hoc fallacy is the following line of reasoning:

“Yesterday I had ice cream, and today I have a terrible stomachache. I’m sure the ice cream caused this.”

Although it is possible that the ice cream had something to do with the stomachache, there is no proof to justify the conclusion other than the order of events. Therefore, this line of reasoning is fallacious.

Post hoc fallacy and hasty generalisation fallacy are similar in that they both involve jumping to conclusions. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • Post hoc fallacy is assuming a cause and effect relationship between two events, simply because one happened after the other.
  • Hasty generalisation fallacy is drawing a general conclusion from a small sample or little evidence.

In other words, post hoc fallacy involves a leap to a causal claim; hasty generalisation fallacy involves a leap to a general proposition.

The fallacy of composition is similar to and can be confused with the hasty generalization fallacy . However, there is a difference between the two:

  • The fallacy of composition involves drawing an inference about the characteristics of a whole or group based on the characteristics of its individual members.
  • The hasty generalization fallacy involves drawing an inference about a population or class of things on the basis of few atypical instances or a small sample of that population or thing.

In other words, the fallacy of composition is using an unwarranted assumption that we can infer something about a whole based on the characteristics of its parts, while the hasty generalization fallacy is using insufficient evidence to draw a conclusion.

The opposite of the fallacy of composition is the fallacy of division . In the fallacy of division, the assumption is that a characteristic which applies to a whole or a group must necessarily apply to the parts or individual members. For example, “Australians travel a lot. Gary is Australian, so he must travel a lot.”

Base rate fallacy can be avoided by following these steps:

  • Avoid making an important decision in haste. When we are under pressure, we are more likely to resort to cognitive shortcuts like the availability heuristic and the representativeness heuristic . Due to this, we are more likely to factor in only current and vivid information, and ignore the actual probability of something happening (i.e., base rate).
  • Take a long-term view on the decision or question at hand. Look for relevant statistical data, which can reveal long-term trends and give you the full picture.
  • Talk to experts like professionals. They are more aware of probabilities related to specific decisions.

Suppose there is a population consisting of 90% psychologists and 10% engineers. Given that you know someone enjoyed physics at school, you may conclude that they are an engineer rather than a psychologist, even though you know that this person comes from a population consisting of far more psychologists than engineers.

When we ignore the rate of occurrence of some trait in a population (the base-rate information) we commit base rate fallacy .

Cost-benefit fallacy is a common error that occurs when allocating sources in project management. It is the fallacy of assuming that cost-benefit estimates are more or less accurate, when in fact they are highly inaccurate and biased. This means that cost-benefit analyses can be useful, but only after the cost-benefit fallacy has been acknowledged and corrected for. Cost-benefit fallacy is a type of base rate fallacy .

In advertising, the fallacy of equivocation is often used to create a pun. For example, a billboard company might advertise their billboards using a line like: “Looking for a sign? This is it!” The word sign has a literal meaning as billboard and a figurative one as a sign from God, the universe, etc.

Equivocation is a fallacy because it is a form of argumentation that is both misleading and logically unsound. When the meaning of a word or phrase shifts in the course of an argument, it causes confusion and also implies that the conclusion (which may be true) does not follow from the premise.

The fallacy of equivocation is an informal logical fallacy, meaning that the error lies in the content of the argument instead of the structure.

Fallacies of relevance are a group of fallacies that occur in arguments when the premises are logically irrelevant to the conclusion. Although at first there seems to be a connection between the premise and the conclusion, in reality fallacies of relevance use unrelated forms of appeal.

For example, the genetic fallacy makes an appeal to the source or origin of the claim in an attempt to assert or refute something.

The ad hominem fallacy and the genetic fallacy are closely related in that they are both fallacies of relevance. In other words, they both involve arguments that use evidence or examples that are not logically related to the argument at hand. However, there is a difference between the two:

  • In the ad hominem fallacy , the goal is to discredit the argument by discrediting the person currently making the argument.
  • In the genetic fallacy , the goal is to discredit the argument by discrediting the history or origin (i.e., genesis) of an argument.

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  • A Research Guide
  • Research Paper Guide
  • Common & Uncommon Abbreviations for Research Papers

Common & Uncommon Abbreviations for Research Papers

  • Common Abbreviations

Abbreviations of Degrees

Some common abbreviations.

