Higher Education in Pakistan: Challenges, Opportunities, Suggestions

Education Quarterly Reviews, Vol.4 No.2 (2021)

8 Pages Posted: 3 May 2021

Khan Ghulam Murtaza

Guangzhou University

Date Written: April 25, 2021

Higher education provides opportunities to censoriously reveal the cultural, moral, socio-economic, and spiritual issues faced by the human race. Pakistan's higher education system has many institutional drawbacks includes a lack of quality management, institutional structure, and knowledge gaps between cross-culture educations systems to improve the efficiency of the current higher education system in Pakistan. To make Pakistan an educational center, Pakistan must strengthen the education system by developing modern technology and higher education. This study focuses on low enrolment and dropout gaps, quality and quantity of higher education standards, infrastructure, facilities, and low-quality teaching methods. This study summarizes these problems with suggestions to improve higher education standards and quality through cross-culture developments, performance standards, teaching methods, and examination reforms in Pakistan's higher education system.

Keywords: Pakistan Higher Education, Challenges, Suggestions

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Khan Ghulam Murtaza (Contact Author)

Guangzhou university ( email ).

Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center Waihuanxi Road 230 Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 China

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Education in Pakistan: Problems and Their Solutions

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This study was meant to explore and report the problems being confronted by the education in Pakistan and suggest for the resolution of these problems. Education plays the role of leadership in the society. The functions of the educational institutions are to develop the people physically, mentally, psychologically, socially and spiritually. It improves and promotes the economic, social, political and cultural life of the nation. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that education brings about a change in the social, political and cultural scenario of the country; though the change remains slow but it does have an impact on the society at large. Until now the role of secondary and college education in Pakistan has been simply preparation for tertiary education, which in the minds of most people means strictly a university education. All over the world universities are guiding and co-operating with the industrial and agricultural development organizations and they are developing their economics rapidly and meaningfully. There is a close link between education and development. In Pakistan, after more than five decades, the developmental indicators are not showing positive results. The participation rate at higher education is low comparatively to other countries of the region. There are problems of quality of staff, students, library and laboratory. Considering the gigantic problems of education in Pakistan, I select this topic for research.

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After six decades of its existence, Pakistan finds itself in an educational quagmire. There is not much to show in terms of national, provincial and local indicators of a standard variety. At the international level, the country has earned the notoriety of being regularly lower down on all known indices and league tables on human development, competitiveness and governance. Neglect of education lies at the heart of the problem. This is surprising because the thinking on the nature of the educational system required for the newly emerging country had started quite early. An All Pakistan Educational Conference was held on November 27, 1947 in Karachi. Education thus was the subject of the very first professional conference held in the country, bringing together all the stakeholders. The Father of the Nation set the guidelines in his detailed message: “Under foreign rule for over a century, in the very nature of things, I regret, sufficient attention has not been paid to the education ...

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This paper aimed to look at present education system of Pakistan. There exists an inherent promise and intensive potential in educational policies of Pakistan for revolutionizing socioeconomic change in the country through education. Pakistan since its independence in 1947 has faced the insufficient educational institutions and lack of qualified teachers which resulted in challenges of access and quality. To deal with educational problems, a number of educational policies were released. The policies came at different times, during different regimes, in with diverse policy document. They varied in their size, intention and seriousness. The existing education system in Pakistan is considered not being adequately responsive to the demand of quality education. There is a wide range of issues and concerns related to the teaching and learning setup. To improve the existing education system of Pakistan development of any strategy should give due consideration to these issues and concerns. Introduction:

Saadat Rana

Pakistan is a rapidly growing economy, with a strategy of reducing poverty and generating prosperity for all through industrial development by technology up-gradation and greater export orientation. Such circumstances define the relevance of a robust education sector in Pakistan, which would allow it to meet its human resource requirements. Pakistan needs to produce more workers, technicians, supervisors, managers, and researchers. It needs to expand its education base by improving the retention rate of students at primary, secondary and tertiary levels and by establishing more educational institutions across the country. Further, the quality of education needs considerable improvement by inducting better qualified teachers, adopting better education techniques and implementing effective examination mechanisms.

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Pakistan Education System is not according to the Constitution of Pakistan 1973. It is moulding youth in divergent matrixes that cause injustice and disappointment in society. Therefore, it a barrier in achieving the goal of national harmony and social cohesion; and also, it is one of the contributory factors in dispersing the nation from its ideals. This paper discusses the key flaw in the educational structure of Pakistan, and suggests the ways to achieve the goal of " uniform, equitable and effective system of education " through a " national education system " as ensured in the Constitution of Pakistan.

