• Research Guides

6 Stages of Research

  • 1: Task Definition
  • 2: Information Seeking
  • 3: Location & Access
  • 4: Use of Information
  • 5: Synthesis
  • 6: Evaluation
  • Find More Help
  • About Forsyth Library

Purpose of this guide

The purpose of this guide is to walk you through the 6 stages of writing an effective research paper. By breaking the process down into these 6 stages, your paper will be better and you will get more out of the research experience. 

The 6 stages are:

  • Task Definition (developing a topic)
  • Information Seeking (coming up with a research plan)
  • Location & Access (finding good sources)
  • Use of Information (Reading, taking notes, and generally making the writing process easier)
  • Synthesis (coming up with your own ideas and presenting them well)
  • Evaluation (reflection)

This research guide is based on the Big6 Information Literacy model from

Task Definition

The purpose of task definition is to help you develop an effective topic for your paper. .

Developing a topic is often one of the hardest and most important steps in writing a paper or doing a research project. But here are some tips:

  • A research topic is a question, not a statement. You shouldn't already know the answer when you start researching.
  • Research something you actually care about or find interesting. It turns the research process from a chore into something enjoyable and whoever reads your work can tell the difference. 
  • Read the assignment before and after you think you have come up with your topic to make sure you are answering the prompt. 

Steps to Developing a Topic

  • Assignment Requirements
  • General Idea
  • Background Research
  • Ask Questions
  • Topic Question

Read your assignment and note any requirements.

  • Is there a required page length?
  • How many sources do you need?
  • Does the paper have to be in a specific format like APA?
  • Are there any listed goals for the topic, such as synthesizing different opinions, or applying a theory to a real-life example?

Formulate a general idea.

  • Look at your syllabus or course schedule for broad topic ideas.
  • Think about reading assignments or class lectures that you found interesting.
  • Talk with your professor or a librarian. 
  • Check out social media and see what has been trending that is related to your course. 
  • Think about ideas from popular videos, TV shows, and movies.
  • Read The New York Times  (FHSU students have free access through the Library)
  • Watch NBC Learn (FHSU students have free access through the Library)
  • Search your library for relevant journals and publications related to your course and browse them for ideas
  • Browse online discussion forums, news, and blogs for professional organizations for hot topics

Do some background research on your general idea.

  • You have access to reference materials through the Library for background research.
  • See what your course notes and textbook say about the subject.
  • Google it. 

Reference e-books on a wide range of topics. Sources include dictionaries, encyclopedias, key concepts, key thinkers, handbooks, atlases, and more. Search by keyword or browse titles by topic.

Over 1200 cross-searchable reference e-books on a wide variety of subjects.

Mind map it.

A mind map is an effective way of organizing your thoughts and generating new questions as you learn about your topic. 

  • Video  on how to do a mind map. 
  • Coggle Free mind mapping software that is great for beginners and easy to use.
  • MindMup Mindmup is a free, easy to use online software that allows you to publish and share your mind maps with others.

Ask Questions to focus on what interests you.

Who?   What?   When?   Where?   Why?

We can focus our ideas by brainstorming what interests us when asking who, what, when where, and why:

anonymous by Gregor Cresnar from the Noun Project

Research Question:  Does flexible seating in an elementary classroom improve student focus?

Write out your topic question & reread the assignment criteria.

  • Can you answer your question well in the number of pages required? 
  • Does your topic still meet the requirements of the paper? Ex: is the question still about the sociology of gender studies and women?
  • Is the topic too narrow to find research? 

Developing a Topic Tutorial

The following tutorial from Forsyth Library will walk you through the process of defining your topic. 

  • Next: 2: Information Seeking >>
  • Last Updated: Jul 12, 2024 11:27 AM
  • URL:
  • Research Report: Definition, Types + [Writing Guide]


One of the reasons for carrying out research is to add to the existing body of knowledge. Therefore, when conducting research, you need to document your processes and findings in a research report. 

With a research report, it is easy to outline the findings of your systematic investigation and any gaps needing further inquiry. Knowing how to create a detailed research report will prove useful when you need to conduct research.  

What is a Research Report?

A research report is a well-crafted document that outlines the processes, data, and findings of a systematic investigation. It is an important document that serves as a first-hand account of the research process, and it is typically considered an objective and accurate source of information.

In many ways, a research report can be considered as a summary of the research process that clearly highlights findings, recommendations, and other important details. Reading a well-written research report should provide you with all the information you need about the core areas of the research process.

Features of a Research Report 

So how do you recognize a research report when you see one? Here are some of the basic features that define a research report. 

  • It is a detailed presentation of research processes and findings, and it usually includes tables and graphs. 
  • It is written in a formal language.
  • A research report is usually written in the third person.
  • It is informative and based on first-hand verifiable information.
  • It is formally structured with headings, sections, and bullet points.
  • It always includes recommendations for future actions. 

Types of Research Report 

The research report is classified based on two things; nature of research and target audience.

Nature of Research

  • Qualitative Research Report

This is the type of report written for qualitative research . It outlines the methods, processes, and findings of a qualitative method of systematic investigation. In educational research, a qualitative research report provides an opportunity for one to apply his or her knowledge and develop skills in planning and executing qualitative research projects.

A qualitative research report is usually descriptive in nature. Hence, in addition to presenting details of the research process, you must also create a descriptive narrative of the information.

  • Quantitative Research Report

A quantitative research report is a type of research report that is written for quantitative research. Quantitative research is a type of systematic investigation that pays attention to numerical or statistical values in a bid to find answers to research questions. 

In this type of research report, the researcher presents quantitative data to support the research process and findings. Unlike a qualitative research report that is mainly descriptive, a quantitative research report works with numbers; that is, it is numerical in nature. 

Target Audience

Also, a research report can be said to be technical or popular based on the target audience. If you’re dealing with a general audience, you would need to present a popular research report, and if you’re dealing with a specialized audience, you would submit a technical report. 

  • Technical Research Report

A technical research report is a detailed document that you present after carrying out industry-based research. This report is highly specialized because it provides information for a technical audience; that is, individuals with above-average knowledge in the field of study. 

In a technical research report, the researcher is expected to provide specific information about the research process, including statistical analyses and sampling methods. Also, the use of language is highly specialized and filled with jargon. 

Examples of technical research reports include legal and medical research reports. 

  • Popular Research Report

A popular research report is one for a general audience; that is, for individuals who do not necessarily have any knowledge in the field of study. A popular research report aims to make information accessible to everyone. 

It is written in very simple language, which makes it easy to understand the findings and recommendations. Examples of popular research reports are the information contained in newspapers and magazines. 

Importance of a Research Report 

  • Knowledge Transfer: As already stated above, one of the reasons for carrying out research is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge, and this is made possible with a research report. A research report serves as a means to effectively communicate the findings of a systematic investigation to all and sundry.  
  • Identification of Knowledge Gaps: With a research report, you’d be able to identify knowledge gaps for further inquiry. A research report shows what has been done while hinting at other areas needing systematic investigation. 
  • In market research, a research report would help you understand the market needs and peculiarities at a glance. 
  • A research report allows you to present information in a precise and concise manner. 
  • It is time-efficient and practical because, in a research report, you do not have to spend time detailing the findings of your research work in person. You can easily send out the report via email and have stakeholders look at it. 

Guide to Writing a Research Report

A lot of detail goes into writing a research report, and getting familiar with the different requirements would help you create the ideal research report. A research report is usually broken down into multiple sections, which allows for a concise presentation of information.

Structure and Example of a Research Report

This is the title of your systematic investigation. Your title should be concise and point to the aims, objectives, and findings of a research report. 

  • Table of Contents

This is like a compass that makes it easier for readers to navigate the research report.

An abstract is an overview that highlights all important aspects of the research including the research method, data collection process, and research findings. Think of an abstract as a summary of your research report that presents pertinent information in a concise manner. 

An abstract is always brief; typically 100-150 words and goes straight to the point. The focus of your research abstract should be the 5Ws and 1H format – What, Where, Why, When, Who and How. 

  • Introduction

Here, the researcher highlights the aims and objectives of the systematic investigation as well as the problem which the systematic investigation sets out to solve. When writing the report introduction, it is also essential to indicate whether the purposes of the research were achieved or would require more work.

In the introduction section, the researcher specifies the research problem and also outlines the significance of the systematic investigation. Also, the researcher is expected to outline any jargons and terminologies that are contained in the research.  

  • Literature Review

A literature review is a written survey of existing knowledge in the field of study. In other words, it is the section where you provide an overview and analysis of different research works that are relevant to your systematic investigation. 

It highlights existing research knowledge and areas needing further investigation, which your research has sought to fill. At this stage, you can also hint at your research hypothesis and its possible implications for the existing body of knowledge in your field of study. 

  • An Account of Investigation

This is a detailed account of the research process, including the methodology, sample, and research subjects. Here, you are expected to provide in-depth information on the research process including the data collection and analysis procedures. 

In a quantitative research report, you’d need to provide information surveys, questionnaires and other quantitative data collection methods used in your research. In a qualitative research report, you are expected to describe the qualitative data collection methods used in your research including interviews and focus groups. 

In this section, you are expected to present the results of the systematic investigation. 

This section further explains the findings of the research, earlier outlined. Here, you are expected to present a justification for each outcome and show whether the results are in line with your hypotheses or if other research studies have come up with similar results.

  • Conclusions

This is a summary of all the information in the report. It also outlines the significance of the entire study. 

  • References and Appendices

This section contains a list of all the primary and secondary research sources. 

Tips for Writing a Research Report

  • Define the Context for the Report

As is obtainable when writing an essay, defining the context for your research report would help you create a detailed yet concise document. This is why you need to create an outline before writing so that you do not miss out on anything. 

  • Define your Audience

Writing with your audience in mind is essential as it determines the tone of the report. If you’re writing for a general audience, you would want to present the information in a simple and relatable manner. For a specialized audience, you would need to make use of technical and field-specific terms. 

  • Include Significant Findings

The idea of a research report is to present some sort of abridged version of your systematic investigation. In your report, you should exclude irrelevant information while highlighting only important data and findings. 

  • Include Illustrations

Your research report should include illustrations and other visual representations of your data. Graphs, pie charts, and relevant images lend additional credibility to your systematic investigation.

  • Choose the Right Title

A good research report title is brief, precise, and contains keywords from your research. It should provide a clear idea of your systematic investigation so that readers can grasp the entire focus of your research from the title. 

  • Proofread the Report

Before publishing the document, ensure that you give it a second look to authenticate the information. If you can, get someone else to go through the report, too, and you can also run it through proofreading and editing software. 

How to Gather Research Data for Your Report  

  • Understand the Problem

Every research aims at solving a specific problem or set of problems, and this should be at the back of your mind when writing your research report. Understanding the problem would help you to filter the information you have and include only important data in your report. 

  • Know what your report seeks to achieve

This is somewhat similar to the point above because, in some way, the aim of your research report is intertwined with the objectives of your systematic investigation. Identifying the primary purpose of writing a research report would help you to identify and present the required information accordingly. 

  • Identify your audience

Knowing your target audience plays a crucial role in data collection for a research report. If your research report is specifically for an organization, you would want to present industry-specific information or show how the research findings are relevant to the work that the company does. 

  • Create Surveys/Questionnaires

A survey is a research method that is used to gather data from a specific group of people through a set of questions. It can be either quantitative or qualitative. 

A survey is usually made up of structured questions, and it can be administered online or offline. However, an online survey is a more effective method of research data collection because it helps you save time and gather data with ease. 

You can seamlessly create an online questionnaire for your research on Formplus . With the multiple sharing options available in the builder, you would be able to administer your survey to respondents in little or no time. 

Formplus also has a report summary too l that you can use to create custom visual reports for your research.

Step-by-step guide on how to create an online questionnaire using Formplus  

  • Sign into Formplus

In the Formplus builder, you can easily create different online questionnaires for your research by dragging and dropping preferred fields into your form. To access the Formplus builder, you will need to create an account on Formplus. 

Once you do this, sign in to your account and click on Create new form to begin. 