= compare
= surgery, church
= about
= decreasing in loudness (music),
= diminishing in loudness (music)
= the same
= for example
= and elsewhere,
Latin = and others
= and so forth = and the following, Latin or = and those that follow
= from the books of
= loud (music)
= very loud (music)
= that you have the body
= in the same place
= the same = that is
= let it be printed
in the place cited
pound = in the place cited
= noon, meter, mile, minute, month
= remember, memorandum
= thousands
= mark well, take notice
it does not follow
)
by the day
for the time being
= above), supreme
= in the time of), tenor, tense (grammar), territory, time, ton(s), town, transitive, troy (weight)
= see, voltage, von (German name)
= namely
= voice of the people
= against
= see above

For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations, please see Section 7.4 in the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers .

Note: When documenting sources using MLA style, the normal punctuation is omitted for degrees when used in parentheses, tables, works cited, footnotes, endnotes, etc. For example, B.A. is written as BA. Other abbreviations retain the periods if applicable, e.g. acad., bib., misc. Italics = Latin

) )
)
)

Also, g reat post to read about  US and Canada Map .

Links to Common, Uncommon, and Specialized Abbreviations

Acronym Finder . Look up acronyms, abbreviations and their meanings.


Acronym Search . Your source for acronyms and abbreviations.

Common Abbreviations for posting messages on Bulletin Boards – from BabyCentre.co.uk. Examples: AKA = Also known as, LOL = Laughing out loud, BTW = By the way, CUL = See you later, Yw/Ty = You’re welcome/thank you. Emotions: 🙂 or 🙂 = Smiling (Happy), 🙁 or 🙁 = Frowning (Sad), 😮 = Shouting, xxooxxoo = Love (or hugs) & kisses. See also Shorthand and Meaning from Genealogy.com. (Scroll way down the page to view Shorthand). Examples: = I’m grinning, IMHO = in my humble opinion, FYI = for your information, FWIW = for what it’s worth, ROTFL = rolling on the floor laughing, WTG = way to go, Emotions: 😉 or 😉 = winking, 😀 or 😀 = laughing.

Common Abbreviations from Fact Monster for kids.

Common Abbreviations, Common Symbols, Acronyms for Organizations from Web-based Training Modules funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program.

Common Abbreviations from U.S. Department of State.

Common Abbreviations and Acronynms from AllEarsNet.com – Deb’s Unofficial Walt Disney World Information Guide.

Common Abbreviations in Writing.

Common Abbreviations Used in International Narcotics Control Strategy Report.

HyperWar – World War II on the WorldWideWeb – Abbreviations, Acronyms, Codewords, Terms .

Military Abbreviations and Acronyms of the US Armed Forces.

Also, great post to read concerning Abbreviations for Books of the Bible .

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You might wonder, "What on earth is a Table of Abbreviations?"

 Well, think of it as a cheat sheet, a trusty map that guides your reader through the acronym-filled wilderness. It's like having a friend who's always there to explain those puzzling abbreviations that seem to pop up everywhere, from textbooks to technical manuals and even in everyday conversations.

Formatting the Table of Content for Dissertation 

Review Comperhensive Guide for Layout the Dissertation 

But why is this table so important, you ask? 

So remember this, If your reader is engrossed in an article or a report, excited to absorb all that knowledge, when suddenly, they stumble upon an unfamiliar abbreviation. The reader's brain screeches to a halt, trying to make sense of the jumble of letters you use in your report. That's where the Table of Abbreviations swoops in like a superhero.

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Define A Table of Abbreviations in Dissertation

Abbreviations play a vital role in condensing information and enhancing efficiency. From academic papers or dissertations to technical documents and beyond, abbreviations that significantly streamline complex content. However, with the vast array of abbreviations used in various fields, it's easy for readers to become overwhelmed or confused. This is where a well-structured and comprehensive "List of Abbreviations" comes to the rescue. 

Sample of Abbreviation List 

You do not have to worry about it; try to solve the issue for your readers. Here is a sample that can help you to build your own list of abbreviations thesis by giving you some ideas about what to include. 

e.g.

for example

ANOVA 

Analysis of Variance

CSV

Comma Separated Value 

SEM

Standard Error of Means 

OR

Odd Ratio 

RR

Relative Risk 

QA

Quality Assurance 

SQL

Structure Query Language 

VV

Validation & Verification 

PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

BSc

Bachelor of Science

BA

Bachelor of Arts

MBA

Master of Business Administration

LLM

Master of Laws

Please note that this is just an example, and the specific abbreviations and expansions you use will depend on the topic of your document. It is important to use abbreviations that are commonly used in your field and to define any abbreviations that may be unfamiliar to your readers.