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This paper aimed to look at past educational developments in Pakistan through case study and its analysis with the present world. It primarily addressed the causes of illiteracy in Pakistan, and overcame the flaws of earlier works. Pakistani government claims that they have accomplished significantly in the educational development. Pakistani law requests government to provide free basic education system to every citizen of Pakistan. However, the enrollment rate has remained below 60%. Similarly, literacy rate has also remained below 60%. Therefore, the government and other stakeholders in education sector could not perform well enough to provide the impressive results so far.

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The current status and challenges of bioethics education in undergraduate medical education in Karachi, Pakistan

  • Bushra Shirazi 1 ,
  • Qamar Riaz 2 ,
  • Aamir Mustafa Jafarey 3 ,
  • Rashida Ahmed 4 &
  • Mohammad Shahid Shamim 5  

BMC Medical Education volume  24 , Article number:  737 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

The importance of including bioethics in the medical curricula has been recognized globally. Certain countries including Pakistan continue to lag behind although some developments have occurred recently.

The research aimed to provide a snapshot of bioethics education in undergraduate medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. The secondary objectives included identifying factors promoting or inhibiting integration of bioethics into the curriculum.

A two-pronged strategy was used to collect data including a website review of medical colleges, in existence for more than ten years, recognized by the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC), the regulating body for undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. The other arm employed in-depth interviews with medical educationists in colleges fulfilling inclusion criteria. Data from the website was analyzed and presented as frequencies. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis method which involved coding of transcripts, multiple readings and arriving at subthemes and themes iteratively.

Thirteen medical colleges were included for the website review, of which four were from public sector. Three medical colleges used the word “ethics” in their vision and mission statement and four had provided a detailed curriculum for ethics on their website.

Thematic framework included four broad themes: 1) Need for Bioethics Education, 2) Current Status of Bioethics Education 3) Challenges in integration of bioethics in medical curriculum and 4) Recommendations for integration of bioethics in the Curriculum. Participants were in agreement that bioethics was important in development of future physicians. Participants identified various challenges, foremost being shortage of trained faculty, lack of institutional buy-in and overcrowded curriculum.

The study identified sporadic inclusion of bioethics in undergraduate medical curricula, left to the discretion of individual institutions. Since Karachi is a cosmopolitan city, the findings may reasonably reflect the situation in other parts of the country. While bioethics is recognized as an important field, it will continue to remain an orphan subject in the curricula unless the regulatory and accreditation bodies make it compulsory for institutions to include ethics in their curricula.

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Introduction

Medical education has increasingly paid attention to the inclusion of bioethics teaching in the curricula globally [ 1 ]. Certain countries however have lagged behind, for instance in the Asia–Pacific region such as Malaysia, and India [ 1 , 2 ]. Pakistan, also a South Asian low-middle income country joins this group even though the accreditation body for undergraduate medical education the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) recommended introduction of bioethics education as a part of undergraduate medical curricula in 2002 [ 3 ]. While the guidelines explicitly stated that bioethics must be taught and assessed in medical programs, the introduction of bioethics education into the curriculum was left at the discretion of medical colleges. These institutions, both in the public and private sector were expected to develop their own strategies for the implementation of bioethics education.

During the past two decades, some medical colleges in the country included bioethics in their curricula. However, a report from 2011 demonstrated that bioethics was not taught as a formal part of the curricula, leaving education in this field optional rather than mandatory. Where taught, it was subsumed under different umbrellas such as forensic medicine or behavioral sciences [ 4 ]. Shaikh & Humayun also illustrate that where present, bioethics was shuffled between different disciplines including community medicine, behavioural sciences or jurisprudence [ 5 ].

Limited literature is available on the current status of bioethics in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Most have addressed the development of a bioethics theme in a single medical college, or assessed the need for bioethics education in Pakistan in general [ 6 , 7 ]. The current status of bioethics education in the undergraduate medical curricula in Pakistan therefore remains largely obscure.

This study aims to provide a situation analysis of the status of bioethics in undergraduate medical education in Karachi, one of the main cosmopolitan cities of Pakistan. The paper, through a qualitative inquiry with key stakeholders in the field seeks to explore challenges associated with inclusion of bioethics in Pakistan along with methods to improve the current situation. The findings of this inquiry would be useful for the accrediting bodies to execute the inclusion of bioethics education in medical curricula across the country. It also holds lessons for other countries struggling with similar challenges of standardization and implementation.

The study follows a cross sectional descriptive-exploratory study. It was conducted as part of a thesis to fulfill the requirements of Master’s in Health Professional Education in Karachi from November 2020 to April 2021 by the first author. Ethical approval was sought from the Ethical Review Committee of Aga Khan University (AKU), Karachi.