  • Edit Form Title : Click on the field provided to input your form title, for example, “Research Questionnaire.”
  • Edit Form : Click on the edit icon to edit the form.
  • Add Fields : Drag and drop preferred form fields into your form in the Formplus builder inputs column. There are several field input options for questionnaires in the Formplus builder. 
  • Edit fields
  • Click on “Save”
  • Form Customization: With the form customization options in the form builder, you can easily change the outlook of your form and make it more unique and personalized. Formplus allows you to change your form theme, add background images, and even change the font according to your needs. 
  • Multiple Sharing Options: Formplus offers various form-sharing options, which enables you to share your questionnaire with respondents easily. You can use the direct social media sharing buttons to share your form link to your organization’s social media pages.  You can also send out your survey form as email invitations to your research subjects too. If you wish, you can share your form’s QR code or embed it on your organization’s website for easy access. 


Always remember that a research report is just as important as the actual systematic investigation because it plays a vital role in communicating research findings to everyone else. This is why you must take care to create a concise document summarizing the process of conducting any research. 

In this article, we’ve outlined essential tips to help you create a research report. When writing your report, you should always have the audience at the back of your mind, as this would set the tone for the document. 


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How To Write A Research Paper

Step-By-Step Tutorial With Examples + FREE Template

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Expert Reviewer: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | March 2024

For many students, crafting a strong research paper from scratch can feel like a daunting task – and rightly so! In this post, we’ll unpack what a research paper is, what it needs to do , and how to write one – in three easy steps. 🙂 

Overview: Writing A Research Paper

What (exactly) is a research paper.

  • How to write a research paper
  • Stage 1 : Topic & literature search
  • Stage 2 : Structure & outline
  • Stage 3 : Iterative writing
  • Key takeaways

Let’s start by asking the most important question, “ What is a research paper? ”.

Simply put, a research paper is a scholarly written work where the writer (that’s you!) answers a specific question (this is called a research question ) through evidence-based arguments . Evidence-based is the keyword here. In other words, a research paper is different from an essay or other writing assignments that draw from the writer’s personal opinions or experiences. With a research paper, it’s all about building your arguments based on evidence (we’ll talk more about that evidence a little later).

Now, it’s worth noting that there are many different types of research papers , including analytical papers (the type I just described), argumentative papers, and interpretative papers. Here, we’ll focus on analytical papers , as these are some of the most common – but if you’re keen to learn about other types of research papers, be sure to check out the rest of the blog .

With that basic foundation laid, let’s get down to business and look at how to write a research paper .

Research Paper Template

Overview: The 3-Stage Process

While there are, of course, many potential approaches you can take to write a research paper, there are typically three stages to the writing process. So, in this tutorial, we’ll present a straightforward three-step process that we use when working with students at Grad Coach.

These three steps are:

  • Finding a research topic and reviewing the existing literature
  • Developing a provisional structure and outline for your paper, and
  • Writing up your initial draft and then refining it iteratively

Let’s dig into each of these.

Need a helping hand?

stages in writing research report

Step 1: Find a topic and review the literature

As we mentioned earlier, in a research paper, you, as the researcher, will try to answer a question . More specifically, that’s called a research question , and it sets the direction of your entire paper. What’s important to understand though is that you’ll need to answer that research question with the help of high-quality sources – for example, journal articles, government reports, case studies, and so on. We’ll circle back to this in a minute.

The first stage of the research process is deciding on what your research question will be and then reviewing the existing literature (in other words, past studies and papers) to see what they say about that specific research question. In some cases, your professor may provide you with a predetermined research question (or set of questions). However, in many cases, you’ll need to find your own research question within a certain topic area.

Finding a strong research question hinges on identifying a meaningful research gap – in other words, an area that’s lacking in existing research. There’s a lot to unpack here, so if you wanna learn more, check out the plain-language explainer video below.

Once you’ve figured out which question (or questions) you’ll attempt to answer in your research paper, you’ll need to do a deep dive into the existing literature – this is called a “ literature search ”. Again, there are many ways to go about this, but your most likely starting point will be Google Scholar .

If you’re new to Google Scholar, think of it as Google for the academic world. You can start by simply entering a few different keywords that are relevant to your research question and it will then present a host of articles for you to review. What you want to pay close attention to here is the number of citations for each paper – the more citations a paper has, the more credible it is (generally speaking – there are some exceptions, of course).

how to use google scholar

Ideally, what you’re looking for are well-cited papers that are highly relevant to your topic. That said, keep in mind that citations are a cumulative metric , so older papers will often have more citations than newer papers – just because they’ve been around for longer. So, don’t fixate on this metric in isolation – relevance and recency are also very important.

Beyond Google Scholar, you’ll also definitely want to check out academic databases and aggregators such as Science Direct, PubMed, JStor and so on. These will often overlap with the results that you find in Google Scholar, but they can also reveal some hidden gems – so, be sure to check them out.

Once you’ve worked your way through all the literature, you’ll want to catalogue all this information in some sort of spreadsheet so that you can easily recall who said what, when and within what context. If you’d like, we’ve got a free literature spreadsheet that helps you do exactly that.

Don’t fixate on an article’s citation count in isolation - relevance (to your research question) and recency are also very important.

Step 2: Develop a structure and outline

With your research question pinned down and your literature digested and catalogued, it’s time to move on to planning your actual research paper .

It might sound obvious, but it’s really important to have some sort of rough outline in place before you start writing your paper. So often, we see students eagerly rushing into the writing phase, only to land up with a disjointed research paper that rambles on in multiple

Now, the secret here is to not get caught up in the fine details . Realistically, all you need at this stage is a bullet-point list that describes (in broad strokes) what you’ll discuss and in what order. It’s also useful to remember that you’re not glued to this outline – in all likelihood, you’ll chop and change some sections once you start writing, and that’s perfectly okay. What’s important is that you have some sort of roadmap in place from the start.

You need to have a rough outline in place before you start writing your paper - or you’ll end up with a disjointed research paper that rambles on.

At this stage you might be wondering, “ But how should I structure my research paper? ”. Well, there’s no one-size-fits-all solution here, but in general, a research paper will consist of a few relatively standardised components:

  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • Methodology

Let’s take a look at each of these.

First up is the introduction section . As the name suggests, the purpose of the introduction is to set the scene for your research paper. There are usually (at least) four ingredients that go into this section – these are the background to the topic, the research problem and resultant research question , and the justification or rationale. If you’re interested, the video below unpacks the introduction section in more detail. 

The next section of your research paper will typically be your literature review . Remember all that literature you worked through earlier? Well, this is where you’ll present your interpretation of all that content . You’ll do this by writing about recent trends, developments, and arguments within the literature – but more specifically, those that are relevant to your research question . The literature review can oftentimes seem a little daunting, even to seasoned researchers, so be sure to check out our extensive collection of literature review content here .

With the introduction and lit review out of the way, the next section of your paper is the research methodology . In a nutshell, the methodology section should describe to your reader what you did (beyond just reviewing the existing literature) to answer your research question. For example, what data did you collect, how did you collect that data, how did you analyse that data and so on? For each choice, you’ll also need to justify why you chose to do it that way, and what the strengths and weaknesses of your approach were.

Now, it’s worth mentioning that for some research papers, this aspect of the project may be a lot simpler . For example, you may only need to draw on secondary sources (in other words, existing data sets). In some cases, you may just be asked to draw your conclusions from the literature search itself (in other words, there may be no data analysis at all). But, if you are required to collect and analyse data, you’ll need to pay a lot of attention to the methodology section. The video below provides an example of what the methodology section might look like.

By this stage of your paper, you will have explained what your research question is, what the existing literature has to say about that question, and how you analysed additional data to try to answer your question. So, the natural next step is to present your analysis of that data . This section is usually called the “results” or “analysis” section and this is where you’ll showcase your findings.

Depending on your school’s requirements, you may need to present and interpret the data in one section – or you might split the presentation and the interpretation into two sections. In the latter case, your “results” section will just describe the data, and the “discussion” is where you’ll interpret that data and explicitly link your analysis back to your research question. If you’re not sure which approach to take, check in with your professor or take a look at past papers to see what the norms are for your programme.

Alright – once you’ve presented and discussed your results, it’s time to wrap it up . This usually takes the form of the “ conclusion ” section. In the conclusion, you’ll need to highlight the key takeaways from your study and close the loop by explicitly answering your research question. Again, the exact requirements here will vary depending on your programme (and you may not even need a conclusion section at all) – so be sure to check with your professor if you’re unsure.

Step 3: Write and refine

Finally, it’s time to get writing. All too often though, students hit a brick wall right about here… So, how do you avoid this happening to you?

Well, there’s a lot to be said when it comes to writing a research paper (or any sort of academic piece), but we’ll share three practical tips to help you get started.

First and foremost , it’s essential to approach your writing as an iterative process. In other words, you need to start with a really messy first draft and then polish it over multiple rounds of editing. Don’t waste your time trying to write a perfect research paper in one go. Instead, take the pressure off yourself by adopting an iterative approach.

Secondly , it’s important to always lean towards critical writing , rather than descriptive writing. What does this mean? Well, at the simplest level, descriptive writing focuses on the “ what ”, while critical writing digs into the “ so what ” – in other words, the implications . If you’re not familiar with these two types of writing, don’t worry! You can find a plain-language explanation here.

Last but not least, you’ll need to get your referencing right. Specifically, you’ll need to provide credible, correctly formatted citations for the statements you make. We see students making referencing mistakes all the time and it costs them dearly. The good news is that you can easily avoid this by using a simple reference manager . If you don’t have one, check out our video about Mendeley, an easy (and free) reference management tool that you can start using today.

Recap: Key Takeaways

We’ve covered a lot of ground here. To recap, the three steps to writing a high-quality research paper are:

  • To choose a research question and review the literature
  • To plan your paper structure and draft an outline
  • To take an iterative approach to writing, focusing on critical writing and strong referencing

Remember, this is just a b ig-picture overview of the research paper development process and there’s a lot more nuance to unpack. So, be sure to grab a copy of our free research paper template to learn more about how to write a research paper.


Can you help me with a full paper template for this Abstract:

Background: Energy and sports drinks have gained popularity among diverse demographic groups, including adolescents, athletes, workers, and college students. While often used interchangeably, these beverages serve distinct purposes, with energy drinks aiming to boost energy and cognitive performance, and sports drinks designed to prevent dehydration and replenish electrolytes and carbohydrates lost during physical exertion.

Objective: To assess the nutritional quality of energy and sports drinks in Egypt.

Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed the nutrient contents, including energy, sugar, electrolytes, vitamins, and caffeine, of sports and energy drinks available in major supermarkets in Cairo, Alexandria, and Giza, Egypt. Data collection involved photographing all relevant product labels and recording nutritional information. Descriptive statistics and appropriate statistical tests were employed to analyze and compare the nutritional values of energy and sports drinks.

Results: The study analyzed 38 sports drinks and 42 energy drinks. Sports drinks were significantly more expensive than energy drinks, with higher net content and elevated magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C. Energy drinks contained higher concentrations of caffeine, sugars, and vitamins B2, B3, and B6.

Conclusion: Significant nutritional differences exist between sports and energy drinks, reflecting their intended uses. However, these beverages’ high sugar content and calorie loads raise health concerns. Proper labeling, public awareness, and responsible marketing are essential to guide safe consumption practices in Egypt.

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Uncomplicated Reviews of Educational Research Methods

  • Writing a Research Report

.pdf version of this page

This review covers the basic elements of a research report. This is a general guide for what you will see in journal articles or dissertations. This format assumes a mixed methods study, but you can leave out either quantitative or qualitative sections if you only used a single methodology.

This review is divided into sections for easy reference. There are five MAJOR parts of a Research Report:

1.    Introduction 2.    Review of Literature 3.    Methods 4.    Results 5.    Discussion

As a general guide, the Introduction, Review of Literature, and Methods should be about 1/3 of your paper, Discussion 1/3, then Results 1/3.

Section 1 : Cover Sheet (APA format cover sheet) optional, if required.

Section 2: Abstract (a basic summary of the report, including sample, treatment, design, results, and implications) (≤ 150 words) optional, if required.