Here are some tips for creating a table of abbreviations:

  • List the abbreviations in alphabetical order.
  • Use a consistent format for the abbreviations and their expansions.
  • Include the page number where the abbreviation is first used.
  • Use a table of contents to help your readers find the table of abbreviations.

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Best practices for abbreviations list and acronyms that you must know .

When it comes to using abbreviations and acronyms in academic writing, there are a few important rules to keep in mind. By following these best practices, you can ensure clarity and consistency in your work. So, let's dive into some helpful tips:

  • Introduce Acronyms 

Acronyms are formed using the first letter of each word in a phrase. When you first mention an acronym, write out the full phrase and immediately follow it with the acronym in parentheses. After the initial introduction, you can continue using the acronym throughout the rest of your text.

For example: "All participants took part in the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program. DARE targets young adults in high-risk neighbourhoods."

  • Introduce Abbreviations

Similar to acronyms, abbreviations should be introduced with their full explanation the first time you use them. Afterwards, you can use the abbreviated version.

For example: "The research investigated commonly used acoustic-phonetic measures (ac. phone. measures). This ac. phon. measures were first researched by Strik et al. (2020)."

  • Common Acronyms and Abbreviations

 If you're using widely recognized acronyms or abbreviations like USA, PC, or NASA, you can use them from the beginning without providing their full explanation. However, if you're unsure about the familiarity of an acronym or abbreviation, it's always safer to write it out in full the first time.

  • APA Style Considerations

 If you are following APA Style guidelines, there are additional specific requirements for the use of abbreviations and acronyms in your dissertation. Be sure to consult the APA Style manual or guidelines to ensure compliance with their rules.

By adhering to these best practices for abbreviations and acronyms, you can maintain clarity and consistency throughout your academic writing. Remember to introduce and explain acronyms and abbreviations appropriately, allowing your readers to follow along with ease.

Always consult the specific style guide recommended by your academic institution or publisher to ensure accuracy and consistency in your writing.

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The table of abbreviations serves as a powerful tool for simplifying the understanding of complex texts. Enhancing comprehension, promoting consistency and accuracy, saving time and effort, and improving accessibility, plays a crucial role in effective communication. Whether in academic papers, technical documents, or any form of written content, the presence of a well-constructed table of abbreviations empowers readers and enhances their overall reading experience. So, let us embrace the value of a table of abbreviations and make the complex more accessible, one abbreviation at a time.

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MIT researchers introduce generative AI for databases

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A new tool makes it easier for database users to perform complicated statistical analyses of tabular data without the need to know what is going on behind the scenes.

GenSQL, a generative AI system for databases, could help users make predictions, detect anomalies, guess missing values, fix errors, or generate synthetic data with just a few keystrokes.

For instance, if the system were used to analyze medical data from a patient who has always had high blood pressure, it could catch a blood pressure reading that is low for that particular patient but would otherwise be in the normal range.

GenSQL automatically integrates a tabular dataset and a generative probabilistic AI model, which can account for uncertainty and adjust their decision-making based on new data.

Moreover, GenSQL can be used to produce and analyze synthetic data that mimic the real data in a database. This could be especially useful in situations where sensitive data cannot be shared, such as patient health records, or when real data are sparse.

This new tool is built on top of SQL, a programming language for database creation and manipulation that was introduced in the late 1970s and is used by millions of developers worldwide.

“Historically, SQL taught the business world what a computer could do. They didn’t have to write custom programs, they just had to ask questions of a database in high-level language. We think that, when we move from just querying data to asking questions of models and data, we are going to need an analogous language that teaches people the coherent questions you can ask a computer that has a probabilistic model of the data,” says Vikash Mansinghka ’05, MEng ’09, PhD ’09, senior author of a paper introducing GenSQL and a principal research scientist and leader of the Probabilistic Computing Project in the MIT Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences.

When the researchers compared GenSQL to popular, AI-based approaches for data analysis, they found that it was not only faster but also produced more accurate results. Importantly, the probabilistic models used by GenSQL are explainable, so users can read and edit them.

“Looking at the data and trying to find some meaningful patterns by just using some simple statistical rules might miss important interactions. You really want to capture the correlations and the dependencies of the variables, which can be quite complicated, in a model. With GenSQL, we want to enable a large set of users to query their data and their model without having to know all the details,” adds lead author Mathieu Huot, a research scientist in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and member of the Probabilistic Computing Project.

