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7. Simple statements ¶

A simple statement is comprised within a single logical line. Several simple statements may occur on a single line separated by semicolons. The syntax for simple statements is:

7.1. Expression statements ¶

Expression statements are used (mostly interactively) to compute and write a value, or (usually) to call a procedure (a function that returns no meaningful result; in Python, procedures return the value None ). Other uses of expression statements are allowed and occasionally useful. The syntax for an expression statement is:

An expression statement evaluates the expression list (which may be a single expression).

In interactive mode, if the value is not None , it is converted to a string using the built-in repr() function and the resulting string is written to standard output on a line by itself (except if the result is None , so that procedure calls do not cause any output.)

7.2. Assignment statements ¶

Assignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to modify attributes or items of mutable objects:

(See section Primaries for the syntax definitions for attributeref , subscription , and slicing .)

An assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that this can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter yielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of the target lists, from left to right.

Assignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target (list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute reference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must ultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and may raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable. The rules observed by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the definition of the object types (see section The standard type hierarchy ).

Assignment of an object to a target list, optionally enclosed in parentheses or square brackets, is recursively defined as follows.

If the target list is a single target with no trailing comma, optionally in parentheses, the object is assigned to that target.

If the target list contains one target prefixed with an asterisk, called a “starred” target: The object must be an iterable with at least as many items as there are targets in the target list, minus one. The first items of the iterable are assigned, from left to right, to the targets before the starred target. The final items of the iterable are assigned to the targets after the starred target. A list of the remaining items in the iterable is then assigned to the starred target (the list can be empty).

Else: The object must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.

Assignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as follows.

If the target is an identifier (name):

If the name does not occur in a global or nonlocal statement in the current code block: the name is bound to the object in the current local namespace.

Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the global namespace or the outer namespace determined by nonlocal , respectively.

The name is rebound if it was already bound. This may cause the reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it has one) to be called.

If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield an object with assignable attributes; if this is not the case, TypeError is raised. That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises an exception (usually but not necessarily AttributeError ).

Note: If the object is a class instance and the attribute reference occurs on both sides of the assignment operator, the right-hand side expression, a.x can access either an instance attribute or (if no instance attribute exists) a class attribute. The left-hand side target a.x is always set as an instance attribute, creating it if necessary. Thus, the two occurrences of a.x do not necessarily refer to the same attribute: if the right-hand side expression refers to a class attribute, the left-hand side creates a new instance attribute as the target of the assignment:

This description does not necessarily apply to descriptor attributes, such as properties created with property() .

If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield either a mutable sequence object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary). Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.

If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the subscript must yield an integer. If it is negative, the sequence’s length is added to it. The resulting value must be a nonnegative integer less than the sequence’s length, and the sequence is asked to assign the assigned object to its item with that index. If the index is out of range, IndexError is raised (assignment to a subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a list).

If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping’s key type, and the mapping is then asked to create a key/value pair which maps the subscript to the assigned object. This can either replace an existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).

For user-defined objects, the __setitem__() method is called with appropriate arguments.

If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference is evaluated. It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a list). The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same type. Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated, insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence’s length. The bounds should evaluate to integers. If either bound is negative, the sequence’s length is added to it. The resulting bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence’s length, inclusive. Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace the slice with the items of the assigned sequence. The length of the slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence, thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the target sequence allows it.

CPython implementation detail: In the current implementation, the syntax for targets is taken to be the same as for expressions, and invalid syntax is rejected during the code generation phase, causing less detailed error messages.

Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps between the left-hand side and the right-hand side are ‘simultaneous’ (for example a, b = b, a swaps two variables), overlaps within the collection of assigned-to variables occur left-to-right, sometimes resulting in confusion. For instance, the following program prints [0, 2] :

The specification for the *target feature.

7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements ¶

Augmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a binary operation and an assignment statement:

(See section Primaries for the syntax definitions of the last three symbols.)

An augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal assignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression list, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment on the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target. The target is only evaluated once.

An augmented assignment expression like x += 1 can be rewritten as x = x + 1 to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In the augmented version, x is only evaluated once. Also, when possible, the actual operation is performed in-place , meaning that rather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target, the old object is modified instead.

Unlike normal assignments, augmented assignments evaluate the left-hand side before evaluating the right-hand side. For example, a[i] += f(x) first looks-up a[i] , then it evaluates f(x) and performs the addition, and lastly, it writes the result back to a[i] .

With the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a single statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment statements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly, with the exception of the possible in-place behavior, the binary operation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal binary operations.

For targets which are attribute references, the same caveat about class and instance attributes applies as for regular assignments.

7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements ¶

Annotation assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a variable or attribute annotation and an optional assignment statement:

The difference from normal Assignment statements is that only a single target is allowed.

For simple names as assignment targets, if in class or module scope, the annotations are evaluated and stored in a special class or module attribute __annotations__ that is a dictionary mapping from variable names (mangled if private) to evaluated annotations. This attribute is writable and is automatically created at the start of class or module body execution, if annotations are found statically.

For expressions as assignment targets, the annotations are evaluated if in class or module scope, but not stored.

If a name is annotated in a function scope, then this name is local for that scope. Annotations are never evaluated and stored in function scopes.

If the right hand side is present, an annotated assignment performs the actual assignment before evaluating annotations (where applicable). If the right hand side is not present for an expression target, then the interpreter evaluates the target except for the last __setitem__() or __setattr__() call.

The proposal that added syntax for annotating the types of variables (including class variables and instance variables), instead of expressing them through comments.

The proposal that added the typing module to provide a standard syntax for type annotations that can be used in static analysis tools and IDEs.

Changed in version 3.8: Now annotated assignments allow the same expressions in the right hand side as regular assignments. Previously, some expressions (like un-parenthesized tuple expressions) caused a syntax error.

7.3. The assert statement ¶

Assert statements are a convenient way to insert debugging assertions into a program:

The simple form, assert expression , is equivalent to

The extended form, assert expression1, expression2 , is equivalent to

These equivalences assume that __debug__ and AssertionError refer to the built-in variables with those names. In the current implementation, the built-in variable __debug__ is True under normal circumstances, False when optimization is requested (command line option -O ). The current code generator emits no code for an assert statement when optimization is requested at compile time. Note that it is unnecessary to include the source code for the expression that failed in the error message; it will be displayed as part of the stack trace.

Assignments to __debug__ are illegal. The value for the built-in variable is determined when the interpreter starts.

7.4. The pass statement ¶

pass is a null operation — when it is executed, nothing happens. It is useful as a placeholder when a statement is required syntactically, but no code needs to be executed, for example:

7.5. The del statement ¶

Deletion is recursively defined very similar to the way assignment is defined. Rather than spelling it out in full details, here are some hints.

Deletion of a target list recursively deletes each target, from left to right.

Deletion of a name removes the binding of that name from the local or global namespace, depending on whether the name occurs in a global statement in the same code block. If the name is unbound, a NameError exception will be raised.

Deletion of attribute references, subscriptions and slicings is passed to the primary object involved; deletion of a slicing is in general equivalent to assignment of an empty slice of the right type (but even this is determined by the sliced object).

Changed in version 3.2: Previously it was illegal to delete a name from the local namespace if it occurs as a free variable in a nested block.