Section 3 : Introduction (1-3 paragraphs) •    Basic introduction •    Supportive statistics (can be from periodicals) •    Statement of Purpose •    Statement of Significance

Section 4 : Research question(s) or hypotheses •    An overall research question (optional) •    A quantitative-based (hypotheses) •    A qualitative-based (research questions) Note: You will generally have more than one, especially if using hypotheses.

Section 5: Review of Literature ▪    Should be organized by subheadings ▪    Should adequately support your study using supporting, related, and/or refuting evidence ▪    Is a synthesis, not a collection of individual summaries

Section 6: Methods ▪    Procedure: Describe data gathering or participant recruitment, including IRB approval ▪    Sample: Describe the sample or dataset, including basic demographics ▪    Setting: Describe the setting, if applicable (generally only in qualitative designs) ▪    Treatment: If applicable, describe, in detail, how you implemented the treatment ▪    Instrument: Describe, in detail, how you implemented the instrument; Describe the reliability and validity associated with the instrument ▪    Data Analysis: Describe type of procedure (t-test, interviews, etc.) and software (if used)

Section 7: Results ▪    Restate Research Question 1 (Quantitative) ▪    Describe results ▪    Restate Research Question 2 (Qualitative) ▪    Describe results

Section 8: Discussion ▪    Restate Overall Research Question ▪    Describe how the results, when taken together, answer the overall question ▪    ***Describe how the results confirm or contrast the literature you reviewed

Section 9: Recommendations (if applicable, generally related to practice)

Section 10: Limitations ▪    Discuss, in several sentences, the limitations of this study. ▪    Research Design (overall, then info about the limitations of each separately) ▪    Sample ▪    Instrument/s ▪    Other limitations

Section 11: Conclusion (A brief closing summary)

Section 12: References (APA format)

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About research rundowns.

Research Rundowns was made possible by support from the Dewar College of Education at Valdosta State University .

  • Experimental Design
  • What is Educational Research?
  • Writing Research Questions
  • Mixed Methods Research Designs
  • Qualitative Coding & Analysis
  • Qualitative Research Design
  • Correlation
  • Effect Size
  • Instrument, Validity, Reliability
  • Mean & Standard Deviation
  • Significance Testing (t-tests)
  • Steps 1-4: Finding Research
  • Steps 5-6: Analyzing & Organizing
  • Steps 7-9: Citing & Writing

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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.

This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

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Table of contents

Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.

Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:

  • Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
  • Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
  • Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.

Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.

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stages in writing research report

There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.

You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.

You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.

Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:

  • A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
  • A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.

Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.

Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.

  • Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
  • Are there any heated debates you can address?
  • Do you have a unique take on your topic?
  • Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?

In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”

A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.

The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.

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A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.

A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.

Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:

  • Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
  • Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
  • Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.

You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.

Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.

Paragraph structure

Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.

Example paragraph

George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.

Citing sources

It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.

You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.

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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.

What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.

Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?

How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.

The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.

One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:

  • topic sentences against the thesis statement;
  • topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
  • and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.

Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.

Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.

You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.

You should not :

  • Offer new arguments or essential information
  • Take up any more space than necessary
  • Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)

There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.

  • Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
  • Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
  • Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
  • If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.

The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible. You can speed up the proofreading process by using the AI proofreader .

Global concerns

  • Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
  • Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
  • Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.

Fine-grained details

Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:

  • each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
  • no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
  • all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.

Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .

Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading  or create an APA title page .

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Checklist: Research paper

I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.

My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.

My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .

My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .

Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.

I have used appropriate transitions  to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.

My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.

My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.

My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.

I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.

I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .

I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).

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Writing the Research Report

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  • Paul Morrison 2  

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Further Readings

Barzun, J. and Graff, H.E. (1977) The Modern Researcher , 3rd edn, Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Google Scholar  

Bell, J. (1987) ‘Writing the Report’ in Bell, J., Doing Your Research Project: A Guide for First Time Researchers in Education and Social Science , Open University Press, Milton Keynes, pp. 124–35.

Bogdan, R.C. and Biklen, S.K. (1982) Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods , Allyn & Bacon, Boston, Massachusetts.

Burnard, P. (1992) Writing for Health Professionals: A Writer’s Manual , Chapman & Hall, London.

Book   Google Scholar  

Morris, S. (1988) ‘Writing a book: some advice for new authors’, Nurse Education Today , 8 , 234–8.

Article   Google Scholar  

Bogdan, R., Brown, M.A. and Foster, S.B. (1982) ‘Be honest but not cruel: staff/parent communication on a neonatal unit’, Human Organisation , 41 (1) 6–16.

Burnard, P. and Morrison, P. (1988) ‘Nurses’ perceptions of their interpersonal skills: a descriptive study using six category intervention analysis’, Nurse Education Today , 8 266–272.

Melia, K. (1987) Learning and Working: The Occupational Socialisation of Nurses , Tavistock, London.

Morrison, P. and le Roux, B. (1987) ‘The Practice of Seclusion’, Nursing Times , 83 (19) 62–6 Occasional Paper.

Barker, P. (1988) ‘Nursing the patient with major affective disorder’, PhD thesis, Dundee College of Technology.

Bauer, I.L. (1993) ‘Patients’ privacy: an exploratory study of patients’ perceptions of their privacy in a German acute care hospital’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wales College of Medicine.

Burnard, P. (1990) ‘Learning from experience: nurse tutors’ and student nurses’ perceptions of experiential learning’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wales College of Medicine.

Elkind, A.K. (1980) ‘Smoking amongst women with special reference to those training for a profession’, PhD thesis, University of Manchester.

Hagan, T. (1988) ‘Underutilisation of maternal and child health care’, unpublished PhD thesis, Sheffield Hallam University.

McKenna, H. (1992) ‘The selection and evaluation of a nursing model for long stay psychiatric patient care’, unpublished PhD thesis. University of Ulster.

Morrison, P. (1991) ‘The meaning of caring interpersonal relationships in nursing’, unpublished PhD thesis, Sheffield Hallam University.

CBE Style Manual , 5th edn, Council of Biology Editors, Bethesda, Maryland.

Turabian, K.L. (1973) A Manual For Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations , 4th edn, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Strunk, W. Jr and White, E.B. (1972) The Elements of Style , 2nd edn, Macmillan, New York.

Gowers, E. (revised by B. Fraser) (1977) The Complete Plain Words , 2nd edn, Penguin, Harmondsworth.

Burnard, P. (1993) Personal Computing for Health Professionals , Chapman & Hall, London.

Hannah, K.J. (1987) ‘Uses for computers in nursing research’, Recent Advances in Nursing , 17 , 186–202.

Morse, J.M. and Morse, R.M. (1989) ‘QUAL: a mainframe program for qualitative data analysis’, Nursing Research , 38 (3) 188–9.

Rose, D. and Sullivan, O. (1993) Introducing Data Analysis for Social Scientists , Open University Press, Milton Keynes.

Burnard, P. (1992) Writing for Health Professionals , Chapman & Hall, London.

O’Connor, M. (1978) Editing Scientific Books and Journals , Pitman Medical, London

Sternberg, R.J. (1988) The Psychologist’s Companion: A Guide to Writing Scientific Papers for Students and Researchers , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Starr, A.D. (1988) Science Writing for Beginners , Blackwell, Oxford.

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Philip Burnard ( Director of Postgraduate Nursing Studies ) & Paul Morrison ( Senior Lecturer )

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Burnard, P., Morrison, P. (1994). Writing the Research Report. In: Nursing Research in Action. Palgrave, London.

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stages in writing research report

Home Market Research

Research Reports: Definition and How to Write Them

Research Reports

Reports are usually spread across a vast horizon of topics but are focused on communicating information about a particular topic and a niche target market. The primary motive of research reports is to convey integral details about a study for marketers to consider while designing new strategies.

Certain events, facts, and other information based on incidents need to be relayed to the people in charge, and creating research reports is the most effective communication tool. Ideal research reports are extremely accurate in the offered information with a clear objective and conclusion. These reports should have a clean and structured format to relay information effectively.

What are Research Reports?

Research reports are recorded data prepared by researchers or statisticians after analyzing the information gathered by conducting organized research, typically in the form of surveys or qualitative methods .

A research report is a reliable source to recount details about a conducted research. It is most often considered to be a true testimony of all the work done to garner specificities of research.

The various sections of a research report are:

  • Background/Introduction
  • Implemented Methods
  • Results based on Analysis
  • Deliberation

Learn more: Quantitative Research

Components of Research Reports

Research is imperative for launching a new product/service or a new feature. The markets today are extremely volatile and competitive due to new entrants every day who may or may not provide effective products. An organization needs to make the right decisions at the right time to be relevant in such a market with updated products that suffice customer demands.

The details of a research report may change with the purpose of research but the main components of a report will remain constant. The research approach of the market researcher also influences the style of writing reports. Here are seven main components of a productive research report:

  • Research Report Summary: The entire objective along with the overview of research are to be included in a summary which is a couple of paragraphs in length. All the multiple components of the research are explained in brief under the report summary.  It should be interesting enough to capture all the key elements of the report.
  • Research Introduction: There always is a primary goal that the researcher is trying to achieve through a report. In the introduction section, he/she can cover answers related to this goal and establish a thesis which will be included to strive and answer it in detail.  This section should answer an integral question: “What is the current situation of the goal?”.  After the research design was conducted, did the organization conclude the goal successfully or they are still a work in progress –  provide such details in the introduction part of the research report.
  • Research Methodology: This is the most important section of the report where all the important information lies. The readers can gain data for the topic along with analyzing the quality of provided content and the research can also be approved by other market researchers . Thus, this section needs to be highly informative with each aspect of research discussed in detail.  Information needs to be expressed in chronological order according to its priority and importance. Researchers should include references in case they gained information from existing techniques.
  • Research Results: A short description of the results along with calculations conducted to achieve the goal will form this section of results. Usually, the exposition after data analysis is carried out in the discussion part of the report.

Learn more: Quantitative Data

  • Research Discussion: The results are discussed in extreme detail in this section along with a comparative analysis of reports that could probably exist in the same domain. Any abnormality uncovered during research will be deliberated in the discussion section.  While writing research reports, the researcher will have to connect the dots on how the results will be applicable in the real world.
  • Research References and Conclusion: Conclude all the research findings along with mentioning each and every author, article or any content piece from where references were taken.

Learn more: Qualitative Observation

15 Tips for Writing Research Reports

Writing research reports in the manner can lead to all the efforts going down the drain. Here are 15 tips for writing impactful research reports:

  • Prepare the context before starting to write and start from the basics:  This was always taught to us in school – be well-prepared before taking a plunge into new topics. The order of survey questions might not be the ideal or most effective order for writing research reports. The idea is to start with a broader topic and work towards a more specific one and focus on a conclusion or support, which a research should support with the facts.  The most difficult thing to do in reporting, without a doubt is to start. Start with the title, the introduction, then document the first discoveries and continue from that. Once the marketers have the information well documented, they can write a general conclusion.
  • Keep the target audience in mind while selecting a format that is clear, logical and obvious to them:  Will the research reports be presented to decision makers or other researchers? What are the general perceptions around that topic? This requires more care and diligence. A researcher will need a significant amount of information to start writing the research report. Be consistent with the wording, the numbering of the annexes and so on. Follow the approved format of the company for the delivery of research reports and demonstrate the integrity of the project with the objectives of the company.
  • Have a clear research objective: A researcher should read the entire proposal again, and make sure that the data they provide contributes to the objectives that were raised from the beginning. Remember that speculations are for conversations, not for research reports, if a researcher speculates, they directly question their own research.
  • Establish a working model:  Each study must have an internal logic, which will have to be established in the report and in the evidence. The researchers’ worst nightmare is to be required to write research reports and realize that key questions were not included.