The study followed a two-pronged approach for data collection. One arm comprised of a website review of medical colleges and universities in Karachi to assess whether bioethics is included in the curriculum. A non-probability, purposive sampling was used to identify medical colleges and universities located in Karachi that had existed for more than ten years from the accrediting body (PMC/PMDC) website. The websites of these medical colleges were reviewed, and information related to the vision and mission statements, and the presence and placement of bioethics in the curriculum were recorded in a pre-designed data extraction form.

The second arm consisted of collecting data through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders primarily medical educationists. The key stakeholder was considered as someone who was responsible for overseeing the curriculum and academic calendar. Emails were sent to academic leaders, such as the Dean and Principal of the 13 selected medical schools, requesting identification and subsequent permission to interview the key stakeholder in their institute. Reminder emails or telephonic messages were sent in case of non-response for two weeks. The identified focal persons were then contacted, and interviews were scheduled at their convenience.

Prior to initiating the interviews, informed consent was informed assuring the participants that their name or that of their institute would not be mentioned in any publication resulting from the research.

The first author (BS) conducted the interviews following an interview guideline developed specifically for the purpose of this research. Questions pertained to the status and the presence of bioethics in the institution, along with inquiry into the challenges of bioethics education specific to their context. The guideline also consisted of questions relevant to bioethics curriculum, teaching and assessment strategies used within each institute. Conducted in a mix of English and Urdu (the national language of Pakistan), the interviews lasted for 30 to 40 min. They were recorded with the participant’s permission. Data saturation was reached at approximately the 7th interview since similar codes and ideas were being expressed by the interviewees.

Interviews were transcribed verbatim by an office secretary and verified by the first author (BS) for accuracy by reading the transcripts while listening to the audio recordings. Subsequently, they were analyzed independently by two reviewers (AJ, MSS) who were chosen due to their familiarity with the field of bioethics education. The process of adding multiple reviewers allowed for reflexivity on part of the primary investigator and ensured rigor in data analysis. Codes were developed using inductive method of data analysis independently by all three reviewers using the content analysis method [ 8 ]. The coding focused only on manifest content due to the nature of the topic being studied. The reviewers and primary investigator met to arrive at a consensus for the final thematic framework which included subthemes grouped under broader themes.

The thematic framework was also reviewed by the supervisors for this thesis (QR) thus adding credibility to the findings of this research. Triangulation was achieved by ensuring data collection through two methods.

Website review

Thirteen medical colleges fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four out of the thirteen medical colleges were from the public sector, and the remaining were private. One medical college had no academic information on its website, while two were affiliated with a single university, hence sharing the website.

Eleven institutes stated their vision and mission statements, whereas two provided only the mission statement. The vision or mission statements of the institutes focused on matters of academic excellence, such as “centre of excellence,” “institution of distinction,” or “benchmarks for medical education.” Only three medical colleges used the word “ethics” in these statements, including “to produce ethical and dedicated professionals” and “medical education based on best ethical and evidence-based standards.”

Four out of the 13 medical colleges provided well-developed curricula on their website, while another four contained ethics-related objective integrated into different modules. The placement of ethics-related content was varied. At one medical college, medical ethics was placed in the dedicated slot for forensic medicine and identified 3–4 topics within the content. Other institutes placed the topics according to modules; for example, ethical concerns with reproductive health were placed in the respective clinical rotation.

One institute carried no information on bioethics on its website. None of the websites mentioned bioethics teaching or assessment as a separate entity or activity within the medical curriculum.

Qualitative arm

Fourteen key participants from 13 medical schools participated in the in-depth interviews. Ten were females. Five interviewees served as both clinicians and medical educationists within their institutes. Four participants possessed formal training in bioethics. Of these one also had a graduate degree in medical education. Detailed characteristics of participants are provided in Table  1 .

Content analysis of the interviews generated four distinct themes and subthemes (see Table  2 for detailed thematic framework). The narrative however only provides the broad themes due to word count constraints encompassing elements that formed part of subthemes.

Theme 1: Need for ethics education

Majority of study participants believed that bioethics requires a formal structure within the undergraduate medical curriculum for multiple reasons. While ethics may be considered “ tarbiat ka hissa [part of grooming]” (P14), as stated by one participant, ethics education is necessary to “ polish ” (P14) the personality. It was pointed out that demonstrating ethical behaviour and correct bedside manner should not be taken for granted. Instead, it should be taught formally so that students realize the importance of demonstrating proper mannerism and integrity in their professional lives.

Participants believed that bioethics education allows appreciation of cultural diversity. Students from diverse backgrounds study in medical colleges and universities, and ethics education can help in developing tolerance and appreciation of different values. According to a participant, “ haar kisi ka background different hota haey, moral values different hoti haen …. […people have different backgrounds with different moral values]” (P8).