7.6. The return statement ¶

return may only occur syntactically nested in a function definition, not within a nested class definition.

If an expression list is present, it is evaluated, else None is substituted.

return leaves the current function call with the expression list (or None ) as return value.

When return passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really leaving the function.

In a generator function, the return statement indicates that the generator is done and will cause StopIteration to be raised. The returned value (if any) is used as an argument to construct StopIteration and becomes the StopIteration.value attribute.

In an asynchronous generator function, an empty return statement indicates that the asynchronous generator is done and will cause StopAsyncIteration to be raised. A non-empty return statement is a syntax error in an asynchronous generator function.

7.7. The yield statement ¶

A yield statement is semantically equivalent to a yield expression . The yield statement can be used to omit the parentheses that would otherwise be required in the equivalent yield expression statement. For example, the yield statements

are equivalent to the yield expression statements

Yield expressions and statements are only used when defining a generator function, and are only used in the body of the generator function. Using yield in a function definition is sufficient to cause that definition to create a generator function instead of a normal function.

For full details of yield semantics, refer to the Yield expressions section.

7.8. The raise statement ¶

If no expressions are present, raise re-raises the exception that is currently being handled, which is also known as the active exception . If there isn’t currently an active exception, a RuntimeError exception is raised indicating that this is an error.

Otherwise, raise evaluates the first expression as the exception object. It must be either a subclass or an instance of BaseException . If it is a class, the exception instance will be obtained when needed by instantiating the class with no arguments.

The type of the exception is the exception instance’s class, the value is the instance itself.

A traceback object is normally created automatically when an exception is raised and attached to it as the __traceback__ attribute. You can create an exception and set your own traceback in one step using the with_traceback() exception method (which returns the same exception instance, with its traceback set to its argument), like so:

The from clause is used for exception chaining: if given, the second expression must be another exception class or instance. If the second expression is an exception instance, it will be attached to the raised exception as the __cause__ attribute (which is writable). If the expression is an exception class, the class will be instantiated and the resulting exception instance will be attached to the raised exception as the __cause__ attribute. If the raised exception is not handled, both exceptions will be printed:

A similar mechanism works implicitly if a new exception is raised when an exception is already being handled. An exception may be handled when an except or finally clause, or a with statement, is used. The previous exception is then attached as the new exception’s __context__ attribute:

Exception chaining can be explicitly suppressed by specifying None in the from clause:

Additional information on exceptions can be found in section Exceptions , and information about handling exceptions is in section The try statement .

Changed in version 3.3: None is now permitted as Y in raise X from Y .

New in version 3.3: The __suppress_context__ attribute to suppress automatic display of the exception context.

Changed in version 3.11: If the traceback of the active exception is modified in an except clause, a subsequent raise statement re-raises the exception with the modified traceback. Previously, the exception was re-raised with the traceback it had when it was caught.

7.9. The break statement ¶

break may only occur syntactically nested in a for or while loop, but not nested in a function or class definition within that loop.

It terminates the nearest enclosing loop, skipping the optional else clause if the loop has one.

If a for loop is terminated by break , the loop control target keeps its current value.

When break passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really leaving the loop.

7.10. The continue statement ¶

continue may only occur syntactically nested in a for or while loop, but not nested in a function or class definition within that loop. It continues with the next cycle of the nearest enclosing loop.

When continue passes control out of a try statement with a finally clause, that finally clause is executed before really starting the next loop cycle.

7.11. The import statement ¶

The basic import statement (no from clause) is executed in two steps:

find a module, loading and initializing it if necessary

define a name or names in the local namespace for the scope where the import statement occurs.

When the statement contains multiple clauses (separated by commas) the two steps are carried out separately for each clause, just as though the clauses had been separated out into individual import statements.

The details of the first step, finding and loading modules, are described in greater detail in the section on the import system , which also describes the various types of packages and modules that can be imported, as well as all the hooks that can be used to customize the import system. Note that failures in this step may indicate either that the module could not be located, or that an error occurred while initializing the module, which includes execution of the module’s code.

If the requested module is retrieved successfully, it will be made available in the local namespace in one of three ways:

If the module name is followed by as , then the name following as is bound directly to the imported module.

If no other name is specified, and the module being imported is a top level module, the module’s name is bound in the local namespace as a reference to the imported module

If the module being imported is not a top level module, then the name of the top level package that contains the module is bound in the local namespace as a reference to the top level package. The imported module must be accessed using its full qualified name rather than directly

The from form uses a slightly more complex process:

find the module specified in the from clause, loading and initializing it if necessary;

for each of the identifiers specified in the import clauses:

check if the imported module has an attribute by that name

if not, attempt to import a submodule with that name and then check the imported module again for that attribute

if the attribute is not found, ImportError is raised.

otherwise, a reference to that value is stored in the local namespace, using the name in the as clause if it is present, otherwise using the attribute name

If the list of identifiers is replaced by a star ( '*' ), all public names defined in the module are bound in the local namespace for the scope where the import statement occurs.

The public names defined by a module are determined by checking the module’s namespace for a variable named __all__ ; if defined, it must be a sequence of strings which are names defined or imported by that module. The names given in __all__ are all considered public and are required to exist. If __all__ is not defined, the set of public names includes all names found in the module’s namespace which do not begin with an underscore character ( '_' ). __all__ should contain the entire public API. It is intended to avoid accidentally exporting items that are not part of the API (such as library modules which were imported and used within the module).

The wild card form of import — from module import * — is only allowed at the module level. Attempting to use it in class or function definitions will raise a SyntaxError .

When specifying what module to import you do not have to specify the absolute name of the module. When a module or package is contained within another package it is possible to make a relative import within the same top package without having to mention the package name. By using leading dots in the specified module or package after from you can specify how high to traverse up the current package hierarchy without specifying exact names. One leading dot means the current package where the module making the import exists. Two dots means up one package level. Three dots is up two levels, etc. So if you execute from . import mod from a module in the pkg package then you will end up importing pkg.mod . If you execute from ..subpkg2 import mod from within pkg.subpkg1 you will import pkg.subpkg2.mod . The specification for relative imports is contained in the Package Relative Imports section.

importlib.import_module() is provided to support applications that determine dynamically the modules to be loaded.

Raises an auditing event import with arguments module , filename , sys.path , sys.meta_path , sys.path_hooks .

7.11.1. Future statements ¶

A future statement is a directive to the compiler that a particular module should be compiled using syntax or semantics that will be available in a specified future release of Python where the feature becomes standard.

The future statement is intended to ease migration to future versions of Python that introduce incompatible changes to the language. It allows use of the new features on a per-module basis before the release in which the feature becomes standard.

A future statement must appear near the top of the module. The only lines that can appear before a future statement are:

the module docstring (if any),

blank lines, and

other future statements.

The only feature that requires using the future statement is annotations (see PEP 563 ).

All historical features enabled by the future statement are still recognized by Python 3. The list includes absolute_import , division , generators , generator_stop , unicode_literals , print_function , nested_scopes and with_statement . They are all redundant because they are always enabled, and only kept for backwards compatibility.

A future statement is recognized and treated specially at compile time: Changes to the semantics of core constructs are often implemented by generating different code. It may even be the case that a new feature introduces new incompatible syntax (such as a new reserved word), in which case the compiler may need to parse the module differently. Such decisions cannot be pushed off until runtime.