Learn more: Quantitative Observation

  • Gather all the information about the research topic. Who are the competitors of our customers? Talk to other researchers who have studied the subject of research, know the language of the industry. Misuse of the terms can discourage the readers of research reports from reading further.
  • Read aloud while writing. While reading the report, if the researcher hears something inappropriate, for example, if they stumble over the words when reading them, surely the reader will too. If the researcher can’t put an idea in a single sentence, then it is very long and they must change it so that the idea is clear to everyone.
  • Check grammar and spelling. Without a doubt, good practices help to understand the report. Use verbs in the present tense. Consider using the present tense, which makes the results sound more immediate. Find new words and other ways of saying things. Have fun with the language whenever possible.
  • Discuss only the discoveries that are significant. If some data are not really significant, do not mention them. Remember that not everything is truly important or essential within research reports.

Learn more: Qualitative Data

  • Try and stick to the survey questions. For example, do not say that the people surveyed “were worried” about an research issue , when there are different degrees of concern.
  • The graphs must be clear enough so that they understand themselves. Do not let graphs lead the reader to make mistakes: give them a title, include the indications, the size of the sample, and the correct wording of the question.
  • Be clear with messages. A researcher should always write every section of the report with an accuracy of details and language.
  • Be creative with titles – Particularly in segmentation studies choose names “that give life to research”. Such names can survive for a long time after the initial investigation.
  • Create an effective conclusion: The conclusion in the research reports is the most difficult to write, but it is an incredible opportunity to excel. Make a precise summary. Sometimes it helps to start the conclusion with something specific, then it describes the most important part of the study, and finally, it provides the implications of the conclusions.
  • Get a couple more pair of eyes to read the report. Writers have trouble detecting their own mistakes. But they are responsible for what is presented. Ensure it has been approved by colleagues or friends before sending the find draft out.

Learn more: Market Research and Analysis


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Ellen Herman

The Stages of Writing Research Papers

1. Identifying and Refining a Researchable Topic or Question

2. Gathering Primary and Secondary Sources

3. Organizing Your Notes and Other Research Information

  • What system will you use to keep track of your bibliographies? Your reading notes? The quotations, images, or other specific items that jumped out at you during the course of research? If you are writing about a complex event that unfolds over time, constructing a chronology can be helpful.
  • It can be useful to group your materials in a way that relates to your questions and to the story you plan to tell. Try categorizing them so you can easily recall which are more important and which are less important.

4. Outlining

  • What relevant background to your subject must your reader have to understand your argument?
  • What organizational scheme makes the most sense for your subject and intellectual goals? Chronology is often useful in historical writing, and some historians prize narrative writing. Thematic forms of organization are also very common and can make a lot of sense. If your paper proceeds by way of a comparison, how will that comparison be structured?
  • Are there terms you will need to define at the outset? Characters you will need to introduce? Timelines you will need to explain? If so, where should these go?
  • Will you be placing your subject in the context of historiography? If so, where in the paper should this be presented? (Some historians devote considerable text to this; some utilize footnotes.) Historiographical questions include: What are the major interpretive debates about your subject? Who are the key commentators on your subject? What makes your approach and argument original and different?
  • Balance between general context and the heart of your research. One common error is to get so involved in telling the background story that you forget to mention your actual subject until page 15! Aim for proportionality in your outline. The most important themes and questions should get the most attention and space.
  • Balance between more general assertions and concrete evidence and examples to back those assertions up. Another common error is to gravitate toward either overly general or overly detailed writing. The former results in vagueness that cannot sustain an argument. The latter results in failure to develop an argument at all.
  • Remember that evidence helps you answer questions about who, what, where, when, and why.
  • Be careful not to expect your sources to do more than they can. Use multiple sources to support a claim you think is especially unusual or controversial. Consider tackling the weakness of your sources directly, anticipating obvious criticism rather than ignoring it.

5. Formulating Your Argument

  • What exactly is your subject?
  • What exactly is your argument (sometimes also called a “thesis”)?
  • Your subject and your argument are not identical. Your argument is the original point you are making, the result of all the thinking you have done during the course of research. It is a claim about the significance of a historical subject (or problem or question) and a promise that you will demonstrate that your approach to the subject–your interpretation–is persuasive and compelling. An argument is more than an announcement about what your subject will be. It is an assertion about what your subject means and why it matters.

6. Writing an Introduction

  • The introduction should introduce your subject, state your argument, and reveal for the reader what you plan to accomplish in the paper.
  • You can also explain briefly why the paper is organized as it is so that the reader will know exactly what to expect. Think of the introduction as a textual map for an intellectual journey.

7. Drafting the Body of Your Paper

8. Writing a Conclusion

  • Return to your argument and remind your reader of the most compelling evidence presented to support it.

9. Revising

  • Excellent papers are drafted far enough ahead of time so that you have time to re-read, reflect, and revise–all of which will make your paper better than it would have been without revision.
  • Consider asking trusted colleagues to read and comment on your work.
  • Think about the overall organization of your paper. Does is flow logically and cohere throughout? Are there bumpy spots that need reworking, better transitions, and reorganization?
  • Think about each paragraph. Does it go where you say it will go? Do you offer concrete evidence and examples when you make general points? Is the transition from the paragraph before smooth? Is the transition to the next paragraph equally smooth?
  • Think about each sentence: grammar, spelling, punctuation, word choice, etc. Ask yourself if your writing is as bold and direct as possible. Be ruthless about eliminating pompous language, jargon, and fussy constructions. They will not impress your reader or do justice to your ideas.

10. Proofreading

  • Use your computer’s spell checker, but don’t stop there.
  • Many people find that it is easier to catch errors on paper than on a screen.
  • Try reading your work aloud. It can be a little embarrassing at first, but it is a great technique for zooming in on errors, weak spots, and awkward phrases.

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Research Methodology

Student resources, step 8: writing a research report, writing a research report.

  • Checkpoint: Academic writing conventions
  • Checkpoint: Research report content
  • Checkpoint: Drawing conclusions and maintaining arguments
  • Checkpoint: References and citations

Multiple choice questions

Exercise: Writing a Research Proposal

Download the exercise that also appears in your textbook to help you step-by-step in writing a research proposal. You can also use this exercise to contribute to a final research portfoilio or help guide discussions with your supervisor.

Report Writing

Table of Contents

Collaboration, information literacy, writing process, the ultimate blueprint: a research-driven deep dive into the 13 steps of the writing process.

  • © 2023 by Joseph M. Moxley - Professor of English - USF

This article provides a comprehensive, research-based introduction to the major steps , or strategies , that writers work through as they endeavor to communicate with audiences . Since the 1960s, the writing process has been defined to be a series of steps , stages, or strategies. Most simply, the writing process is conceptualized as four major steps: prewriting , drafting , revising , editing . That model works really well for many occasions. Yet sometimes you'll face really challenging writing tasks that will force you to engage in additional steps, including, prewriting , inventing , drafting , collaborating , researching , planning , organizing , designing , rereading , revising , editing , proofreading , sharing or publishing . Expand your composing repertoire -- your ability to respond with authority , clarity , and persuasiveness -- by learning about the dispositions and strategies of successful, professional writers.

stages in writing research report

Like water cascading to the sea, flow feels inevitable, natural, purposeful. Yet achieving flow is a state of mind that can be difficult to achieve. It requires full commitment to the believing gam e (as opposed to the doubting game ).

What are the Steps of the Writing Process?

Since the 1960s, it has been popular to describe the writing process as a series of steps or stages . For simple projects, the writing process is typically defined as four major steps:

  • drafting  

This simplified approach to writing is quite appropriate for many exigencies–many calls to write . Often, e.g., we might read an email quickly, write a response, and then send it: write, revise, send.

However, in the real world, for more demanding projects — especially in high-stakes workplace writing or academic writing at the high school and college level — the writing process involve additional  steps,  or  strategies , such as 

  • collaboration
  • researching
  • proofreading
  • sharing or publishing.  

Related Concepts: Mindset ; Self Regulation

Summary – Writing Process Steps

The summary below outlines the major steps writers work through as they endeavor to develop an idea for an audience .

1. Prewriting

Prewriting refers to all the work a writer does on a writing project before they actually begin writing .

Acts of prewriting include

  • Prior to writing a first draft, analyze the context for the work. For instance, in school settings students may analyze how much of their grade will be determined by a particular assignment. They may question how many and what sources are required and what the grading criteria will be used for critiquing the work.
  • To further their understanding of the assignment, writers will question who the audience is for their work, what their purpose is for writing, what style of writing their audience expects them to employ, and what rhetorical stance is appropriate for them to develop given the rhetorical situation they are addressing. (See the document planner heuristic for more on this)
  • consider employing rhetorical appeals ( ethos , pathos , and logos ), rhetorical devices , and rhetorical modes they want to develop once they begin writing
  • reflect on the voice , tone , and persona they want to develop
  • Following rhetorical analysis and rhetorical reasoning , writers decide on the persona ; point of view ; tone , voice and style of writing they hope to develop, such as an academic writing prose style or a professional writing prose style
  • making a plan, an outline, for what to do next.

2. Invention

Invention is traditionally defined as an initial stage of the writing process when writers are more focused on discovery and creative play. During the early stages of a project, writers brainstorm; they explore various topics and perspectives before committing to a specific direction for their discourse .

In practice, invention can be an ongoing concern throughout the writing process. People who are focused on solving problems and developing original ideas, arguments , artifacts, products, services, applications, and  texts are open to acts of invention at any time during the writing process.

Writers have many different ways to engage in acts of invention, including

  • What is the exigency, the call to write ?
  • What are the ongoing scholarly debates in the peer-review literature?
  • What is the problem ?
  • What do they read? watch? say? What do they know about the topic? Why do they believe what they do? What are their beliefs, values, and expectations ?
  • What rhetorical appeals — ethos (credibility) , pathos (emotion) , and logos (logic) — should I explore to develop the best response to this exigency , this call to write?
  • What does peer-reviewed research say about the subject?
  • What are the current debates about the subject?
  • Embrace multiple viewpoints and consider various approaches to encourage the generation of original ideas.
  • How can I experiment with different media , genres , writing styles , personas , voices , tone
  • Experiment with new research methods
  • Write whatever ideas occur to you. Focus on generating ideas as opposed to writing grammatically correct sentences. Get your thoughts down as fully and quickly as you can without critiquing them.
  • Use heuristics to inspire discovery and creative thinking: Burke’s Pentad ; Document Planner , Journalistic Questions , The Business Model Canvas
  • Embrace the uncertainty that comes with creative exploration.
  • Listen to your intuition — your felt sense — when composing
  • Experiment with different writing styles , genres , writing tools, and rhetorical stances
  • Play the believing game early in the writing process

3. Researching

Research refers to systematic investigations that investigators carry out to discover new  knowledge , test knowledge claims , solve  problems , or develop new texts , products, apps, and services.

During the research stage of the writing process, writers may engage in

  • Engage in customer discovery interviews and  survey research  in order to better understand the  problem space . Use  surveys , interviews, focus groups, etc., to understand the stakeholder’s s (e.g., clients, suppliers, partners) problems and needs
  • What can you recall from your memory about the subject?
  • What can you learn from informal observation?
  • What can you learn from strategic searching of the archive on the topic that interests you?
  • Who are the thought leaders?
  • What were the major turns to the conversation ?
  • What are the current debates on the topic ?
  • Mixed research methods , qualitative research methods , quantitative research methods , usability and user experience research ?
  • What citation style is required by the audience and discourse community you’re addressing? APA | MLA .

4. Collaboration

Collaboration  refers to the act of working with others to exchange ideas, solve problems, investigate subjects ,  coauthor   texts , and develop products and services.

Collaboration can play a major role in the writing process, especially when authors coauthor documents with peers and teams , or critique the works of others .

Acts of collaboration include

  • Paying close attention to what others are saying, acknowledging their input, and asking clarifying questions to ensure understanding.
  • Expressing ideas, thoughts, and opinions in a concise and understandable manner, both verbally and in writing.
  • Being receptive to new ideas and perspectives, and considering alternative approaches to problem-solving.
  • Adapting to changes in project goals, timelines, or team dynamics, and being willing to modify plans when needed.
  • Distributing tasks and responsibilities fairly among team members, and holding oneself accountable for assigned work.
  • valuing and appreciating the unique backgrounds, skills, and perspectives of all team members, and leveraging this diversity to enhance collaboration.
  • Addressing disagreements or conflicts constructively and diplomatically, working towards mutually beneficial solutions.
  • Providing constructive feedback to help others improve their work, and being open to receiving feedback to refine one’s own ideas and contributions.
  • Understanding and responding to the emotions, needs, and concerns of team members, and fostering a supportive and inclusive environment .
  • Acknowledging and appreciating the achievements of the team and individual members, and using successes as a foundation for continued collaboration and growth.