They are joined on the paper by Matin Ghavami and Alexander Lew, MIT graduate students; Cameron Freer, a research scientist; Ulrich Schaechtle and Zane Shelby of Digital Garage; Martin Rinard, an MIT professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and member of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL); and Feras Saad ’15, MEng ’16, PhD ’22, an assistant professor at Carnegie Mellon University. The research was recently presented at the ACM Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation.

Combining models and databases

SQL, which stands for structured query language, is a programming language for storing and manipulating information in a database. In SQL, people can ask questions about data using keywords, such as by summing, filtering, or grouping database records.

However, querying a model can provide deeper insights, since models can capture what data imply for an individual. For instance, a female developer who wonders if she is underpaid is likely more interested in what salary data mean for her individually than in trends from database records.

The researchers noticed that SQL didn’t provide an effective way to incorporate probabilistic AI models, but at the same time, approaches that use probabilistic models to make inferences didn’t support complex database queries.

They built GenSQL to fill this gap, enabling someone to query both a dataset and a probabilistic model using a straightforward yet powerful formal programming language.

A GenSQL user uploads their data and probabilistic model, which the system automatically integrates. Then, she can run queries on data that also get input from the probabilistic model running behind the scenes. This not only enables more complex queries but can also provide more accurate answers.

For instance, a query in GenSQL might be something like, “How likely is it that a developer from Seattle knows the programming language Rust?” Just looking at a correlation between columns in a database might miss subtle dependencies. Incorporating a probabilistic model can capture more complex interactions.   

Plus, the probabilistic models GenSQL utilizes are auditable, so people can see which data the model uses for decision-making. In addition, these models provide measures of calibrated uncertainty along with each answer.

For instance, with this calibrated uncertainty, if one queries the model for predicted outcomes of different cancer treatments for a patient from a minority group that is underrepresented in the dataset, GenSQL would tell the user that it is uncertain, and how uncertain it is, rather than overconfidently advocating for the wrong treatment.

Faster and more accurate results

To evaluate GenSQL, the researchers compared their system to popular baseline methods that use neural networks. GenSQL was between 1.7 and 6.8 times faster than these approaches, executing most queries in a few milliseconds while providing more accurate results.

They also applied GenSQL in two case studies: one in which the system identified mislabeled clinical trial data and the other in which it generated accurate synthetic data that captured complex relationships in genomics.

Next, the researchers want to apply GenSQL more broadly to conduct largescale modeling of human populations. With GenSQL, they can generate synthetic data to draw inferences about things like health and salary while controlling what information is used in the analysis.

They also want to make GenSQL easier to use and more powerful by adding new optimizations and automation to the system. In the long run, the researchers want to enable users to make natural language queries in GenSQL. Their goal is to eventually develop a ChatGPT-like AI expert one could talk to about any database, which grounds its answers using GenSQL queries.   

This research is funded, in part, by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Google, and the Siegel Family Foundation.

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  • Figure and Table Lists | Word Instructions, Template & Examples

Figure and Table Lists | Word Instructions, Template & Examples

Published on October 13, 2015 by Sarah Vinz . Revised on July 18, 2023 by Tegan George.

A list of figures and tables compiles all of the figures and tables that you used in your thesis or dissertation , along with their corresponding page numbers. These lists give your reader an overview of how you have used figures and tables in your document.

While these lists are often not required, you may want to include one as a way to stay organized if your dissertation topic leads you to use several figures and tables over the course of your paper. Your educational institution may require one, so be sure to check their guidelines. Ultimately, if you do choose to add one, it should go directly after your table of contents .

You can download our Microsoft Word template below to help you get started.

Download Word doc

  • Table of contents

How to create a list of figures and tables in Word

Example of a list of tables and figures, additional lists to consider, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about the list of tables and figures.

The first step to creating your list of figures and tables is to ensure that each of your figures and tables has a caption . This way, Microsoft Word will be able to find each one and compile them in your list automatically.

To do this, follow these steps:

  • Navigate to the References tab, and click “Insert Caption,” which you can find in the Captions group.
  • Give your caption a name. In the Label list, you can select the label that best describes your figure or table, or make your own by selecting “New Label.”

Add captions to list of tables and figures

Next, you can insert the list of tables and figures directly by clicking “Insert Table of Figures,” which can be found to the right of the “Insert Caption” button. Be careful here—the list will only include items that you have marked using the “Insert Caption” tool!