Furthermore, participants were of the opinion that bioethics education allows for the development of integral communication skills necessary for fostering an excellent physician–patient relationship. It allows for the development of empathy and leads to lateral thinking. “ You are producing a doctor, not a robot providing only knowledge, you are producing a good human being, you are producing a good leader… bioethics is a part of this ” (P11).

Participants also believed that requirements of the educational system had changed dramatically in contemporary times. According to one participant, “Things need to be spelt out. It has to be now part of formal training. You cannot simply rely on seniors to teach you things” (P7). She provided the example that she was only able to understand the implications of interactions with the pharmaceutical industry after receiving formal education in bioethics, resulting a change in her clinical practice.

Theme 2: Current status of bioethics education

Interviews revealed that none of the studied medical colleges had a dedicated department or a unit responsible for bioethics education. Only one respondent in the medical college stated that her job description explicitly included overlooking and planning the curriculum for ethics education. Three institutes had mentioned bioethics education as a formal part of the curriculum, whereas, in one institute, bioethics education was done informally as a personal initiative by a faculty member with a postgraduate diploma in bioethics. In one private medical university, bioethics education existed for over two decades with a well-defined curriculum, identified pedagogies, outcomes, goals, and designated faculty members from various clinical and non-clinical departments. However, even this university does not have a separate bioethics department or unit.

Lack of standardization was seen across the institutes with the initiative largely person-driven rather than mandated by the institute. In most institutes, the teaching was “patchy” and “varied” primarily because it was “done at the faculty’s initiative” (P3).

Against this backdrop, faculty members who had initiated bioethics in their institutions believed that since teaching bioethics was not part of their job description, they did not receive any remuneration for it. According to one interviewee , “the faculty go far and beyond” in their line of duty, with “no perks” attached to the extra work they undertook (P5). As one participant stated laughingly , “Nobody gets extra credit for it. We may get praise for the extra work, but that’s it” (P14). Another related issue was that people are generally reluctant to pursue formal qualifications in bioethics since there is “ no [formal] career track ” (P3) in the field. However, faculty regarded their effort as “giving something back to their institution” which had supported them in their career development (P2).

Theme 3: Challenges in the integration of bioethics education in medical curriculum

All participants believed that finding the right person to teach bioethics was one of the biggest challenges, “I think faculty training is the major challenge…we don’t have people to teach. And nowhere in Pakistan are there enough people to teach [bioethics]” (P6). Even if interested faculty was available, they often did not know how to teach bioethics. As one stated, “The issue is not just the content; the issue is also how to teach” (P6).

Another interviewee, while discussing the shortage of human resources, explained the importance of all departments taking up components and playing their part, “Each medical specialty has its ethical issues. Paediatrics will have its ethical issues as would the field of geriatrics…. So, the departments need to teach them, and there should be role models so students can learn through their actions/practice” (P10, P12).

Lack of institutional buy-in was particularly prominent in more recently established colleges. Since the institutions did not realize the importance of bioethics, relegating it to a lower status within medical education and training, they did not want to invest in it. According to one participant in such a college, “ There is resistance from these smaller colleges because one will have to hire faculty” (P10). This resistance naturally occurred because including this would mean that: “ we would need to make a slot in the timetable, will need to train faculty, will need to develop a curriculum and then implement it. It’s not an easy task to do…why would we want to have another thing burdened on us? ” (P14).

Institutions also demonstrated limited interest in establishing bioethics departments since “It is not required by authorities (regulatory bodies).” Participants believed that the push to develop such departments has failed because “every department, every discipline, which has staff and faculty… it all costs money. Why would the institute spend on something that is not required by authorities (regulatory bodies)” (P3).

These challenges were compounded since according to participants, many professionals considered teaching bioethics as a “waste of time” (P11) and “did not realize the importance of teaching ethics .” Participants believed that individuals occupying more senior positions did not realize the importance of imparting ethics education, since according to one participant, “…they were not trained in it.”

Theme 4: Recommendations for integration of bioethics in the curriculum

The interviews also explored potential solutions that the participants thought would help successfully integrate bioethics into the curriculum. Participants believed that one of the ways to do so would be to strengthen faculty by providing training resources. According to one participant, a minimum six month training should be made mandatory for all faculty, drawing a parallel to how formal qualification in medical education for all faculty was made mandatory.

Participants believed a standardized curriculum for bioethics would ensure better cohesion. As one participant stated, “ People should be identified (for curriculum development), and everyone needs to come together (for using it) ” (P8). Participants also recommended that institutions planning to initiate bioethics education should invite individuals from institutions where ethics has been taught for several years.