5. Planning

Planning refers to

  • the process of planning how to organize a document
  • the process of managing your writing processes

6. Organizing

Following rhetorical analysis , following prewriting , writers question how they should organize their texts. For instance, should they adopt the organizational strategies of academic discourse or workplace-writing discourse ?

Writing-Process Plans

  • What is your Purpose? – Aims of Discourse
  • What steps, or strategies, need to be completed next?
  • set a schedule to complete goals

Planning Exercises

  • Document Planner
  • Team Charter

7. Designing

Designing refers to efforts on the part of the writer

  • to leverage the power of visual language to convey meaning
  • to create a visually appealing text

During the designing stage of the writing process, writers explore how they can use the  elements of design  and  visual language to signify , clarify , and simplify the message.

Examples of the designing step of the writing process:

  • Establishing a clear hierarchy of visual elements, such as headings, subheadings, and bullet points, to guide the reader’s attention and facilitate understanding.
  • Selecting appropriate fonts, sizes, and styles to ensure readability and convey the intended tone and emphasis.
  • Organizing text and visual elements on the page or screen in a manner that is visually appealing, easy to navigate, and supports the intended message.
  • Using color schemes and contrasts effectively to create a visually engaging experience, while also ensuring readability and accessibility for all readers.
  • Incorporating images, illustrations, charts, graphs, and videos to support and enrich the written content, and to convey complex ideas in a more accessible format.
  • Designing content that is easily accessible to a wide range of readers, including those with visual impairments, by adhering to accessibility guidelines and best practices.
  • Maintaining a consistent style and design throughout the text, which includes the use of visuals, formatting, and typography, to create a cohesive and professional appearance.
  • Integrating interactive elements, such as hyperlinks, buttons, and multimedia, to encourage reader engagement and foster deeper understanding of the content.

8. Drafting

Drafting refers to the act of writing a preliminary version of a document — a sloppy first draft. Writers engage in exploratory writing early in the writing process. During drafting, writers focus on freewriting: they write in short bursts of writing without stopping and without concern for grammatical correctness or stylistic matters.

When composing, writers move back and forth between drafting new material, revising drafts, and other steps in the writing process.

9. Rereading

Rereading refers to the process of carefully reviewing a written text. When writers reread texts, they look in between each word, phrase, sentence, paragraph. They look for gaps in content, reasoning, organization, design, diction, style–and more.

When engaged in the physical act of writing — during moments of composing — writers will often pause from drafting to reread what they wrote or to reread some other text they are referencing.

10. Revising

Revision  — the process of revisiting, rethinking, and refining written work to improve its  content ,  clarity  and overall effectiveness — is such an important part of  the writing process  that experienced writers often say  “writing is revision” or “all writing is revision.”  

For many writers, revision processes are deeply intertwined with writing, invention, and reasoning strategies:

  • “Writing and rewriting are a constant search for what one is saying.” — John Updike
  • “How do I know what I think until I see what I say.” — E.M. Forster

Acts of revision include

  • Pivoting: trashing earlier work and moving in a new direction
  • Identifying Rhetorical Problems
  • Identifying Structural Problems
  • Identifying Language Problems
  • Identifying Critical & Analytical Thinking Problems

11. Editing

Editing  refers to the act of  critically reviewing  a  text  with the goal of identifying and rectifying sentence and word-level problems.

When  editing , writers tend to focus on  local concerns  as opposed to  global concerns . For instance, they may look for

  • problems weaving sources into your argument or analysis
  • problems establishing  the authority of sources
  • problems using the required  citation style
  • mechanical errors  ( capitalization ,  punctuation ,  spelling )
  • sentence errors ,  sentence structure errors
  • problems with  diction ,  brevity ,  clarity ,  flow ,  inclusivity , register, and  simplicity

12. Proofreading

Proofreading refers to last time you’ll look at a document before sharing or publishing the work with its intended audience(s). At this point in the writing process, it’s too late to add in some new evidence you’ve found to support your position. Now you don’t want to add any new content. Instead, your goal during proofreading is to do a final check on word-level errors, problems with diction , punctuation , or syntax.

13. Sharing or Publishing

Sharing refers to the last step in the writing process: the moment when the writer delivers the message — the text — to the target audience .

Writers may think it makes sense to wait to share their work later in the process, after the project is fairly complete. However, that’s not always the case. Sometimes you can save yourself a lot of trouble by bringing in collaborators and critics earlier in the writing process.

Doherty, M. (2016, September 4). 10 things you need to know about banyan trees. Under the Banyan.

Emig, J. (1967). On teaching composition: Some hypotheses as definitions. Research in The Teaching of English, 1(2), 127-135. Retrieved from

Emig, J. (1971). The composing processes of twelfth graders (Research Report No. 13). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Emig, J. (1983). The web of meaning: Essays on writing, teaching, learning and thinking. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook Publishers, Inc.

Ghiselin, B. (Ed.). (1985). The Creative Process: Reflections on the Invention in the Arts and Sciences . University of California Press.

Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. (1980). Identifying the Organization of Writing Processes. In L. W. Gregg, & E. R. Steinberg (Eds.), Cognitive Processes in Writing: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 3-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  

Hayes, J. R. (2012). Modeling and remodeling writing. Written Communication, 29(3), 369-388. https://doi: 10.1177/0741088312451260

Hayes, J. R., & Flower, L. S. (1986). Writing research and the writer. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1106-1113.

Leijten, Van Waes, L., Schriver, K., & Hayes, J. R. (2014). Writing in the workplace: Constructing documents using multiple digital sources. Journal of Writing Research, 5(3), 285–337.

Lundstrom, K., Babcock, R. D., & McAlister, K. (2023). Collaboration in writing: Examining the role of experience in successful team writing projects. Journal of Writing Research, 15(1), 89-115.

National Research Council. (2012). Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

North, S. M. (1987). The making of knowledge in composition: Portrait of an emerging field. Boynton/Cook Publishers.

Murray, Donald M. (1980). Writing as process: How writing finds its own meaning. In Timothy R. Donovan & Ben McClelland (Eds.), Eight approaches to teaching composition (pp. 3–20). National Council of Teachers of English.

Murray, Donald M. (1972). “Teach Writing as a Process Not Product.” The Leaflet, 11-14

Perry, S. K. (1996).  When time stops: How creative writers experience entry into the flow state  (Order No. 9805789). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304288035).

Rohman, D.G., & Wlecke, A. O. (1964). Pre-writing: The construction and application of models for concept formation in writing (Cooperative Research Project No. 2174). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

Rohman, D. G., & Wlecke, A. O. (1975). Pre-writing: The construction and application of models for concept formation in writing (Cooperative Research Project No. 2174). U.S. Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Sommers, N. (1980). Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers. College Composition and Communication, 31(4), 378-388. doi: 10.2307/356600

Brevity - Say More with Less

Brevity - Say More with Less

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Clarity (in Speech and Writing)

Coherence - How to Achieve Coherence in Writing

Coherence - How to Achieve Coherence in Writing


Flow - How to Create Flow in Writing

Inclusivity - Inclusive Language

Inclusivity - Inclusive Language


The Elements of Style - The DNA of Powerful Writing



Student engrossed in reading on her laptop, surrounded by a stack of books

Academic Writing – How to Write for the Academic Community

You cannot climb a mountain without a plan / John Read

Structured Revision – How to Revise Your Work

stages in writing research report

Professional Writing – How to Write for the Professional World

stages in writing research report

Credibility & Authority – How to Be Credible & Authoritative in Research, Speech & Writing

How to Cite Sources in Academic and Professional Writing

Citation Guide – Learn How to Cite Sources in Academic and Professional Writing

Image of a colorful page with a big question in the center, "What is Page Design?"

Page Design – How to Design Messages for Maximum Impact

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Other Topics:

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Wavy Decoration

The Process of Writing a Research Paper


Planning the Research Paper

The goal of a research paper is to bring together different views, evidence, and facts about a topic from books, articles, and interviews, then interpret the information into your writing. It’s about a relationship between you, other writers, and your teacher/audience.

A research paper will show two things: what you know or learned about a certain topic, and what other people know about the same topic. Often you make a judgment, or just explain complex ideas to the reader. The length of the research paper depends on your teacher’s guidelines. It’s always a good idea to keep your teacher in mind while writing your paper because the teacher is your audience.

The Process There are three stages for doing a research paper. These stages are:

While most people start with prewriting, the three stages of the writing process overlap. Writing is not the kind of process where you have to finish step one before moving on to step two, and so on. Your job is to make your ideas as clear as possible for the reader, and that means you might have to go back and forth between the prewriting, writing and revising stages several times before submitting the paper.

» Prewriting Thinking about a topic

The first thing you should do when starting your research paper is to think of a topic. Try to pick a topic that interests you and your teacher — interesting topics are easier to write about than boring topics! Make sure that your topic is not too hard to research, and that there is enough material on the topic. Talk to as many people as possible about your topic, especially your teacher. You’ll be surprised at the ideas you’ll get from talking about your topic. Be sure to always discuss potential topics with your teacher.

Places you can find a topic: newspapers, magazines, television news, the World Wide Web, and even in the index of a textbook!

Narrowing down your topic

As you think about your topic and start reading, you should begin thinking about a possible thesis statement (a sentence or two explaining your opinion about the topic). One technique is to ask yourself one important question about your topic, and as you find your answer, the thesis can develop from that. Some other techniques you may use to narrow your topic are: jot lists; preliminary outlines; listing possible thesis statements; listing questions; and/or making a concept map. It also may be helpful to have a friend ask you questions about your topic.

For help on developing your thesis statement, see the English Center Guide to Developing a Thesis Statement .

Discovery/Reading about your topic

You need to find information that helps you support your thesis. There are different places you can find this information: books, articles, people (interviews), and the internet.

As you gather the information or ideas you need, you need to make sure that you take notes and write down where and who you got the information from. This is called “citing your sources.” If you write your paper using information from other writers and do not cite the sources, you are committing plagiarism . If you plagiarize, you can get an “F” on your paper, fail the course, or even get kicked out of school.


There are three major different formats for citing sources. They are: the Modern Language Association (MLA) , the American Psychology Association (APA) , and the Chicago Turabian style . Always ask your teacher which format to use. For more information on these styles, see our other handouts!


After you’ve thought, read, and taken notes on your topic, you may want to revise your thesis because a good thesis will help you develop a plan for writing your paper. One way you can do this is to brainstorm — think about everything you know about your topic, and put it down on paper. Once you have it all written down, you can look it over and decide if you should change your thesis statement or not.

If you already developed a preliminary map or outline, now is the time to go back and revise it. If you haven’t developed a map or outline yet, now is the time to do it. The outline or concept map should help you organize how you want to present information to your readers. The clearer your outline or map, the easier it will be for you to write the paper. Be sure that each part of your outline supports your thesis. If it does not, you may want to change/revise your thesis statement again.

» Writing a research paper follows a standard compositional (essay) format. It has a title, introduction, body and conclusion. Some people like to start their research papers with a title and introduction, while others wait until they’ve already started the body of the paper before developing a title and introduction. See this link for more information about writing introductions and conclusions .

Some techniques that may help you with writing your paper are:

  • start by writing your thesis statement
  • use a free writing technique (What I mean is…)
  • follow your outline or map
  • pretend you are writing a letter to a friend, and tell them what you know about your topic
  • follow your topic notecards

If you’re having difficulties thinking of what to write about next, you can look back at your notes that you have from when you were brainstorming for your topic.

» Revising The last (but not least) step is revising. When you are revising, look over your paper and make changes in weak areas. The different areas to look for mistakes include: content– too much detail, or too little detail; organization/structure (which is the order in which you write information about your topic); grammar; punctuation; capitalization; word choice; and citations.