You can choose the formatting and layout within this menu as well, as you can see below.

Add list of tables and figures

There are a few things to remember as you go:

  • Figures and tables always need to be numbered, with clear titles.

list of tables and figures example

In addition to your list of tables and figures, there are a few other lists to consider for your thesis or dissertation. They can be placed in the following order:

  • List of abbreviations

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Your list of tables and figures should go directly after your table of contents in your thesis or dissertation.

Lists of figures and tables are often not required, and aren’t particularly common. They specifically aren’t required for APA-Style, though you should be careful to follow their other guidelines for figures and tables .

If you have many figures and tables in your thesis or dissertation, include one may help you stay organized. Your educational institution may require them, so be sure to check their guidelines.

Copyright information can usually be found wherever the table or figure was published. For example, for a diagram in a journal article , look on the journal’s website or the database where you found the article. Images found on sites like Flickr are listed with clear copyright information.

If you find that permission is required to reproduce the material, be sure to contact the author or publisher and ask for it.

A list of figures and tables compiles all of the figures and tables that you used in your thesis or dissertation and displays them with the page number where they can be found.

APA doesn’t require you to include a list of tables or a list of figures . However, it is advisable to do so if your text is long enough to feature a table of contents and it includes a lot of tables and/or figures .

A list of tables and list of figures appear (in that order) after your table of contents, and are presented in a similar way.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Vinz, S. (2023, July 18). Figure and Table Lists | Word Instructions, Template & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved July 16, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/figure-and-table-lists-in-your-dissertation/

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Sarah's academic background includes a Master of Arts in English, a Master of International Affairs degree, and a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. She loves the challenge of finding the perfect formulation or wording and derives much satisfaction from helping students take their academic writing up a notch.

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COMMENTS

  1. List of Abbreviations

    Example: Introducing abbreviations. The research investigated commonly used acoustic-phonetic measures (ac. phon. measures). These ac. phon. measures were first researched by Strik et al. (2020). If you're using very common acronyms or abbreviations, such as USA, PC, or NASA, you can abbreviate them from the get-go.

  2. List of Abbreviations

    The same guidance goes for abbreviations: write the explanation in full the first time you use it, then proceed with the abbreviated version. Example: Introducing abbreviations. The research investigated commonly used acoustic-phonetic measures (ac. phon. measures). These ac. phon. measures were first researched by Strik et al. (2020).

  3. List of Abbreviations

    Example of Acronyms in a Thesis or Dissertation. "The literature suggests that reinforced concrete (RC) has a wider range of applications than Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP). As a result, RC is used more frequently in the construction industry than FRP.". This allows the reader to understand your report without having to rely on the list ...

  4. PDF 7th Edition Abbreviations Guide

    abbreviation at least three times in a paper. However, a standard abbreviation for a long, familiar term may be clearer and more concise even if used fewer than three times. • Use abbreviations consistently. Do not switch between an abbreviation and its spelled-out version. Units of Measurement Publication Manual Section 6.27 on unit of

  5. List of Abbreviations

    Microsoft Word can automatically create a List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. If you use a lot of abbreviations and acronyms in your thesis — and even if you only use a few — there is no reason not to include a list. The process is not at all difficult. See the video tutorial below to see how to create such a list.

  6. List of Abbreviations for Dissertation

    In addition to the list of abbreviations, there are other lists that you can include in your dissertation paper, including: Table of Contents; Figures and tables; Glossary; Point to note: You might come across some types of research or theses where the abbreviations' column is placed in front of an 'explanation' column. The latter is ...

  7. Abbreviations in Research: Common Errors in Academic Writing

    Abbreviations in a research paper are shortened forms of words or phrases used to represent specific terms or concepts. They are employed to improve readability and conciseness, especially when there are strict word counts and terms are mentioned frequently throughout the paper. To ensure clarity, it is essential to define each abbreviation ...

  8. List of Abbreviations

    The List of Abbreviations is an alphabetical list of the abbreviations used in your thesis/dissertation that aims to improve clarity and minimize confusion for the reader. This is optional. If your thesis/dissertation contains numerous abbreviations, or if you think your audience may not be familiar with the abbreviations used, a List of ...

  9. List of Abbreviations, List of Works

    A List of Abbreviations is not required, but it may be helpful to the reader if abbreviations are used extensively in the text. The distinguishing feature of the List of Abbreviations is that information is arranged in two columns with the abbreviations or acronyms aligned along the left margin and the terms or names aligned under the word "LIST" in the title "LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS." If a List ...