For any given release, the compiler knows which feature names have been defined, and raises a compile-time error if a future statement contains a feature not known to it.

The direct runtime semantics are the same as for any import statement: there is a standard module __future__ , described later, and it will be imported in the usual way at the time the future statement is executed.

The interesting runtime semantics depend on the specific feature enabled by the future statement.

Note that there is nothing special about the statement:

That is not a future statement; it’s an ordinary import statement with no special semantics or syntax restrictions.

Code compiled by calls to the built-in functions exec() and compile() that occur in a module M containing a future statement will, by default, use the new syntax or semantics associated with the future statement. This can be controlled by optional arguments to compile() — see the documentation of that function for details.

A future statement typed at an interactive interpreter prompt will take effect for the rest of the interpreter session. If an interpreter is started with the -i option, is passed a script name to execute, and the script includes a future statement, it will be in effect in the interactive session started after the script is executed.

The original proposal for the __future__ mechanism.

7.12. The global statement ¶

The global statement is a declaration which holds for the entire current code block. It means that the listed identifiers are to be interpreted as globals. It would be impossible to assign to a global variable without global , although free variables may refer to globals without being declared global.

Names listed in a global statement must not be used in the same code block textually preceding that global statement.

Names listed in a global statement must not be defined as formal parameters, or as targets in with statements or except clauses, or in a for target list, class definition, function definition, import statement, or variable annotation.

CPython implementation detail: The current implementation does not enforce some of these restrictions, but programs should not abuse this freedom, as future implementations may enforce them or silently change the meaning of the program.

Programmer’s note: global is a directive to the parser. It applies only to code parsed at the same time as the global statement. In particular, a global statement contained in a string or code object supplied to the built-in exec() function does not affect the code block containing the function call, and code contained in such a string is unaffected by global statements in the code containing the function call. The same applies to the eval() and compile() functions.

7.13. The nonlocal statement ¶

The nonlocal statement causes the listed identifiers to refer to previously bound variables in the nearest enclosing scope excluding globals. This is important because the default behavior for binding is to search the local namespace first. The statement allows encapsulated code to rebind variables outside of the local scope besides the global (module) scope.

Names listed in a nonlocal statement, unlike those listed in a global statement, must refer to pre-existing bindings in an enclosing scope (the scope in which a new binding should be created cannot be determined unambiguously).

Names listed in a nonlocal statement must not collide with pre-existing bindings in the local scope.

The specification for the nonlocal statement.

7.14. The type statement ¶

The type statement declares a type alias, which is an instance of typing.TypeAliasType .

For example, the following statement creates a type alias:

This code is roughly equivalent to:

annotation-def indicates an annotation scope , which behaves mostly like a function, but with several small differences.

The value of the type alias is evaluated in the annotation scope. It is not evaluated when the type alias is created, but only when the value is accessed through the type alias’s __value__ attribute (see Lazy evaluation ). This allows the type alias to refer to names that are not yet defined.

Type aliases may be made generic by adding a type parameter list after the name. See Generic type aliases for more.

type is a soft keyword .

New in version 3.12.

Introduced the type statement and syntax for generic classes and functions.

Table of Contents

  • 7.1. Expression statements
  • 7.2.1. Augmented assignment statements
  • 7.2.2. Annotated assignment statements
  • 7.3. The assert statement
  • 7.4. The pass statement
  • 7.5. The del statement
  • 7.6. The return statement
  • 7.7. The yield statement
  • 7.8. The raise statement
  • 7.9. The break statement
  • 7.10. The continue statement
  • 7.11.1. Future statements
  • 7.12. The global statement
  • 7.13. The nonlocal statement
  • 7.14. The type statement

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Basic Statements in Python

Table of contents, what is a statement in python, statement set, multi-line statements, simple statements, expression statements, the assert statement, the try statement.

Statements in Python

In Python, statements are instructions or commands that you write to perform specific actions or tasks. They are the building blocks of a Python program.

A statement is a line of code that performs a specific action. It is the smallest unit of code that can be executed by the Python interpreter.

Assignment Statement

In this example, the value 10 is assigned to the variable x using the assignment statement.

Conditional Statement

In this example, the if-else statement is used to check the value of x and print a corresponding message.

By using statements, programmers can instruct the computer to perform a variety of tasks, from simple arithmetic operations to complex decision-making processes. Proper use of statements is crucial to writing efficient and effective Python code.

Here's a table summarizing various types of statements in Python:

Please note that this table provides a brief overview of each statement type, and there may be additional details and variations for each statement.

Multi-line statements are a convenient way to write long code in Python without making it cluttered. They allow you to write several lines of code as a single statement, making it easier for developers to read and understand the code. Here are two examples of multi-line statements in Python:

  • Using backslash:
  • Using parentheses:

Simple statements are the smallest unit of execution in Python programming language and they do not contain any logical or conditional expressions. They are usually composed of a single line of code and can perform basic operations such as assigning values to variables , printing out values, or calling functions .

Examples of simple statements in Python:

Simple statements are essential to programming in Python and are often used in combination with more complex statements to create robust programs and applications.

To learn more about simple statements and how they can be used in Python, check out the official Python documentation or consult with a professional Python programmer.

Expression statements in Python are lines of code that evaluate and produce a value. They are used to assign values to variables, call functions, and perform other operations that produce a result.

In this example, we assign the value 5 to the variable x , then add 3 to x and assign the result ( 8 ) to the variable y . Finally, we print the value of y .

In this example, we define a function square that takes one argument ( x ) and returns its square. We then call the function with the argument 5 and assign the result ( 25 ) to the variable result . Finally, we print the value of result .

Overall, expression statements are an essential part of Python programming and allow for the execution of mathematical and computational operations.

The assert statement in Python is used to test conditions and trigger an error if the condition is not met. It is often used for debugging and testing purposes.

Where condition is the expression that is tested, and message is the optional error message that is displayed when the condition is not met.

In this example, the assert statement tests whether x is equal to 5 . If the condition is met, the statement has no effect. If the condition is not met, an error will be raised with the message x should be 5 .

In this example, the assert statement tests whether y is not equal to 0 before performing the division. If the condition is met, the division proceeds as normal. If the condition is not met, an error will be raised with the message Cannot divide by zero .

Overall, assert statements are a useful tool in Python for debugging and testing, as they can help catch errors early on. They are also easily disabled in production code to avoid any unnecessary overhead.

The try statement in Python is used to catch exceptions that may occur during the execution of a block of code. It ensures that even when an error occurs, the code does not stop running.

Examples of Error Processing

Dive deep into the topic.

  • Match Statements
  • Operators in Python Statements
  • The IF Statement

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Python Enhancement Proposals

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PEP 572 – Assignment Expressions

The importance of real code, exceptional cases, scope of the target, relative precedence of :=, change to evaluation order, differences between assignment expressions and assignment statements, specification changes during implementation, _pydecimal.py, datetime.py, sysconfig.py, simplifying list comprehensions, capturing condition values, changing the scope rules for comprehensions, alternative spellings, special-casing conditional statements, special-casing comprehensions, lowering operator precedence, allowing commas to the right, always requiring parentheses, why not just turn existing assignment into an expression, with assignment expressions, why bother with assignment statements, why not use a sublocal scope and prevent namespace pollution, style guide recommendations, acknowledgements, a numeric example, appendix b: rough code translations for comprehensions, appendix c: no changes to scope semantics.