Study participants emphasized a top-down approach to address this issue, where a regulatory authority should mandate the inclusion of bioethics in the medical curriculum for accreditation since in their opinion, it was necessary to use “danda [stick]” (P11) for making ethics education a mandatory part of the curriculum for receiving accreditation from PMC (PMDC). Another added, “The only thing that can drive it is a regulation. I am telling you if PMDC had not made a regulation that there should be a physiology department, anatomy department, biochemistry department in a medical college, then you would have medical colleges without these departments” (P3).

The current work provides a situation analysis of bioethics education within the medical curriculum in specific undergraduate medical colleges/universities in the cosmopolitan city of Karachi. Efforts to document different aspects or components of bioethics education at specific institutes are present, but a holistic picture has largely been missing from the Pakistani literature. The paper therefore a valuable contribution to medical education literature with lessons for other countries who share similar issues.

Findings reflect that while bioethics education is gradually gaining prominence, it is largely driven by individuals with an interest in the field rather than structural adjustments. The variation in the curricula of different institutes demonstrates that the onus of responsibility is left to the institutes to develop its academics standards rather than a central authority mandating the inclusion of bioethics in the curricula. This has been mentioned from other literature in Pakistan [ 9 ].

While there is acknowledgment of the importance of bioethics education in the curricula to enhance ethical behavior, bioethics is seen as an “add-on” or considered “fluffy” and “soft.” In the current study, this was reflected in negative perceptions towards teaching of bioethics among many healthcare professionals, as told by study participants. This has also been evident from elsewhere among students who consider learning of ethics as lower priority compared to clinical knowledge and skills [ 2 ]. Since much of the curriculum is dedicated to enhancing scientific and clinical knowledge, the “soft skills” of professionalism and ethics tend to be ignored in an already over-crowded curriculum. This finding has been demonstrated from other parts of the world as well [ 1 , 10 ]. This may very well be because of the viewpoint that while clinical skills are likely to generate clinical revenue, education in ethics with limited career opportunities is unlikely to be lucrative.

Another significant challenge reported by participants include the limited human resources available who have the required expertise to teach and implement bioethics. Lack of teaching capacity in the field of bioethics has been identified a major challenge within resource constrained settings including India [ 1 , 11 ]. Medical students in Brazil, for instance, have also voiced these concerns with respect to qualified faculty available to handle the discussions generated in ethical discourse [ 12 ]. In Pakistan, the experience so far has been that medical educationists are typically hired to review the curricula and are tasked with the responsibility to include aspects of professionalism and bioethics. However, this creates practical issues. Medical educationists may not have background in teaching or assessing bioethics. For those handed this forced responsibility demonstrates a classic case of institutions “passing the buck” without providing the required infrastructure to the discipline by providing an appropriate human resource with subject knowledge. This is in contrast to the United States where medical ethics is required to be taught in medical colleges. However, even in the United States, there remains variation in the content included in the curriculum with instructors left to their own devices to organize the stated objectives of medical ethics courses [ 13 ].

The way human resource is utilized also complicates the picture of bioethics education in Pakistan. Since there is no remuneration to be expected for this field with individuals drawing their income from their primary fields, bioethics education will continue to remain neglected. One way of resolving this issue is to include bioethics within a larger umbrella of professional development, done in the context of two medical colleges in Hong Kong and Malaysia as reported by Ngan (2021) [ 2 ].

The top-down approach involved integrating ethics with humanities and law thereby addressing challenges of time and limited faculty available. This model may be improvised in Pakistan by adding a component the use of “dual appointments” and “value-added education” mentioned by the participants in which faculty are then remunerated for the additional work to increase extrinsic motivation.

Considering the multiple challenges identified by participants, it appears as if a top-down approach may be essential in formalizing bioethics education as part of the medical curriculum in Pakistan. Participants voiced that unless an initiative was undertaken on the part of the central regulatory authority mandating the establishment of bioethics departments, or regulations that make it necessary for institutes to include bioethics in their curriculum, bioethics would continue to remain a low priority. The case of India provides a relevant example. In 2019, the National Medical Commission of India introduced the Competency Based Curriculum in Medical Education for undergraduate medical students with a new module named Attitude, Ethics and Communication (AETCOM) across the country [ 14 ]. This change, instituted at the national level, has led medical colleges to adopt ethics and professionalism in a longitudinal fashion within their curricula. While long-term impact remains unknown at this point, a few studies have illustrated positive perceptions of this module among faculty and students alike [ 11 , 15 ].