  10. What is a list of abbreviations?

    A list of abbreviations is an alphabetical list of the abbreviations you used in your thesis or dissertation. FAQ About us . Our editors; Apply as editor; Team; Jobs ... and research papers. Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research.

  11. Library: Style Guide for Research Papers: Abbreviations

    Documentation and Abbreviations. The SBL Handbook of Style offers two extensive lists of abbreviations for journals, series, and other standard reference works. The first abbreviation list is alphabetized by source (SBLHS 8.4.1) and the second by abbreviation (SBLHS 8.4.2). If the work cited is in these lists, you may use the standard ...

  12. Using abbreviations in scientific papers

    09/28/2022. The use of abbreviations in academic and scientific publications is common, but authors are often asked to keep their usage as brief as possible. They are usually limited to universal abbreviations for weights and measurements. We would like to provide some tips in this article on how to use abbreviations effectively in your writing.

  13. Using Abbreviations in Academic Writing

    Avoid contractions like won't, can't, they're, it's. The first time you mention a phrase that can be abbreviated, spell it out in full and provide the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation thereafter. Only abbreviate phrases that occur three or more times in your paper. Avoid abbreviations in titles, headings, the ...

  14. What Is a Glossary?

    Revised on July 18, 2023. A glossary is a collection of words pertaining to a specific topic. In your thesis or dissertation, it's a list of all terms you used that may not immediately be obvious to your reader. Your glossary only needs to include terms that your reader may not be familiar with, and it's intended to enhance their ...

  15. Abbreviations, Initialisms, and Acronyms: Guidance for Authors

    Note that this list is specific to the discipline, with terms such as CNS, for central nervous system, or CSF for cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, CSF is also an abbreviation for colony-stimulating factor, according to the AMA list (Iverson, 4). I am going to assume that Brain readers will know the context and difference for the initialism.

  16. What is a list of abbreviations?

    A list of abbreviations is a list of all the abbreviations you used in your thesis or dissertation. It should appear at the beginning of your document, immediately after your table of contents. It should always be in alphabetical order.

  17. Common & Uncommon Abbreviations for Research Papers

    For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations, please see Section 7.4 in the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.. Abbreviations of Degrees. Note: When documenting sources using MLA style, the normal punctuation is omitted for degrees when used in parentheses, tables, works cited, footnotes, endnotes, etc.

  18. Table of Abbreviations for Thesis: A Beginner's Guide

    The table of abbreviations serves as a powerful tool for simplifying the understanding of complex texts. Enhancing comprehension, promoting consistency and accuracy, saving time and effort, and improving accessibility, plays a crucial role in effective communication. Whether in academic papers, technical documents, or any form of written ...

  19. PDF A List of abbreviations

    The following is a list of works published by the author during the course of the doctorate. Many of these works are cited in the text and therefore also appear in the full bibliography which follows. Journal papers • M.E. Bastin, J.D. Clayden, A. Pattie, I.F. Gerrish, J.M. Wardlaw & I.J. Deary (in press).

  20. Using Abbreviations and Acronyms in Academic Writing

    1. Porter, 63-64. 2. Ibid. Make sure not to confuse "e.g." and "i.e.". In general, it's best to avoid using these abbreviations in the main text, especially in US English. Instead, put them inside parentheses followed by a comma, or write out full words. Many species of primates, e.g. orangutans, are endangered.

  21. List of abbreviation and acronyms used in the paper

    Download Table | List of abbreviation and acronyms used in the paper. from publication: Spatio-temporal LAI modelling by integrating climate and MODIS LAI data in a mesoscale catchment ...

  22. PDF Other Test Method 50 (OTM-50) Sampling and Analysis of Volatile

    2.10 Additional volatile compounds present in canister samples that are not on the target list are reported with their best-available matches to mass spectral reference libraries. 3.0 Method Definitions and Abbreviations 3.1 Blanking means the confirmatory analysis of cleaned passivated canisters before they are sent to the field for sampling.

  23. MIT researchers introduce generative AI for databases

    The research was recently presented at the ACM Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation. Combining models and databases. SQL, which stands for structured query language, is a programming language for storing and manipulating information in a database.

  24. Figure and Table Lists

    To do this, follow these steps: Navigate to the References tab, and click "Insert Caption," which you can find in the Captions group. Give your caption a name. In the Label list, you can select the label that best describes your figure or table, or make your own by selecting "New Label.". Next, you can insert the list of tables and ...