This is a proposal for creating a way to assign to variables within an expression using the notation NAME := expr .

As part of this change, there is also an update to dictionary comprehension evaluation order to ensure key expressions are executed before value expressions (allowing the key to be bound to a name and then re-used as part of calculating the corresponding value).

During discussion of this PEP, the operator became informally known as “the walrus operator”. The construct’s formal name is “Assignment Expressions” (as per the PEP title), but they may also be referred to as “Named Expressions” (e.g. the CPython reference implementation uses that name internally).

Naming the result of an expression is an important part of programming, allowing a descriptive name to be used in place of a longer expression, and permitting reuse. Currently, this feature is available only in statement form, making it unavailable in list comprehensions and other expression contexts.

Additionally, naming sub-parts of a large expression can assist an interactive debugger, providing useful display hooks and partial results. Without a way to capture sub-expressions inline, this would require refactoring of the original code; with assignment expressions, this merely requires the insertion of a few name := markers. Removing the need to refactor reduces the likelihood that the code be inadvertently changed as part of debugging (a common cause of Heisenbugs), and is easier to dictate to another programmer.

During the development of this PEP many people (supporters and critics both) have had a tendency to focus on toy examples on the one hand, and on overly complex examples on the other.

The danger of toy examples is twofold: they are often too abstract to make anyone go “ooh, that’s compelling”, and they are easily refuted with “I would never write it that way anyway”.

The danger of overly complex examples is that they provide a convenient strawman for critics of the proposal to shoot down (“that’s obfuscated”).

Yet there is some use for both extremely simple and extremely complex examples: they are helpful to clarify the intended semantics. Therefore, there will be some of each below.

However, in order to be compelling , examples should be rooted in real code, i.e. code that was written without any thought of this PEP, as part of a useful application, however large or small. Tim Peters has been extremely helpful by going over his own personal code repository and picking examples of code he had written that (in his view) would have been clearer if rewritten with (sparing) use of assignment expressions. His conclusion: the current proposal would have allowed a modest but clear improvement in quite a few bits of code.

Another use of real code is to observe indirectly how much value programmers place on compactness. Guido van Rossum searched through a Dropbox code base and discovered some evidence that programmers value writing fewer lines over shorter lines.

Case in point: Guido found several examples where a programmer repeated a subexpression, slowing down the program, in order to save one line of code, e.g. instead of writing:

they would write:

Another example illustrates that programmers sometimes do more work to save an extra level of indentation:

This code tries to match pattern2 even if pattern1 has a match (in which case the match on pattern2 is never used). The more efficient rewrite would have been:

Syntax and semantics

In most contexts where arbitrary Python expressions can be used, a named expression can appear. This is of the form NAME := expr where expr is any valid Python expression other than an unparenthesized tuple, and NAME is an identifier.

The value of such a named expression is the same as the incorporated expression, with the additional side-effect that the target is assigned that value:

There are a few places where assignment expressions are not allowed, in order to avoid ambiguities or user confusion:

This rule is included to simplify the choice for the user between an assignment statement and an assignment expression – there is no syntactic position where both are valid.

Again, this rule is included to avoid two visually similar ways of saying the same thing.

This rule is included to disallow excessively confusing code, and because parsing keyword arguments is complex enough already.

This rule is included to discourage side effects in a position whose exact semantics are already confusing to many users (cf. the common style recommendation against mutable default values), and also to echo the similar prohibition in calls (the previous bullet).

The reasoning here is similar to the two previous cases; this ungrouped assortment of symbols and operators composed of : and = is hard to read correctly.

This allows lambda to always bind less tightly than := ; having a name binding at the top level inside a lambda function is unlikely to be of value, as there is no way to make use of it. In cases where the name will be used more than once, the expression is likely to need parenthesizing anyway, so this prohibition will rarely affect code.

This shows that what looks like an assignment operator in an f-string is not always an assignment operator. The f-string parser uses : to indicate formatting options. To preserve backwards compatibility, assignment operator usage inside of f-strings must be parenthesized. As noted above, this usage of the assignment operator is not recommended.

An assignment expression does not introduce a new scope. In most cases the scope in which the target will be bound is self-explanatory: it is the current scope. If this scope contains a nonlocal or global declaration for the target, the assignment expression honors that. A lambda (being an explicit, if anonymous, function definition) counts as a scope for this purpose.

There is one special case: an assignment expression occurring in a list, set or dict comprehension or in a generator expression (below collectively referred to as “comprehensions”) binds the target in the containing scope, honoring a nonlocal or global declaration for the target in that scope, if one exists. For the purpose of this rule the containing scope of a nested comprehension is the scope that contains the outermost comprehension. A lambda counts as a containing scope.

The motivation for this special case is twofold. First, it allows us to conveniently capture a “witness” for an any() expression, or a counterexample for all() , for example:

Second, it allows a compact way of updating mutable state from a comprehension, for example:

However, an assignment expression target name cannot be the same as a for -target name appearing in any comprehension containing the assignment expression. The latter names are local to the comprehension in which they appear, so it would be contradictory for a contained use of the same name to refer to the scope containing the outermost comprehension instead.

For example, [i := i+1 for i in range(5)] is invalid: the for i part establishes that i is local to the comprehension, but the i := part insists that i is not local to the comprehension. The same reason makes these examples invalid too:

While it’s technically possible to assign consistent semantics to these cases, it’s difficult to determine whether those semantics actually make sense in the absence of real use cases. Accordingly, the reference implementation [1] will ensure that such cases raise SyntaxError , rather than executing with implementation defined behaviour.

This restriction applies even if the assignment expression is never executed:

For the comprehension body (the part before the first “for” keyword) and the filter expression (the part after “if” and before any nested “for”), this restriction applies solely to target names that are also used as iteration variables in the comprehension. Lambda expressions appearing in these positions introduce a new explicit function scope, and hence may use assignment expressions with no additional restrictions.

Due to design constraints in the reference implementation (the symbol table analyser cannot easily detect when names are re-used between the leftmost comprehension iterable expression and the rest of the comprehension), named expressions are disallowed entirely as part of comprehension iterable expressions (the part after each “in”, and before any subsequent “if” or “for” keyword):

A further exception applies when an assignment expression occurs in a comprehension whose containing scope is a class scope. If the rules above were to result in the target being assigned in that class’s scope, the assignment expression is expressly invalid. This case also raises SyntaxError :

(The reason for the latter exception is the implicit function scope created for comprehensions – there is currently no runtime mechanism for a function to refer to a variable in the containing class scope, and we do not want to add such a mechanism. If this issue ever gets resolved this special case may be removed from the specification of assignment expressions. Note that the problem already exists for using a variable defined in the class scope from a comprehension.)

See Appendix B for some examples of how the rules for targets in comprehensions translate to equivalent code.

The := operator groups more tightly than a comma in all syntactic positions where it is legal, but less tightly than all other operators, including or , and , not , and conditional expressions ( A if C else B ). As follows from section “Exceptional cases” above, it is never allowed at the same level as = . In case a different grouping is desired, parentheses should be used.

The := operator may be used directly in a positional function call argument; however it is invalid directly in a keyword argument.