Another significant hindrance to this issue has been the uncertainty at the governmental level. In 2020, the federal government mandated the formation of Pakistan Medical Commission (PMC) to replace the existing regulatory structure, Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC) [ 16 ]. This was then reversed in 2022 [ 17 ]. Against this backdrop of structural adjustments and inconsistencies at the regulatory level, bioethics already an orphaned field is unlikely to receive its due importance. PMDC (as it is currently known) should ensure that bioethics should be a mandatory aspect of the curricula for institutions to receive the necessary accreditation. This will require lobbying from key stakeholders who are committed to upholding bioethics education in the country.

This research provides a situation analysis of bioethics education in the country albeit with a focus only on Karachi. However, this city can be considered a microcosm for the rest of the country, adequately capturing the current realities. The findings of this study also hold importance in terms of policy-making since it provides directions for institutes and accreditation bodies by identifying the gaps and challenges. It is hoped that the study will initiate a dialogue about inculcating bioethics in the curriculum and ignite interest in this field.

The study also has several limitations since it has looked at a sample of a selected group of people. Other stakeholders’ voices such as those of faculty in other fields, students and the administrative body can help provide a wider picture of the Pakistani context as far as bioethics education is concerned.

Conclusions

The common challenges identified in this study across institutes are a lack of human resources and institutional commitment and more prominently, need for the implementation of strict policies from accrediting bodies. The study highlights a significant lack of bioethics education for medical students in Karachi, with varying levels of implementation across different institutions. While some institutions have been teaching bioethics for a long time and continuously improving their systems, the majority do not offer any bioethics education. It seems that there is a long path ahead before bioethics education in undergraduate medical education is well-established in the country.

Availability of data and materials

The data will be available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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B.S conceptualized the research, drafted the synopsis, collected data, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. Q.R helped in conceptualizing, reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable comments as a thesis supervisor. A.J and M.SS independently reviewed the transcripts, provided suggestions for developing the thematic framework and met the corresponding author (BS) to provide suggestions. They also reviewed the manuscript. R.A reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable comments as the senior thesis supervisor.

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Shirazi, B., Riaz, Q., Jafarey, A.M. et al. The current status and challenges of bioethics education in undergraduate medical education in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Med Educ 24 , 737 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-024-05599-5

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Gender, culture, and migration: a qualitative study of the socioeconomic challenges facing afghan women refugees in khyber pakhtunkhwa, pakistan, muhammad s. khan, ibrahim ibrahim, anastasiia pavlova.

The research explores Afghan refugee women's challenges in accessing education, employment, and legal rights in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It seeks to inform policy changes to improve their socioeconomic circumstances and mitigate these hardships. The study employs qualitative methodologies, utilizing interviews, observation, and document analysis to capture rich, in-depth narratives from three Afghan refugee women. Each narrative provides unique insights into the women's struggles with education, employment, and securing legal rights. The research highlights challenges from forced migration, gender inequality, cultural norms, and socioeconomic marginalization, causing a holistic crisis for Afghan refugee women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. These issues hinder access to education, employment, financial vulnerabilities, and legal uncertainties. The study suggests a comprehensive, multi-pronged approach to policy changes, including education reform for refugee girls, gender-responsive recruitment practices, and legal reforms to secure refugees' rights. It emphasizes gender-responsive support services and involves Afghan refugee women in policy development processes, leveraging their experiences for more effective and inclusive policies. ( Afr J Reprod Health 2024; 28 [5]: 90-102 ).

La recherche explore les difficultés rencontrées par les femmes réfugiées afghanes pour accéder à l'éducation, à l'emploi et aux droits légaux à Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, au Pakistan. Il cherche à éclairer les changements politiques pour améliorer leur situation socio-économique et atténuer ces difficultés. L'étude utilise des méthodologies qualitatives, utilisant des entretiens, des observations et des analyses de documents pour recueillir des récits riches et approfondis de trois femmes réfugiées afghanes. Chaque récit fournit un aperçu unique des luttes des femmes en matière d'éducation, d'emploi et d'obtention de leurs droits légaux. La recherche met en évidence les défis liés à la migration forcée, à l'inégalité entre les sexes, aux normes culturelles et à la marginalisation socio-économique, provoquant une crise holistique pour les femmes réfugiées afghanes à Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, au Pakistan. Ces problèmes entravent l’accès à l’éducation, à l’emploi, souffrent de vulnérabilités financières et d’incertitudes juridiques. L'étude suggère une approche globale et multidimensionnelle des changements politiques, y compris une réforme de l'éducation pour les filles réfugiées, des pratiques de recrutement sensibles au genre et des réformes juridiques pour garantir les droits des réfugiés. Il met l’accent sur les services de soutien sensibles au genre et implique les femmes réfugiées afghanes dans les processus d’élaboration des politiques, en tirant parti de leurs expériences pour des politiques plus efficaces et inclusives. ( Afr J Reprod Health 2024; 28 [5]: 90-102 ).