It probably is best if you focus on the “big picture” first. The “big picture” means the organization (paragraph order), and content (ideas and points) of the paper. It also might help to go through your paper paragraph by paragraph and see if the main idea of each paragraph relates to the thesis. Be sure to keep an eye out for any repeated information (one of the most common mistakes made by students is having two or more paragraphs with the same information). Often good writers combine several paragraphs into one so they do not repeat information.

Revision Guidelines

  • The audience understands your paper.
  • The sentences are clear and complete.
  • All paragraphs relate to the thesis.
  • Each paragraph explains its purpose clearly.
  • You do not repeat large blocks of information in two or more different paragraphs.
  • The information in your paper is accurate.
  • A friend or classmate has read through your paper and offered suggestions.

After you are satisfied with the content and structure of the paper, you then can focus on common errors like grammar, spelling, sentence structure, punctuation, capitalization, typos, and word choice.

Proofreading Guidelines

  • Subjects and verbs agree.
  • Verb tenses are consistent.
  • Pronouns agree with the subjects they substitute.
  • Word choices are clear.
  • Capitalization is correct.
  • Spelling is correct.
  • Punctuation is correct.
  • References are cited properly.

For more information on proofreading, see the English Center Punctuation and Grammar Review .

After writing the paper, it might help if you put it aside and do not look at it for a day or two. When you look at your paper again, you will see it with new eyes and notice mistakes you didn’t before. It’s a really good idea to ask someone else to read your paper before you submit it to your teacher. Good writers often get feedback and revise their paper several times before submitting it to the teacher.

Source: “Process of Writing a Research Paper,” by Ellen Beck and Rachel Mingo with contributions from Jules Nelson Hill and Vivion Smith, is based on the previous version by Dawn Taylor, Sharon Quintero, Robert Rich, Robert McDonald, and Katherine Eckhart.


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Chapter 13 Writing a Research Report: Organisation and presentation

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A series of steps, starting with developing a research question and working thesis, will lead you through writing a research paper. As you move through these steps and actually create the research paper, you may find that you can't move through all of them in chronological order, and that's o.k. In fact, you may change the order of the steps depending on the subject, your knowledge of the subject, and your sources. For example, sometimes you need to do just a bit of background research and reading before you can develop a research question. Sometimes you need to go back and find additional sources to corroborate your viewpoint. The research writing steps that we offer represent a general, ideal, movement through the research writing process. In reality, writers often repeat or circle back as needed.

Hey, wait a minute . . . why did we say "ideal?" In our opinion, these steps represent the best way to move through the writing process because they ask you to think and develop a research question before you actually do a lot of research. The one big mess that you can get into, as a student, comes from doing too much unfocused research before identifying your own viewpoint, the one that you will eventually need to support. If you do too much unfocused research first, then the tendency is to try to include all of it in the paper. The result is a hodgepodge of information that's not focused, developed fully, or indicative of your own thoughts. It's also not efficient to do too much research before you really know what you're looking for. Try it our way--develop that research question first--to cut out a lot of research paper mess.

These steps will lead you through writing a research paper:

  • One Big Mess...
  • Developing a Research Question
  • Thesis Characteristics
  • Finding Sources
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Taking Notes
  • Working with Quotations
  • Writing Summaries & Paraphrases
  • Building the Essay Draft
  • Documentation Formats
  • Revising and Proofreading the Draft

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Writing a Research Paper

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The Research Paper

There will come a time in most students' careers when they are assigned a research paper. Such an assignment often creates a great deal of unneeded anxiety in the student, which may result in procrastination and a feeling of confusion and inadequacy. This anxiety frequently stems from the fact that many students are unfamiliar and inexperienced with this genre of writing. Never fear—inexperience and unfamiliarity are situations you can change through practice! Writing a research paper is an essential aspect of academics and should not be avoided on account of one's anxiety. In fact, the process of writing a research paper can be one of the more rewarding experiences one may encounter in academics. What is more, many students will continue to do research throughout their careers, which is one of the reasons this topic is so important.

Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally. Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. Therefore, with diligence, organization, practice, a willingness to learn (and to make mistakes!), and, perhaps most important of all, patience, students will find that they can achieve great things through their research and writing.

The pages in this section cover the following topic areas related to the process of writing a research paper:

  • Genre - This section will provide an overview for understanding the difference between an analytical and argumentative research paper.
  • Choosing a Topic - This section will guide the student through the process of choosing topics, whether the topic be one that is assigned or one that the student chooses themselves.
  • Identifying an Audience - This section will help the student understand the often times confusing topic of audience by offering some basic guidelines for the process.
  • Where Do I Begin - This section concludes the handout by offering several links to resources at Purdue, and also provides an overview of the final stages of writing a research paper.
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Online Guide to Writing and Research

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  • Online Guide to Writing

The Research Stage

Progress Research Analysis Strategy Diagram

Strong writing begins with the admission that one has a lot to learn.  Research  helps to remedy this situation. However, keep in mind that research is as much about  exploration  as it is about learning. Often, as we begin the research process, we do not even know what questions to ask, or we discover other questions that are more important than our initial questions.

Your Research Goals

As you work through the research stage, your goals should be to hone your research question, develop your thesis, and gather evidence for your supporting points. Try to allow your research to inspire brainstorming and note-taking. Explore and play with ideas as you learn about your topic. Finally, you should ensure you have performed an adequate survey of the available sources and that you have kept orderly and complete notes. When you have finished your research, you should be able to answer “yes” to the following questions.

  How [well] does my research question describe the scope and slant of my topic? 
  How extensive is my initial survey of possible resources for my topic? 
  Are my research notes methodical, complete, and orderly? Are they clear about what is quoted, paraphrased, and summarized from my research? 
  What other idea-generating techniques did I use—brainstorming, keeping a journal or research log, freewriting? 
  Are my bibliography notes complete with all citations and bibliographical data on every source, and are they representative of the survey of my topic? 

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Table of Contents: Online Guide to Writing

Chapter 1: College Writing

How Does College Writing Differ from Workplace Writing?

What Is College Writing?

Why So Much Emphasis on Writing?

Chapter 2: The Writing Process

Doing Exploratory Research

Getting from Notes to Your Draft


Prewriting - Techniques to Get Started - Mining Your Intuition

Prewriting: Targeting Your Audience

Prewriting: Techniques to Get Started

Prewriting: Understanding Your Assignment

Rewriting: Being Your Own Critic

Rewriting: Creating a Revision Strategy

Rewriting: Getting Feedback

Rewriting: The Final Draft

Techniques to Get Started - Outlining

Techniques to Get Started - Using Systematic Techniques

Thesis Statement and Controlling Idea

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Freewriting

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Summarizing Your Ideas

Writing: Outlining What You Will Write

Chapter 3: Thinking Strategies

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone: Style Through Vocabulary and Diction

Critical Strategies and Writing

Critical Strategies and Writing: Analysis

Critical Strategies and Writing: Evaluation

Critical Strategies and Writing: Persuasion

Critical Strategies and Writing: Synthesis

Developing a Paper Using Strategies

Kinds of Assignments You Will Write

Patterns for Presenting Information

Patterns for Presenting Information: Critiques

Patterns for Presenting Information: Discussing Raw Data

Patterns for Presenting Information: General-to-Specific Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Specific-to-General Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Summaries and Abstracts

Supporting with Research and Examples

Writing Essay Examinations

Writing Essay Examinations: Make Your Answer Relevant and Complete

Writing Essay Examinations: Organize Thinking Before Writing

Writing Essay Examinations: Read and Understand the Question

Chapter 4: The Research Process

Planning and Writing a Research Paper

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Ask a Research Question

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Cite Sources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Collect Evidence

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Decide Your Point of View, or Role, for Your Research

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Draw Conclusions

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Find a Topic and Get an Overview

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Manage Your Resources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Outline

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Survey the Literature

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Work Your Sources into Your Research Writing

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Human Resources

Research Resources: What Are Research Resources?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Electronic Resources

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Print Resources

Structuring the Research Paper: Formal Research Structure

Structuring the Research Paper: Informal Research Structure

The Nature of Research

The Research Assignment: How Should Research Sources Be Evaluated?

The Research Assignment: When Is Research Needed?

The Research Assignment: Why Perform Research?

Chapter 5: Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity

Giving Credit to Sources

Giving Credit to Sources: Copyright Laws

Giving Credit to Sources: Documentation

Giving Credit to Sources: Style Guides

Integrating Sources

Practicing Academic Integrity

Practicing Academic Integrity: Keeping Accurate Records

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Paraphrasing Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Quoting Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Summarizing Your Sources

Types of Documentation

Types of Documentation: Bibliographies and Source Lists

Types of Documentation: Citing World Wide Web Sources

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - APA Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - CSE/CBE Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - Chicago Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - MLA Style

Types of Documentation: Note Citations

Chapter 6: Using Library Resources

Finding Library Resources

Chapter 7: Assessing Your Writing

How Is Writing Graded?

How Is Writing Graded?: A General Assessment Tool

The Draft Stage

The Draft Stage: The First Draft

The Draft Stage: The Revision Process and the Final Draft

The Draft Stage: Using Feedback

Using Assessment to Improve Your Writing

Chapter 8: Other Frequently Assigned Papers

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Article and Book Reviews

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Reaction Papers

Writing Arguments

Writing Arguments: Adapting the Argument Structure

Writing Arguments: Purposes of Argument

Writing Arguments: References to Consult for Writing Arguments

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Anticipate Active Opposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Determine Your Organization

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Develop Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Introduce Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - State Your Thesis or Proposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Write Your Conclusion

Writing Arguments: Types of Argument

Appendix A: Books to Help Improve Your Writing


General Style Manuals

Researching on the Internet

Special Style Manuals

Writing Handbooks

Appendix B: Collaborative Writing and Peer Reviewing

Collaborative Writing: Assignments to Accompany the Group Project

Collaborative Writing: Informal Progress Report

Collaborative Writing: Issues to Resolve

Collaborative Writing: Methodology

Collaborative Writing: Peer Evaluation

Collaborative Writing: Tasks of Collaborative Writing Group Members

Collaborative Writing: Writing Plan

General Introduction

Peer Reviewing

Appendix C: Developing an Improvement Plan

Working with Your Instructor’s Comments and Grades

Appendix D: Writing Plan and Project Schedule

Devising a Writing Project Plan and Schedule

Reviewing Your Plan with Others

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Witness reports shooter armed with rifle was on rooftop firing at trump from outside rally, man on shooter to bbc: ‘he was dead, and that was it’.

Andrea Torres , Digital Journalist

A witness reported a shooter armed with a rifle was “bear-crawling up the roof” of a nearby building before firing at former President Donald Trump during a rally Saturday in Pennsylvania .

The witness who identified as “Greg” told The BBC the building was outside the perimeter of the rally in Butler. He said he alerted police officers about the suspicious man.

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“The next thing you know, five shots ring out,” the witness said.

RELATED STORY | FBI special agent talks about investigation into assassination attempt after Secret Service protects Trump at rally

Law enforcement later identified the shooter as Thomas Matthew Crooks 20 of Bethel Park, Pennsylvania, who was armed with an AR-15-style semiautomatic rifle, and had bomb material in his car and house.

During the shooting, Trump stopped speaking to the crowd, held his right ear, and moved lower behind the podium.

“I was shot with a bullet that pierced the upper part of my right ear,” Trump wrote on Truth Social . “I knew immediately that something was wrong in that I heard a whizzing sound, shots, and immediately felt the bullet ripping through the skin.”

The U.S. Secret Service surrounded Trump. A video shows a sniper fired at the shooter. The witness saw agents approach.

“They crawled up on the roof, they had their guns pointed at him, made sure he was dead,” the witness said . “He was dead, and that was it. It was over.”

CNN reported law enforcement confirmed the location of the shooter as described by the witness and a video by another witness showed the shooter dead on the roof.


RELATED STORY | ‘I was shot with a bullet’: Trump releases statement on Truth Social after shooting

The loud communication among the agents reflected a coordinated response. Someone near Trump shouted, “Shooter is down!”

There was blood on Trump when he stood back up. He raised his right fist, as U.S. Secret Service agents formed a ring around him to protect him while moving him away from the podium and into a vehicle.