Some examples to clarify what’s technically valid or invalid:

Most of the “valid” examples above are not recommended, since human readers of Python source code who are quickly glancing at some code may miss the distinction. But simple cases are not objectionable:

This PEP recommends always putting spaces around := , similar to PEP 8 ’s recommendation for = when used for assignment, whereas the latter disallows spaces around = used for keyword arguments.)

In order to have precisely defined semantics, the proposal requires evaluation order to be well-defined. This is technically not a new requirement, as function calls may already have side effects. Python already has a rule that subexpressions are generally evaluated from left to right. However, assignment expressions make these side effects more visible, and we propose a single change to the current evaluation order:

  • In a dict comprehension {X: Y for ...} , Y is currently evaluated before X . We propose to change this so that X is evaluated before Y . (In a dict display like {X: Y} this is already the case, and also in dict((X, Y) for ...) which should clearly be equivalent to the dict comprehension.)

Most importantly, since := is an expression, it can be used in contexts where statements are illegal, including lambda functions and comprehensions.

Conversely, assignment expressions don’t support the advanced features found in assignment statements:

  • Multiple targets are not directly supported: x = y = z = 0 # Equivalent: (z := (y := (x := 0)))
  • Single assignment targets other than a single NAME are not supported: # No equivalent a [ i ] = x self . rest = []
  • Priority around commas is different: x = 1 , 2 # Sets x to (1, 2) ( x := 1 , 2 ) # Sets x to 1
  • Iterable packing and unpacking (both regular or extended forms) are not supported: # Equivalent needs extra parentheses loc = x , y # Use (loc := (x, y)) info = name , phone , * rest # Use (info := (name, phone, *rest)) # No equivalent px , py , pz = position name , phone , email , * other_info = contact
  • Inline type annotations are not supported: # Closest equivalent is "p: Optional[int]" as a separate declaration p : Optional [ int ] = None
  • Augmented assignment is not supported: total += tax # Equivalent: (total := total + tax)

The following changes have been made based on implementation experience and additional review after the PEP was first accepted and before Python 3.8 was released:

  • for consistency with other similar exceptions, and to avoid locking in an exception name that is not necessarily going to improve clarity for end users, the originally proposed TargetScopeError subclass of SyntaxError was dropped in favour of just raising SyntaxError directly. [3]
  • due to a limitation in CPython’s symbol table analysis process, the reference implementation raises SyntaxError for all uses of named expressions inside comprehension iterable expressions, rather than only raising them when the named expression target conflicts with one of the iteration variables in the comprehension. This could be revisited given sufficiently compelling examples, but the extra complexity needed to implement the more selective restriction doesn’t seem worthwhile for purely hypothetical use cases.

Examples from the Python standard library

env_base is only used on these lines, putting its assignment on the if moves it as the “header” of the block.

  • Current: env_base = os . environ . get ( "PYTHONUSERBASE" , None ) if env_base : return env_base
  • Improved: if env_base := os . environ . get ( "PYTHONUSERBASE" , None ): return env_base

Avoid nested if and remove one indentation level.

  • Current: if self . _is_special : ans = self . _check_nans ( context = context ) if ans : return ans
  • Improved: if self . _is_special and ( ans := self . _check_nans ( context = context )): return ans

Code looks more regular and avoid multiple nested if. (See Appendix A for the origin of this example.)

  • Current: reductor = dispatch_table . get ( cls ) if reductor : rv = reductor ( x ) else : reductor = getattr ( x , "__reduce_ex__" , None ) if reductor : rv = reductor ( 4 ) else : reductor = getattr ( x , "__reduce__" , None ) if reductor : rv = reductor () else : raise Error ( "un(deep)copyable object of type %s " % cls )
  • Improved: if reductor := dispatch_table . get ( cls ): rv = reductor ( x ) elif reductor := getattr ( x , "__reduce_ex__" , None ): rv = reductor ( 4 ) elif reductor := getattr ( x , "__reduce__" , None ): rv = reductor () else : raise Error ( "un(deep)copyable object of type %s " % cls )

tz is only used for s += tz , moving its assignment inside the if helps to show its scope.

  • Current: s = _format_time ( self . _hour , self . _minute , self . _second , self . _microsecond , timespec ) tz = self . _tzstr () if tz : s += tz return s
  • Improved: s = _format_time ( self . _hour , self . _minute , self . _second , self . _microsecond , timespec ) if tz := self . _tzstr (): s += tz return s

Calling fp.readline() in the while condition and calling .match() on the if lines make the code more compact without making it harder to understand.

  • Current: while True : line = fp . readline () if not line : break m = define_rx . match ( line ) if m : n , v = m . group ( 1 , 2 ) try : v = int ( v ) except ValueError : pass vars [ n ] = v else : m = undef_rx . match ( line ) if m : vars [ m . group ( 1 )] = 0
  • Improved: while line := fp . readline (): if m := define_rx . match ( line ): n , v = m . group ( 1 , 2 ) try : v = int ( v ) except ValueError : pass vars [ n ] = v elif m := undef_rx . match ( line ): vars [ m . group ( 1 )] = 0

A list comprehension can map and filter efficiently by capturing the condition:

Similarly, a subexpression can be reused within the main expression, by giving it a name on first use:

Note that in both cases the variable y is bound in the containing scope (i.e. at the same level as results or stuff ).

Assignment expressions can be used to good effect in the header of an if or while statement:

Particularly with the while loop, this can remove the need to have an infinite loop, an assignment, and a condition. It also creates a smooth parallel between a loop which simply uses a function call as its condition, and one which uses that as its condition but also uses the actual value.

An example from the low-level UNIX world:

Rejected alternative proposals

Proposals broadly similar to this one have come up frequently on python-ideas. Below are a number of alternative syntaxes, some of them specific to comprehensions, which have been rejected in favour of the one given above.

A previous version of this PEP proposed subtle changes to the scope rules for comprehensions, to make them more usable in class scope and to unify the scope of the “outermost iterable” and the rest of the comprehension. However, this part of the proposal would have caused backwards incompatibilities, and has been withdrawn so the PEP can focus on assignment expressions.

Broadly the same semantics as the current proposal, but spelled differently.

Since EXPR as NAME already has meaning in import , except and with statements (with different semantics), this would create unnecessary confusion or require special-casing (e.g. to forbid assignment within the headers of these statements).

(Note that with EXPR as VAR does not simply assign the value of EXPR to VAR – it calls EXPR.__enter__() and assigns the result of that to VAR .)

Additional reasons to prefer := over this spelling include:

  • In if f(x) as y the assignment target doesn’t jump out at you – it just reads like if f x blah blah and it is too similar visually to if f(x) and y .
  • import foo as bar
  • except Exc as var
  • with ctxmgr() as var

To the contrary, the assignment expression does not belong to the if or while that starts the line, and we intentionally allow assignment expressions in other contexts as well.

  • if NAME := EXPR

reinforces the visual recognition of assignment expressions.

This syntax is inspired by languages such as R and Haskell, and some programmable calculators. (Note that a left-facing arrow y <- f(x) is not possible in Python, as it would be interpreted as less-than and unary minus.) This syntax has a slight advantage over ‘as’ in that it does not conflict with with , except and import , but otherwise is equivalent. But it is entirely unrelated to Python’s other use of -> (function return type annotations), and compared to := (which dates back to Algol-58) it has a much weaker tradition.