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NTA releases answer keys, question papers and OMR sheets for CUET-UG 2024

The national testing agency (nta) has announced the release of provisional answer keys and omr sheets for cuet (ug) 2024, facilitating transparency and challenge opportunities for candidates' responses..

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NTA releases answer keys, question papers, and OMR sheets for CUET (UG) 2024

  • NTA releases CUET (UG) 2024 answer keys, OMR sheets for candidate verification
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The National Testing Agency (NTA) has announced the release of provisional answer keys, question papers, and OMR sheets for the Common University Entrance Test (CUET) for Undergraduate courses (UG) conducted in May 2024. This announcement aims to provide transparency and allow candidates to verify their responses. The CUET (UG) 2024, a hybrid exam held in 379 cities worldwide, gives candidates the opportunity to access their computer-based test responses and OMR sheets for offline exams online.

research paper on education in pakistan

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BISE Sahiwal Board 10th Result 2024 - Matric Results

BISE Sahiwal Board 10th Result 2024 - Matric Results

Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education BISE Sahiwal will announce Matric Result 2024 on July 09, 2024 at 10:00 AM . The Punjab Matric board examinations 2024 were conducted in April this year. Sahiwal Board and all other boards of Punjab will announce the result on July 09.

Punjab Boards Committee of Chairmen shall finalize the date of announcement of Matric and Inter result 2024. Sahiwal Board's results will be available on its website. Keep visiting this page for the latest announcements and updates regarding the Sahiwal board 10th class result. 

The secondary School Certificate (SSC) board examination in Punjab was held in April and now results are ready to be announced.  The board will also issue matric results of all educational institutes in Punjab including government high schools and private schools affiliated with Punjab boards. The official gazette also includes institute-wise students' results.

Interestingly most of the students score high marks in class 10 maths, and class 10 biology subjects. Class 10 English is the hardest subject for students, and most of the students score the lowest marks in English subject.

How to check BISE Sahiwal Board Matric 10th Result 2024

  • Multan Board Matric Result 2024 will be announced on July 09, 2024.
  • The result is available at  https://bisemultan.edu.pk/
  • You can also check your result by sending your roll number to 800292 through SMS

BISE Sahiwal Board Matric 10th Result 2024

The BISE Sahiwal Board 10th result 2024 announcement details are as below.

Board

(BISE)Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Sahiwal

Class

10th

Exam Date

March, 2024

Total Students

80,0000

Result Date 

July 09, 2024, at 10:00 AM

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Official website

Check the  Matric  Result 2024 Multan Board by SMS

  • Please type your roll number in the mobile SMS.
  • Send the message to 800293. You will receive an SMS with your result within 1 minute

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What to do After Secondary School Certificate

Students have a number of options after high school board examinations. Most of the students opt for a higher secondary school certificate (HSSC) also known as intermediate. There are various subjects and group options for intermediate including Pre-medical, pre-engineering, ICS, ICOM, general science, and arts groups. Some of the students go for vocational education including certificate and diploma courses after matric. The most common diploma after matric is the Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE). DAE students can now also pursue higher education options just like Inter students, as DAE is equivalent to FSc.

Intermediate or FA/FSc students have better career options as this path leads to higher education or Bachelor’s degree programs. Having an undergraduate degree not only increases job options but also offers lucrative career options. However, students who are in need of financial help can opt for diploma or certificate courses after matric. This is pertinent to mention here that hundreds of thousands of scholarships are offered to students to pursue higher education. Financial assistance programs by the universities, government, and private NGOs are offered to the students to help them pursue higher education. A monthly stipend is also offered to such students, ranging from PKR: 4,000 to PKR: 40,000/- The scholarship-offering institutions include the Government of Pakistan, HEC indigenous Scholarships, PEEF scholarships, and many other undergraduate degree scholarships. So if you are just considering the option of vocational education because you cannot afford the cost of education, then you must consider going for higher education and explore scholarship options.

Diploma courses after 10th

  • 91 medical Diploma and certificate courses after 10th 
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  • 69 Computer & IT Diploma courses after 10th  
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BPSC TRE 3.0 Admit Card 2024 Released, Check Details

For primary teachers (classes 1 to 5), the exam will consist of two papers with 150 questions each, worth 150 marks.

BPSC TRE 3.0 Admit Card 2024 Released, Check Details

Previously, the exam was scheduled to be held from July 4 to July 10. However, BPSC had canceled the third stage of the Teacher Recruitment Exam 2024 (TRE 3.0) following allegations of paper leaks. According to the Economic Offenses Unit in Bihar, Patna, the question papers had been accessed by an organised group before the scheduled time. The rescheduled Bihar government school teacher test will now be held from July 19 to 21 in a single shift, and on July 22, the exam will be held in two shifts.