The U.S. Secret Service reported Trump was “safe” and there was an investigation into a “possible assassination attempt.”

RELATED STORY | Biden, Harris show solidarity with Trump after shooting during rally

The shooter died, according to Butler County District Attorney Richard A. Goldinger. According to the U.S. Secret Service, a rally attendee also died and two others were wounded.

The U.S. Secret Service counterattack group in military gear rushed into the rally. U.S. Secret Service agents in suits wielded their guns. Some in the crowd screamed in terror.

Rico Elmore, a Republican who was a speaker at the rally, told CNN that he was walking away from the stage where Trump was when the shooting happened. He saw a man he had never met get shot.

“I jumped over the barrier and put my hand on the guy’s head that was profusely bleeding,” Elmore said.

The U.S. Secret Service later released a statement saying the incident was an “active investigation.”

RELATED STORY | Ivanka Trump after shooting: ‘I continue to pray for our country’

Law enforcement evacuated the rally and used crime scene tape to block an area. A police helicopter flew above the area.

Steven Cheung, a spokesman for the Trump campaign, released a statement: “President Trump thanks law enforcement and first responders for their quick action during this heinous act. He is fine and is being checked out at a local medical facility. More details will follow.”

Watch ABC News live

Photos from the rally.

CNN, ABC News, and the Associated Press contributed to this report. Torres is reporting from the Local 10 News headquarters in Pembroke Park.

Copyright 2024 by WPLG - All rights reserved.

About the Author

Andrea torres.

The Emmy Award-winning journalist joined the Local 10 News team in 2013. She wrote for the Miami Herald for more than 9 years and won a Green Eyeshade Award.


Political violence: trump injured during rally, shooter dies, rally attendee dies, 2 injured.

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Mastering Research Grant Writing in 2024: Navigating new policies and funder demands

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Entering the world of grants and government funding can leave you confused; especially when trying to identify the right program for you or your organization. Furthermore, there is a significant shift in the research funding landscape in 2024. This is attributed to evolution in the policies, AI technologies, and increased competition to secure grants.

A report published by Clarivate in 2023 on ‘Research Offices of the Future’ revealed the increasing pressure among research offices to obtain funding. Additionally, the report suggested AI’s potential in compilation of information for grant applications, analysis of unsuccessful grant bids, writing grant applications, and meeting research security requirements set by funders.

Table of Contents

Potential of AI in Grant Application

Currently, the role of AI in grant applications is substantial. However, its potential in revolutionizing researchers’ and institutions’ approach towards grant writing and submission process cannot be ignored. Here are some ways how AI can impact the grant application process:

1. Enhance Proposal Writing

AI-powered tools like TRINKA can assist in drafting and refining grant proposals by providing language suggestions, ensuring clarity, and checking for consistency. These tools can also help in identifying and correcting grammatical errors, improving the overall quality of the application.

2. Identify Suitable Grants

AI algorithms can analyze a researcher’s profile, past work, and current project details to match them with the most appropriate funding opportunities. This targeted approach can improve the chances of finding the right grant programs and reduce the time spent searching for potential funding sources.

3. Provide Data-driven Insights

By analyzing data from previous grant submissions, AI can share strategies on how to present a grant application. It can also suggest relevant literature, methodologies, and potential collaborators aligning with the funder’s priorities.

4. Review and Feedback

AI can analyze the relevance, feasibility, and impact of a research, helping the funding agencies in the evaluation process. For researchers, AI tools can provide a preliminary feedback on their proposals. Furthermore, it can identify the areas for improvement before submitting applications.

While AI promises to have a tremendous impact on the grant application process, it is imperative to address the legal, regulatory, and ethical concerns associated with it. Furthermore, the quality of AI-generated recommendations depends on the quality of the training and input data. This necessitates the need of proper measures for data privacy protection, avoiding misinformation, and inaccurate interpretation of the current funding and grant-making polices.

Trends in Grant Funding

The global trends in grant funding is marked by notable policy changes across major regions. The Funding Trends report by Clarivate suggests a steady increase in the number of grants awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) over the past five years.

Clarivate Funding Trends Report

Source: Clarivate Funding Trends Report – May 2023

However, this has led to increased competition for research funding, with success rates for grant applications  often falling between 10-20%. However, to aid researchers in developing grant applications, Clarivate introduced the Web of Science™ Grants Index in 2024. By integrating awarded grant data from over 400 global funders, the tool helps researchers to make informed decisions by exploring previously funded projects.

Similarly, in Japan, Kakenhi Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research continue to be a significant source of funding, supporting a wide range of research projects. Additionally, these grants provide financial support for creative and pioneering research projects that will become the foundation of social development. The research output obtained from the studies under these grants are widely published in academic journals. Furthermore, the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research ( KAKENHI ) Database consists of “ KAKEN – Search Research Projects .” This facilitates users to search for research projects conducted by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research. As a result, it streamlines the grant search process and increases the chances of securing funding support.

The recent trends in grant procurement highlight both ongoing challenges and new opportunities. These trends include:

1. Emphasis on Societal Issues

There is an increasing focus on grants addressing climate change, public health, and social inequality, with a notable rise in funding for renewable energy research, community health initiatives, and diversity and inclusion programs.

2. Collaborative Grant Programs

Growing popularity of grants encouraging partnerships between multiple stakeholders, emphasizing interdisciplinary approaches and cross-sector collaboration.

3. Sustainability

Rising interest in projects that deliver immediate results and have long-term positive impacts on communities, ecosystems, and economies.

4. Advances in Technology

Use of data analytics and AI by funding agencies to better assess the impact and feasibility of proposals, leading to more informed decision-making.

5. Intense Competition

Increased competition for limited funding, with donors prioritizing innovative, impactful, and well-written projects that address significant issues.

In response to these trends, there is a growing emphasis on capacity building and support services to help applicants improve their grant-writing skills and develop robust proposals. A data published by NIH reported a success rate of approximately 20% in 2022 for research grant application. Therefore it is essential to understand the criteria for funding decisions. Although different funding bodies have varying requirements, here are some general criteria followed by the funders for fund allocation and decision making.

General Criteria for Fund Allocation

Different funding agencies tailor these criteria to their specific missions and strategic goals. This ensures that the most promising and relevant projects receive support. Therefore, understanding the funder requirements can increase the chances of funding.

Writing Effective Grant Proposals

The quality of a grant application can significantly influence the outcome. This makes it essential to craft a compelling and well-organized proposal. A well-written grant application not only increases the chances of receiving funds but also has far-reaching impacts.

Impact of a well written grant application

Researchers can also consider professional grant writing services like Enago Grant Writing Service . These experts not only guide you in targeting the right grants for your discipline and type of research but also tailors grant proposals to the requirements of specific agencies, while maintaining its quality. This maximizes your chances of acceptance with minimal time investment.

As we traverse through the evolving landscape of research funding in 2024, mastering the art of grant writing becomes increasingly crucial. The competitive nature of securing grants necessitates a strategic approach. This includes integration of AI technologies to streamline and enhance the application process. Furthermore, by relying on the right tools and staying abreast of global trends, researchers can position themselves more favorably in the quest for funding. With continued emphasis on training and support services, researchers can address the funding dilemma.

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Parkinson’s Expert Visited the White House Eight Times in Eight Months

The White House said President Biden had met with a neurologist only three times in more than three years in office, and implied that the doctor’s visits were related to treating other people.

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President Biden departing Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. A group follows him.

By Emily Baumgaertner and Peter Baker

Emily Baumgaertner is the national health care correspondent. Peter Baker is the chief White House correspondent.

  • July 8, 2024

An expert on Parkinson’s disease from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center visited the White House eight times in eight months from last summer through this spring, including at least once for a meeting with President Biden’s physician, according to official visitor logs.

The expert, Dr. Kevin Cannard, is a neurologist who specializes in movement disorders and recently published a paper on Parkinson’s. The logs, released by the White House, document visits from July 2023 through March of this year. More recent visits, if there have been any, would not be released until later under the White House’s voluntary disclosure policy.

It was unclear whether Dr. Cannard was at the White House to consult specifically about the president or was there for unrelated meetings. Dr. Cannard’s LinkedIn page describes him as “supporting the White House Medical Unit” for more than 12 years. His biography on Doximity , a website for health professionals, lists him as a “neurology consultant to the White House Medical Unit and the physician to the president” from 2012 to 2022, which would include the administrations of Presidents Barack Obama and Donald J. Trump.

Records from the Obama administration, when Mr. Biden was vice president, show that Dr. Cannard made at least 10 visits in 2012 plus a family tour; four in 2013; one in 2014; four in 2015; and eight in 2016. Mr. Trump rescinded Mr. Obama’s voluntary White House visitors disclosure policy, so records are not available for his four years in office.

Dr. Cannard did not respond to repeated requests for comment. In a statement released at 9:40 p.m. on Monday, Dr. Kevin O’Connor, the White House physician, confirmed that Dr. Cannard had seen Mr. Biden three times during the three and a half years of his presidency, but did not directly say whether any of his other visits were related to consulting on the president’s health.

Instead, Dr. O’Connor implied that most of Dr. Cannard’s visits were related to treating other people who work at the White House. “Prior to the pandemic, and following its end, he has held regular neurology clinics at the White House Medical Clinic in support of the thousands of active-duty members assigned in support of White House operations,” Dr. O’Connor wrote.

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Early claims Trump hit by glass fragments undermined by New York Times photos

Brad Reed

Managing Edito

Before joining raw story, brad reed spent eight years writing about technology at and network world. prior to that, he wrote freelance stories for political publications such as alternet and the american prospect. he has a master's degree in business and economics journalism from boston university..

Early claims Trump hit by glass fragments undermined by New York Times photos

Law enforcement officials claimed to two different sources that former President Donald Trump was not grazed by a bullet but rather by glass shards.

The officials in question told both Newsmax's Alex Salvi and Axios' Juliegrace Brufke that Trump was hit by glass shards that may have erupted from the shattering of a teleprompter that was hit by gunfire. Brufke appears to have removed the tweet with the initial claim.

Trump himself later said in a post to Truth Social that his ear was hit by a bullet. And a photograph by New York Times reporter Doug Mills appears to show the bullet. Two other photos Mills took showed Trump being hit in the right ear by the bullet. That photo is available at this link .

The Secret Service did not immediately confirm Trump had been hit by a bullet.

Speaking to the Times , retired FBI special agent Michael Harrigan, a 22-year veteran of the bureau, commented on the photos.

“It absolutely could be showing the displacement of air due to a projectile,” Harrigan said in an interview after reviewing Mills' images. “The angle seems a bit low to have passed through his ear, but not impossible if the gunman fired multiple rounds.”

Earlier on Saturday, law enforcement sources confirmed that the person suspected of firing a weapon at a Pennsylvania Trump rally had been killed, as had at least one person in the crowd.

Videos showed Trump grabbing his neck after apparent gunshots had been fired before Secret Service agents pulled him to the ground. They then took him away in an armored vehicle to a hospital where he was treated for injuries.

Editor's note: This article has been updated to reference New York Times reporting on the attempted assassination attempt.

Stories Chosen For You

History reveals the unpredictability of political rage.

Here is what I know for certain.

Here is what I don’t know, informed by the past two centuries of Kansas history : Anything else.

I do not know what the assassination attempt will mean for the presidential race. Neither does anyone else in the news media, regardless of the authority with which they say it.

I do not know what such violence means for us as a country or state. I don’t know what it means for our collective future. Neither does anyone else, regardless of their professional expertise as academics or politicians or lobbyists or opinion editors. Such experience helps illuminate possible paths, but it cannot tell us which one people will choose.

In moments of crisis, we seek both reassurance and authority. We want to know what’s coming so that we can prepare. As such, volume predominates. Poor-quality information and commentary spreads far and wide as pompous windbags pontificate, meeting market demand for easy answers. Dismiss them. Tune out the noise. Be careful about what news sources you read, what social media channels you access.

Kansas’ past demonstrates the futility of predicting the results of political violence.