This has the advantage that leaked usage can be readily detected, removing some forms of syntactic ambiguity. However, this would be the only place in Python where a variable’s scope is encoded into its name, making refactoring harder.

Execution order is inverted (the indented body is performed first, followed by the “header”). This requires a new keyword, unless an existing keyword is repurposed (most likely with: ). See PEP 3150 for prior discussion on this subject (with the proposed keyword being given: ).

This syntax has fewer conflicts than as does (conflicting only with the raise Exc from Exc notation), but is otherwise comparable to it. Instead of paralleling with expr as target: (which can be useful but can also be confusing), this has no parallels, but is evocative.

One of the most popular use-cases is if and while statements. Instead of a more general solution, this proposal enhances the syntax of these two statements to add a means of capturing the compared value:

This works beautifully if and ONLY if the desired condition is based on the truthiness of the captured value. It is thus effective for specific use-cases (regex matches, socket reads that return '' when done), and completely useless in more complicated cases (e.g. where the condition is f(x) < 0 and you want to capture the value of f(x) ). It also has no benefit to list comprehensions.

Advantages: No syntactic ambiguities. Disadvantages: Answers only a fraction of possible use-cases, even in if / while statements.

Another common use-case is comprehensions (list/set/dict, and genexps). As above, proposals have been made for comprehension-specific solutions.

This brings the subexpression to a location in between the ‘for’ loop and the expression. It introduces an additional language keyword, which creates conflicts. Of the three, where reads the most cleanly, but also has the greatest potential for conflict (e.g. SQLAlchemy and numpy have where methods, as does tkinter.dnd.Icon in the standard library).

As above, but reusing the with keyword. Doesn’t read too badly, and needs no additional language keyword. Is restricted to comprehensions, though, and cannot as easily be transformed into “longhand” for-loop syntax. Has the C problem that an equals sign in an expression can now create a name binding, rather than performing a comparison. Would raise the question of why “with NAME = EXPR:” cannot be used as a statement on its own.

As per option 2, but using as rather than an equals sign. Aligns syntactically with other uses of as for name binding, but a simple transformation to for-loop longhand would create drastically different semantics; the meaning of with inside a comprehension would be completely different from the meaning as a stand-alone statement, while retaining identical syntax.

Regardless of the spelling chosen, this introduces a stark difference between comprehensions and the equivalent unrolled long-hand form of the loop. It is no longer possible to unwrap the loop into statement form without reworking any name bindings. The only keyword that can be repurposed to this task is with , thus giving it sneakily different semantics in a comprehension than in a statement; alternatively, a new keyword is needed, with all the costs therein.

There are two logical precedences for the := operator. Either it should bind as loosely as possible, as does statement-assignment; or it should bind more tightly than comparison operators. Placing its precedence between the comparison and arithmetic operators (to be precise: just lower than bitwise OR) allows most uses inside while and if conditions to be spelled without parentheses, as it is most likely that you wish to capture the value of something, then perform a comparison on it:

Once find() returns -1, the loop terminates. If := binds as loosely as = does, this would capture the result of the comparison (generally either True or False ), which is less useful.

While this behaviour would be convenient in many situations, it is also harder to explain than “the := operator behaves just like the assignment statement”, and as such, the precedence for := has been made as close as possible to that of = (with the exception that it binds tighter than comma).

Some critics have claimed that the assignment expressions should allow unparenthesized tuples on the right, so that these two would be equivalent:

(With the current version of the proposal, the latter would be equivalent to ((point := x), y) .)

However, adopting this stance would logically lead to the conclusion that when used in a function call, assignment expressions also bind less tight than comma, so we’d have the following confusing equivalence:

The less confusing option is to make := bind more tightly than comma.

It’s been proposed to just always require parentheses around an assignment expression. This would resolve many ambiguities, and indeed parentheses will frequently be needed to extract the desired subexpression. But in the following cases the extra parentheses feel redundant:

Frequently Raised Objections

C and its derivatives define the = operator as an expression, rather than a statement as is Python’s way. This allows assignments in more contexts, including contexts where comparisons are more common. The syntactic similarity between if (x == y) and if (x = y) belies their drastically different semantics. Thus this proposal uses := to clarify the distinction.

The two forms have different flexibilities. The := operator can be used inside a larger expression; the = statement can be augmented to += and its friends, can be chained, and can assign to attributes and subscripts.

Previous revisions of this proposal involved sublocal scope (restricted to a single statement), preventing name leakage and namespace pollution. While a definite advantage in a number of situations, this increases complexity in many others, and the costs are not justified by the benefits. In the interests of language simplicity, the name bindings created here are exactly equivalent to any other name bindings, including that usage at class or module scope will create externally-visible names. This is no different from for loops or other constructs, and can be solved the same way: del the name once it is no longer needed, or prefix it with an underscore.

(The author wishes to thank Guido van Rossum and Christoph Groth for their suggestions to move the proposal in this direction. [2] )

As expression assignments can sometimes be used equivalently to statement assignments, the question of which should be preferred will arise. For the benefit of style guides such as PEP 8 , two recommendations are suggested.

  • If either assignment statements or assignment expressions can be used, prefer statements; they are a clear declaration of intent.
  • If using assignment expressions would lead to ambiguity about execution order, restructure it to use statements instead.

The authors wish to thank Alyssa Coghlan and Steven D’Aprano for their considerable contributions to this proposal, and members of the core-mentorship mailing list for assistance with implementation.

Appendix A: Tim Peters’s findings

Here’s a brief essay Tim Peters wrote on the topic.

I dislike “busy” lines of code, and also dislike putting conceptually unrelated logic on a single line. So, for example, instead of:

instead. So I suspected I’d find few places I’d want to use assignment expressions. I didn’t even consider them for lines already stretching halfway across the screen. In other cases, “unrelated” ruled:

is a vast improvement over the briefer:

The original two statements are doing entirely different conceptual things, and slamming them together is conceptually insane.

In other cases, combining related logic made it harder to understand, such as rewriting:

as the briefer:

The while test there is too subtle, crucially relying on strict left-to-right evaluation in a non-short-circuiting or method-chaining context. My brain isn’t wired that way.

But cases like that were rare. Name binding is very frequent, and “sparse is better than dense” does not mean “almost empty is better than sparse”. For example, I have many functions that return None or 0 to communicate “I have nothing useful to return in this case, but since that’s expected often I’m not going to annoy you with an exception”. This is essentially the same as regular expression search functions returning None when there is no match. So there was lots of code of the form:

I find that clearer, and certainly a bit less typing and pattern-matching reading, as:

It’s also nice to trade away a small amount of horizontal whitespace to get another _line_ of surrounding code on screen. I didn’t give much weight to this at first, but it was so very frequent it added up, and I soon enough became annoyed that I couldn’t actually run the briefer code. That surprised me!

There are other cases where assignment expressions really shine. Rather than pick another from my code, Kirill Balunov gave a lovely example from the standard library’s copy() function in copy.py :

The ever-increasing indentation is semantically misleading: the logic is conceptually flat, “the first test that succeeds wins”:

Using easy assignment expressions allows the visual structure of the code to emphasize the conceptual flatness of the logic; ever-increasing indentation obscured it.

A smaller example from my code delighted me, both allowing to put inherently related logic in a single line, and allowing to remove an annoying “artificial” indentation level:

That if is about as long as I want my lines to get, but remains easy to follow.