BPSC TRE 3.0 2024: Steps To Check Admit Card

  • Go to the official website of BPSC
  • Click on the link for "BPSC TRE 3.0 Admit Card 2024" available under the "Important Notices" section
  • Enter your login details
  • Check your admit card displayed on the screen
  • Download it and take a printout for exam day

BPSC TRE 3.0 Recruitment 2024: Exam Pattern

For middle, secondary, and higher secondary teachers, the exam is divided into three parts: Paper 1 for language, Paper 2 for general studies, and Paper 3 for the subject chosen by the candidates. The exam will feature objective-type multiple-choice questions. Each paper will have 150 questions worth 150 marks. There will be no negative marking, and the exam duration will be 2.5 hours.

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    Education has been treated like a step child. The lowest budget has been awarded to the system of education since the establishment of Pakistan which has weakened the foundation of the quality in the education system. The education system, hence, has failed to raise the nation economically, politically and socially.

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    the enrolment of 5,171 (1%) are in private institutions. Out of the total institutions, 50 (24%) institutions are for male, 41(10%) institutions are for female and 115(56%) institutions are with. co-education. Female students accounted for about 34% to all students enrolled in teacher. training institutions.

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    As a result of teacher education restructuring in Pakistan, PTC, CT, Diploma in Education, and one-year B.Ed were phased out and replaced with four-year B.Ed (Honours) programme and a two-year Associate Degree in Education in 2016 (Higher Education Commission, 2016 ). The details of these programmes is in Table 50.1.

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    This number constitutes more than 40% of Pakistan's population in that age range. As a woman and educator, what is most significant is that most of these children are girls, and they lag behind boys in number at every level of education. For more information, see Annual Status of Education Report Pakistan (2019a, 2019b) and UNICEF Pakistan (n.d.).

  18. PDF A Comparative Study of Quality of Education in Public and Private

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    Research Paper Education in Pakistan: Problems and Their Solutions Paper written by: Bilal Yousaf Roll No: PS-10-21 PS B.S Political Science (2010-2014) (2010 Submitted To: Nadeem A. Qureshi Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Government Postgraduate College No. 1, Abbottabad. December 2013 1 fI.

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  24. The current status and challenges of bioethics education in

    Medical education has increasingly paid attention to the inclusion of bioethics teaching in the curricula globally [].Certain countries however have lagged behind, for instance in the Asia-Pacific region such as Malaysia, and India [1, 2].Pakistan, also a South Asian low-middle income country joins this group even though the accreditation body for undergraduate medical education the Pakistan ...

  25. Gender, culture, and migration: A qualitative study of the

    The research explores Afghan refugee women's challenges in accessing education, employment, and legal rights in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It seeks to inform policy changes to improve their socioeconomic circumstances and mitigate these hardships. The study employs qualitative methodologies, utilizing interviews, observation, and document analysis to capture rich, in-depth narratives from ...

  26. Education Poverty in Pakistan: A Spatial Analysis at District Level

    This study aims, first to construct an education poverty index (EPI) for Pakistan using household data; second, to investigate the spatial differences of education poverty (EP) at district level; and third to find the socio-economic determinants of EP. Four different dimensions are used to construct EPI using the Alkire Foster (AF) method.

  27. Rawalpindi Board 10th Result 2024

    Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education BISE Rawalpindi 10th class Matric Result 2024 will be announced on July 09, 2024 at 10:00 AM.Punjab Boards Matric exams 2024 were conducted in April this year. BISE Rawalpindi board and all other boards of Punjab have announced Matric Result 2024 on the same date.

  28. NTA releases answer keys, question papers and OMR sheets for CUET-UG

    The National Testing Agency (NTA) has announced the release of provisional answer keys, question papers, and OMR sheets for the Common University Entrance Test (CUET) for Undergraduate courses (UG) conducted in May 2024. This announcement aims to provide transparency and allow candidates to verify their responses.

  29. BISE Sahiwal Board 10th Result 2024

    Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education BISE Sahiwal will announce Matric Result 2024 on July 09, 2024.The Punjab Matric board examinations 2024 were conducted in April this year. Sahiwal Board and all other boards of Punjab will announce the result on July 09.

  30. BPSC TRE 3.0 Admit Card 2024 Released, Check Details

    home Education jobs BPSC TRE 3.0 Admit Card 2024 Released, Check Details Story Progress Back For primary teachers (classes 1 to 5), the exam will consist of two papers with 150 questions each ...