In 2009, Wichita abortion provider George Tiller was gunned down his own church. The state continued to debate reproductive freedom, with anti-choice voices only growing in power and influence. Only in 2022 did the state’s populace render a definitive verdict on the issue. Conservative politicians still haven’t let up in the two years since.

A firebombing at the University of Kansas Student Union caused nearly a million dollars in damages in April 1970.

“The conflagration was the culminating act in a day of mayhem and a week of civil unrest in Lawrence, a period some have called the ‘Days of Rage’ that included racial confrontations, student protests, bomb threats, arson, and incidents of sniper fire directed at firefighters,” wrote William Towns.

Yet despite that furor, the campus eventually returned to normal, with the union rebuilding and reopening. The culprit was never found.

For context, both the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr . and presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy had been assassinated in 1968, signifying a dangerous and conflicted era.

Digging even further into the past, Kansas as a state arose during a fervent conflict over slavery. From 1855 to 1859, 55 people were killed during the period of guerrilla warfare dubbed “bleeding Kansas.” We entered the union as a free state in 1861 , but the bloody national Civil War followed. Scholars now believe that roughly 750,000 Americans died .

What made recent unrest different from that of the 1850s and 1860s? Why did some violence beget more violence while other destruction simply fizzled out?

University of Massachusetts, Lowell, professor Arie Perliger spoke to The Conversation website on Saturday and offered a handful of clues .

“Democracy cannot work if the different parties, the different movements, are not willing to work together on some issues,” he said. “Democracy works when multiple groups are willing to reach some kind of consensus through negotiations, to collaborate and to cooperate.”

He continued: “What we’ve seen in the last 17 years, basically since 2008 and the rise of the Tea Party movement , is that there’s increasing polarization in the U.S. … We are forcing out any politicians and policymakers who are interested in collaboration with the other side. That’s one thing. Second, people delegitimize leaders who are willing to collaborate with the other side, hence, presenting them as individuals who betrayed their values and political party. And the third part is that people are delegitimizing their political rivals. They transform a political disagreement into a war in which there is no space for working together to address the challenges they agree are facing the nation.”

To me, Perlinger’s words suggest that while Kansas has seen violence and disagreements in recent decades, it has also been willing to address them through democratic means . When we turn our back on those institutions and the systems they establish, we raise the chance of bloodshed and turmoil unfolding in unpredictable ways.

I don’t know what happens now. Not for Trump, not for the presidential campaign, not for the United States, not for Kansas.

But I do know that our country will decide on the path forward. Let us choose wisely.

Clay Wirestone is Kansas Reflector opinion editor. Through its opinion section, Kansas Reflector works to amplify the voices of people who are affected by public policies or excluded from public debate. Find information, including how to submit your own commentary, here .

Kansas Reflector is part of States Newsroom, a nonprofit news network supported by grants and a coalition of donors as a 501c(3) public charity. Kansas Reflector maintains editorial independence. Contact Editor Sherman Smith for questions: [email protected] . Follow Kansas Reflector on Facebook and X .

Protesters, law enforcement discuss security at the RNC after Trump shooting

On Sunday, the Coalition to March on the Republican National Convention (RNC) affirmed its determination to march Monday morning, on the convention’s first day. “For the past two years all across this country, we pulled together a broad grouping of community organizations, unions, students, immigrant rights, LGBTQ, anti-war groups, and many others,” coalition spokesperson Omar Flores said at a press conference. “We have not had safety issues at any of our several marches or events, and we look forward to our family-friendly march tomorrow, Monday July 15 at 10 a.m., here in Red Arrow Park.”

Earlier this week, the coalition came to an agreement with the city of Milwaukee, the Milwaukee Police Department (MPD) and U.S. Secret Service on a route for its march within sight and sound of the Fiserv Forum, where the RNC will be held. The agreement on the protest route was met without a permit actually being approved by the city. Still, coalition organizers are confident that the agreement significantly decreases the level of risk to marchers.

Over 120 progressive organizations have come together to confront what the coalition calls a “racist and reactionary Republican agenda.” Flores said that on Saturday evening the coalition met with the city and re-confirmed that agreement. A member of the Milwaukee City Attorney’s Office will also attend the march to make sure it proceeds smoothly.

The Sunday press conference came after former President Donald Trump was shot during a rally in Pennsylvania. The FBI identified the shooter as 20-year-old Thomas Matthews Crooks, of Bethel Park, Pennsylvania, who was killed at the scene. On Saturday, the Secret Service said shots had been fired from an elevated position near the stage where Trump spoke. Reports indicate that at least one rally-goer was killed, and two others injured. Trump received a grazing wound to his right ear, and was photographed bloodied and raising his fist in the air while being escorted away by Secret Service agents. The motive for the shooting is unknown and currently under investigation.

The U.S. Secret Service said that there are no plans for changes in the security perimeter for the RNC. During a Sunday afternoon press conference, Audrey Gibson-Cicchino, RNC coordinator for the Secret Service, said, “We’re not anticipating any changes,” adding that the Secret Service and local law enforcement worked for 18 months to develop a security plan. “We are confident in these security plans that are in place for this event, and we’re ready to go.”

Gibson-Cicchino said she could not comment on a statement by Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers, who has called on the Secret Service to ban guns in the outside perimeter of the RNC and that she had not had any conversations on the matter with Evers.

Milwaukee Mayor Cavalier Johnson, MPD Chief Jeffrey Norman, and officials from the FBI also spoke at the press conference. Since the RNC is a “national security event,” it receives the highest degree of security attention from the agency, they explained.

Norman said people have a right to carry firearms under state law. However, he added, “as that is your right, please exercise your right in a responsible manner.” Norman said that MPD “will not tolerate any particular behaviors outside of what is legally allowed in regards to that right.” Johnson reiterated that Wisconsin is an open carry state, and local officials can’t override state law by banning weapons in the RNC’s outer security perimeter. An FBI spokesperson at the Sunday press conference said that there is “no known, articulated threat to the RNC or any specific individual attending.”

To convention attendees and delegates, Norman stressed that a lot of effort is being dedicated to securing the convention. “We are planned and actually ready with the resources,” said Norman. “This is our community, too.”

At the protesters’ press conference, when asked whether the coalition condemns the shooting, Flores repeatedly stressed that “the shooting has nothing to do with us.” The coalition does not anticipate that the shooting will change any plans with the protest, though organizers are prepared make any changes at a moment’s notice. “Honestly, all of the planning from the city has been extremely last minute, so we’re pretty used to last minute changes, and we’ll be ready for anything.”


Wisconsin Examiner is part of States Newsroom, a nonprofit news network supported by grants and a coalition of donors as a 501c(3) public charity. Wisconsin Examiner maintains editorial independence. Contact Editor Ruth Conniff for questions: [email protected] . Follow Wisconsin Examiner on Facebook and X .

News blues on an apprehensive flight to Milwaukee

A version of this article originally appeared in Insider NJ .

As I write this column, I am in the air on the way to Milwaukee to cover the Republican National Convention. The plane is packed with GOP delegates from New Jersey and New York as well as journalists and civilians who have love or business somewhere in the Midwest.

There’s a palpable sense of apprehension on board. It’s the day after former President Donald Trump was wounded in an assassination attempt in what can only be described as a spectacular failure of the multi-billion dollar national security apparatus.

As passengers who boarded at Newark Liberty International, we’ve all just submitted to being poked and prodded by the TSA after taking our shoes and belts off in a kind of homage to that same national security apparatus in place since after 9/11.

EXCLUSIVE: Trump’s ‘secretary of retribution’ has a ‘target list’ of 350 people he wants arrested

Since the last in-person national political convention in 2016, there’s been a mass death event, a violent insurrection timed to happen as President Joe Biden’s 2020 Electoral College win was to be certified and the massive street protests that came after the police murder of George Floyd.

On the plane, reporters and Republican activists feel each other out in their across-the-aisle introductions.

"What outlet do you work for?" comes the inquiry and then the cautious response.

Even in a wounded state, Trump struck a pugilistic profile mouthing what appeared to be the word “fight.” That footage of his blood streaming down his face from his ear is like a Rorschach video . For tens of millions of Americans, Trump was a near martyr. For others, he’s a TV reality star and a convicted felon who should never again hold elected office.

The gunfire that exploded in Butler, Pa., left dead the alleged gunman and an innocent bystander, Corey Comperatore, a former fire chief, who shielded his family from the incoming sniper fire from the shooter’s AR-15. Once again, a nation that spends endless amounts of money on weapons and security is made to seem vulnerable to the actions of a lone actor.

While media commentators assert the broad daylight shooting of a former and would-be president shocks the conscience, it’s just another day in a nation where the smell of gun powder always hangs in the air.

There’s a gun violence epidemic in America with the Brady Center estimating that on an average day 327 Americans are shot and 117 die from their wounds.

Political violence is in our national DNA, and anyone who says otherwise hasn’t been paying attention. As I was packing up my reference materials for the convention, I came across a letter I wrote in August 1964 to Sen. Clifford Case, who was the last New Jersey Republican to be elected to the U.S. Senate. I wrote to suggest that the FBI should be in charge of the investigation into President John F. Kennedy’s murder.

In my third-grade voice, I expressed concern that the 1964 presidential campaign was well underway and there were still so many unanswered questions about the circumstances surrounding Kennedy’s murder. I had been in charge of my younger brothers and sisters when my parents went to mass at St. Catherine’s in Glen Rock in the days after JFK was killed.

I watched in real time horror on TV as Lee Harvey Oswald was shot in the gut during his transfer in Dallas. It was just a warmup for Malcom X, Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy Jr. — it’s what we do.

In the decades since, the national security state’s need to control information, has come at a price of public confidence. Back in 2023, a Gallup poll indicated that 65 percent of Americans believe there was a conspiracy behind the JFK murder. Files from that era are still classified.

Scroll forward to the lead up to Jan. 6, 2021, insurrection and the MAGA movement’s efforts in the aftermath of Trump’s 2020 general election defeat to subvert the Electoral College. According to the inspector general for the Department of Homeland Security, which has responsibility for overseeing the U.S. Secret Service, “many U.S. Secret Service text messages from Jan. 5 and 6, 2021 were erased as part of a device-replacements program.”

We never got a full accounting about what the U.S. Secret Service knew and when they knew it about the first of its kind attack on the U.S. Capitol. It’s always "need to know." And the House of Representatives is now controlled by a majority of Republicans who voted NOT to certify Biden’s electoral college win AFTER the violent assault on the U.S. Capitol.

There’s precious little time for self-examination of any kind.

After a 20-plus-year military binge driven by our war on terror, the Brown University’s Watson Institute estimates the world lost 2.5 million lives indirectly due to the economic collapse, “the destruction of public and health infrastructure” and environmental contamination.

Watson estimates the United States spent $8 trillion in the 20 years since 9/11, setting off the worst refugee crisis since WWII, and collapsed a few nation states in the process. Did we have any reason to feel safer?

It’s a very open question as to whether we can gather as Americans in large crowds at a national political convention in a convivial way that harkens back to those halcyon days captured by Norman Rockwell. The decimation of local newspapers and community owned and operated TV and radio stations have left us as a nation that’s had authenticated news and information replaced by aggregation and social media.

This content is distributed by the corporate news media that are entirely fixated on driving online traffic and uses analytics that customizes our “news” feeds to match our existing prejudices and biases.

Is it any wonder we don’t have a consensus on who won the 2020 election?

This degraded information ecology has both profound public health and civil defense implications. No doubt, this fracturing of our national narrative along the faultiness of red and blue states helped drive our catastrophic COVID-19 death toll of close to 1.2 million Americans. Consider the challenge of finding the necessary public consensus required to confront the real challenges presented by the climate crisis.

By becoming reliant on a news media that relies on affirming our biases we’ve lost the intellectual capacity to challenge ourselves by asking how we know what we know. This becomes particularly problematic when as citizens in a democracy we have to try and hold the national security apparatus accountable, yet we don’t have a clue about what’s actually going on.

stages in writing research report

Supreme Court’s MAGA majority wants us to burn

Mtg’s stock purchase might pose potential conflict of interest: disclosure, i wrote books on trump's crimes — but did not see the supreme court immunity ruling coming.

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