So, in all, in most lines binding a name, I wouldn’t use assignment expressions, but because that construct is so very frequent, that leaves many places I would. In most of the latter, I found a small win that adds up due to how often it occurs, and in the rest I found a moderate to major win. I’d certainly use it more often than ternary if , but significantly less often than augmented assignment.

I have another example that quite impressed me at the time.

Where all variables are positive integers, and a is at least as large as the n’th root of x, this algorithm returns the floor of the n’th root of x (and roughly doubling the number of accurate bits per iteration):

It’s not obvious why that works, but is no more obvious in the “loop and a half” form. It’s hard to prove correctness without building on the right insight (the “arithmetic mean - geometric mean inequality”), and knowing some non-trivial things about how nested floor functions behave. That is, the challenges are in the math, not really in the coding.

If you do know all that, then the assignment-expression form is easily read as “while the current guess is too large, get a smaller guess”, where the “too large?” test and the new guess share an expensive sub-expression.

To my eyes, the original form is harder to understand:

This appendix attempts to clarify (though not specify) the rules when a target occurs in a comprehension or in a generator expression. For a number of illustrative examples we show the original code, containing a comprehension, and the translation, where the comprehension has been replaced by an equivalent generator function plus some scaffolding.

Since [x for ...] is equivalent to list(x for ...) these examples all use list comprehensions without loss of generality. And since these examples are meant to clarify edge cases of the rules, they aren’t trying to look like real code.

Note: comprehensions are already implemented via synthesizing nested generator functions like those in this appendix. The new part is adding appropriate declarations to establish the intended scope of assignment expression targets (the same scope they resolve to as if the assignment were performed in the block containing the outermost comprehension). For type inference purposes, these illustrative expansions do not imply that assignment expression targets are always Optional (but they do indicate the target binding scope).

Let’s start with a reminder of what code is generated for a generator expression without assignment expression.

  • Original code (EXPR usually references VAR): def f (): a = [ EXPR for VAR in ITERABLE ]
  • Translation (let’s not worry about name conflicts): def f (): def genexpr ( iterator ): for VAR in iterator : yield EXPR a = list ( genexpr ( iter ( ITERABLE )))

Let’s add a simple assignment expression.

  • Original code: def f (): a = [ TARGET := EXPR for VAR in ITERABLE ]
  • Translation: def f (): if False : TARGET = None # Dead code to ensure TARGET is a local variable def genexpr ( iterator ): nonlocal TARGET for VAR in iterator : TARGET = EXPR yield TARGET a = list ( genexpr ( iter ( ITERABLE )))

Let’s add a global TARGET declaration in f() .

  • Original code: def f (): global TARGET a = [ TARGET := EXPR for VAR in ITERABLE ]
  • Translation: def f (): global TARGET def genexpr ( iterator ): global TARGET for VAR in iterator : TARGET = EXPR yield TARGET a = list ( genexpr ( iter ( ITERABLE )))

Or instead let’s add a nonlocal TARGET declaration in f() .

  • Original code: def g (): TARGET = ... def f (): nonlocal TARGET a = [ TARGET := EXPR for VAR in ITERABLE ]
  • Translation: def g (): TARGET = ... def f (): nonlocal TARGET def genexpr ( iterator ): nonlocal TARGET for VAR in iterator : TARGET = EXPR yield TARGET a = list ( genexpr ( iter ( ITERABLE )))

Finally, let’s nest two comprehensions.

  • Original code: def f (): a = [[ TARGET := i for i in range ( 3 )] for j in range ( 2 )] # I.e., a = [[0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 2]] print ( TARGET ) # prints 2
  • Translation: def f (): if False : TARGET = None def outer_genexpr ( outer_iterator ): nonlocal TARGET def inner_generator ( inner_iterator ): nonlocal TARGET for i in inner_iterator : TARGET = i yield i for j in outer_iterator : yield list ( inner_generator ( range ( 3 ))) a = list ( outer_genexpr ( range ( 2 ))) print ( TARGET )

Because it has been a point of confusion, note that nothing about Python’s scoping semantics is changed. Function-local scopes continue to be resolved at compile time, and to have indefinite temporal extent at run time (“full closures”). Example:

This document has been placed in the public domain.

Source: https://github.com/python/peps/blob/main/peps/pep-0572.rst

Last modified: 2023-10-11 12:05:51 GMT


Python Numerical Methods


This notebook contains an excerpt from the Python Programming and Numerical Methods - A Guide for Engineers and Scientists , the content is also available at Berkeley Python Numerical Methods .

The copyright of the book belongs to Elsevier. We also have this interactive book online for a better learning experience. The code is released under the MIT license . If you find this content useful, please consider supporting the work on Elsevier or Amazon !

< 2.0 Variables and Basic Data Structures | Contents | 2.2 Data Structure - Strings >

Variables and Assignment ¶

When programming, it is useful to be able to store information in variables. A variable is a string of characters and numbers associated with a piece of information. The assignment operator , denoted by the “=” symbol, is the operator that is used to assign values to variables in Python. The line x=1 takes the known value, 1, and assigns that value to the variable with name “x”. After executing this line, this number will be stored into this variable. Until the value is changed or the variable deleted, the character x behaves like the value 1.

TRY IT! Assign the value 2 to the variable y. Multiply y by 3 to show that it behaves like the value 2.

A variable is more like a container to store the data in the computer’s memory, the name of the variable tells the computer where to find this value in the memory. For now, it is sufficient to know that the notebook has its own memory space to store all the variables in the notebook. As a result of the previous example, you will see the variable “x” and “y” in the memory. You can view a list of all the variables in the notebook using the magic command %whos .

TRY IT! List all the variables in this notebook

Note that the equal sign in programming is not the same as a truth statement in mathematics. In math, the statement x = 2 declares the universal truth within the given framework, x is 2 . In programming, the statement x=2 means a known value is being associated with a variable name, store 2 in x. Although it is perfectly valid to say 1 = x in mathematics, assignments in Python always go left : meaning the value to the right of the equal sign is assigned to the variable on the left of the equal sign. Therefore, 1=x will generate an error in Python. The assignment operator is always last in the order of operations relative to mathematical, logical, and comparison operators.

TRY IT! The mathematical statement x=x+1 has no solution for any value of x . In programming, if we initialize the value of x to be 1, then the statement makes perfect sense. It means, “Add x and 1, which is 2, then assign that value to the variable x”. Note that this operation overwrites the previous value stored in x .

There are some restrictions on the names variables can take. Variables can only contain alphanumeric characters (letters and numbers) as well as underscores. However, the first character of a variable name must be a letter or underscores. Spaces within a variable name are not permitted, and the variable names are case-sensitive (e.g., x and X will be considered different variables).

TIP! Unlike in pure mathematics, variables in programming almost always represent something tangible. It may be the distance between two points in space or the number of rabbits in a population. Therefore, as your code becomes increasingly complicated, it is very important that your variables carry a name that can easily be associated with what they represent. For example, the distance between two points in space is better represented by the variable dist than x , and the number of rabbits in a population is better represented by nRabbits than y .

Note that when a variable is assigned, it has no memory of how it was assigned. That is, if the value of a variable, y , is constructed from other variables, like x , reassigning the value of x will not change the value of y .

EXAMPLE: What value will y have after the following lines of code are executed?

WARNING! You can overwrite variables or functions that have been stored in Python. For example, the command help = 2 will store the value 2 in the variable with name help . After this assignment help will behave like the value 2 instead of the function help . Therefore, you should always be careful not to give your variables the same name as built-in functions or values.

TIP! Now that you know how to assign variables, it is important that you learn to never leave unassigned commands. An unassigned command is an operation that has a result, but that result is not assigned to a variable. For example, you should never use 2+2 . You should instead assign it to some variable x=2+2 . This allows you to “hold on” to the results of previous commands and will make your interaction with Python must less confusing.

You can clear a variable from the notebook using the del function. Typing del x will clear the variable x from the workspace. If you want to remove all the variables in the notebook, you can use the magic command %reset .

In mathematics, variables are usually associated with unknown numbers; in programming, variables are associated with a value of a certain type. There are many data types that can be assigned to variables. A data type is a classification of the type of information that is being stored in a variable. The basic data types that you will utilize throughout this book are boolean, int, float, string, list, tuple, dictionary, set. A formal description of these data types is given in the following sections.


Learning Python by doing

  • suggest edit

Variables, Expressions, and Assignments

Variables, expressions, and assignments 1 #, introduction #.

In this chapter, we introduce some of the main building blocks needed to create programs–that is, variables, expressions, and assignments. Programming related variables can be intepret in the same way that we interpret mathematical variables, as elements that store values that can later be changed. Usually, variables and values are used within the so-called expressions. Once again, just as in mathematics, an expression is a construct of values and variables connected with operators that result in a new value. Lastly, an assignment is a language construct know as an statement that assign a value (either as a constant or expression) to a variable. The rest of this notebook will dive into the main concepts that we need to fully understand these three language constructs.

Values and Types #

A value is the basic unit used in a program. It may be, for instance, a number respresenting temperature. It may be a string representing a word. Some values are 42, 42.0, and ‘Hello, Data Scientists!’.

Each value has its own type : 42 is an integer ( int in Python), 42.0 is a floating-point number ( float in Python), and ‘Hello, Data Scientists!’ is a string ( str in Python).

The Python interpreter can tell you the type of a value: the function type takes a value as argument and returns its corresponding type.

Observe the difference between type(42) and type('42') !

Expressions and Statements #

On the one hand, an expression is a combination of values, variables, and operators.

A value all by itself is considered an expression, and so is a variable.

When you type an expression at the prompt, the interpreter evaluates it, which means that it calculates the value of the expression and displays it.

In boxes above, m has the value 27 and m + 25 has the value 52 . m + 25 is said to be an expression.

On the other hand, a statement is an instruction that has an effect, like creating a variable or displaying a value.

The first statement initializes the variable n with the value 17 , this is a so-called assignment statement .

The second statement is a print statement that prints the value of the variable n .

The effect is not always visible. Assigning a value to a variable is not visible, but printing the value of a variable is.

Assignment Statements #

We have already seen that Python allows you to evaluate expressions, for instance 40 + 2 . It is very convenient if we are able to store the calculated value in some variable for future use. The latter can be done via an assignment statement. An assignment statement creates a new variable with a given name and assigns it a value.

The example in the previous code contains three assignments. The first one assigns the value of the expression 40 + 2 to a new variable called magicnumber ; the second one assigns the value of π to the variable pi , and; the last assignment assigns the string value 'Data is eatig the world' to the variable message .

Programmers generally choose names for their variables that are meaningful. In this way, they document what the variable is used for.

Do It Yourself!

Let’s compute the volume of a cube with side \(s = 5\) . Remember that the volume of a cube is defined as \(v = s^3\) . Assign the value to a variable called volume .

Well done! Now, why don’t you print the result in a message? It can say something like “The volume of the cube with side 5 is \(volume\) ”.

Beware that there is no checking of types ( type checking ) in Python, so a variable to which you have assigned an integer may be re-used as a float, even if we provide type-hints .

Names and Keywords #

Names of variable and other language constructs such as functions (we will cover this topic later), should be meaningful and reflect the purpose of the construct.

In general, Python names should adhere to the following rules:

It should start with a letter or underscore.

It cannot start with a number.

It must only contain alpha-numeric (i.e., letters a-z A-Z and digits 0-9) characters and underscores.

They cannot share the name of a Python keyword.

If you use illegal variable names you will get a syntax error.

By choosing the right variables names you make the code self-documenting, what is better the variable v or velocity ?

The following are examples of invalid variable names.

These basic development principles are sometimes called architectural rules . By defining and agreeing upon architectural rules you make it easier for you and your fellow developers to understand and modify your code.

If you want to read more on this, please have a look at Code complete a book by Steven McConnell [ McC04 ] .

Every programming language has a collection of reserved keywords . They are used in predefined language constructs, such as loops and conditionals . These language concepts and their usage will be explained later.

The interpreter uses keywords to recognize these language constructs in a program. Python 3 has the following keywords:

False class finally is return

None continue for lambda try

True def from nonlocal while

and del global not with

as elif if or yield

assert else import pass break

except in raise

Reassignments #

It is allowed to assign a new value to an existing variable. This process is called reassignment . As soon as you assign a value to a variable, the old value is lost.

The assignment of a variable to another variable, for instance b = a does not imply that if a is reassigned then b changes as well.

You have a variable salary that shows the weekly salary of an employee. However, you want to compute the monthly salary. Can you reassign the value to the salary variable according to the instruction?

Updating Variables #

A frequently used reassignment is for updating puposes: the value of a variable depends on the previous value of the variable.

This statement expresses “get the current value of x , add one, and then update x with the new value.”

Beware, that the variable should be initialized first, usually with a simple assignment.

Do you remember the salary excercise of the previous section (cf. 13. Reassignments)? Well, if you have not done it yet, update the salary variable by using its previous value.

Updating a variable by adding 1 is called an increment ; subtracting 1 is called a decrement . A shorthand way of doing is using += and -= , which stands for x = x + ... and x = x - ... respectively.

Order of Operations #

Expressions may contain multiple operators. The order of evaluation depends on the priorities of the operators also known as rules of precedence .

For mathematical operators, Python follows mathematical convention. The acronym PEMDAS is a useful way to remember the rules:

Parentheses have the highest precedence and can be used to force an expression to evaluate in the order you want. Since expressions in parentheses are evaluated first, 2 * (3 - 1) is 4 , and (1 + 1)**(5 - 2) is 8 . You can also use parentheses to make an expression easier to read, even if it does not change the result.

Exponentiation has the next highest precedence, so 1 + 2**3 is 9 , not 27 , and 2 * 3**2 is 18 , not 36 .

Multiplication and division have higher precedence than addition and subtraction . So 2 * 3 - 1 is 5 , not 4 , and 6 + 4 / 2 is 8 , not 5 .

Operators with the same precedence are evaluated from left to right (except exponentiation). So in the expression degrees / 2 * pi , the division happens first and the result is multiplied by pi . To divide by 2π, you can use parentheses or write: degrees / 2 / pi .

In case of doubt, use parentheses!

Let’s see what happens when we evaluate the following expressions. Just run the cell to check the resulting value.

Floor Division and Modulus Operators #

The floor division operator // divides two numbers and rounds down to an integer.

For example, suppose that driving to the south of France takes 555 minutes. You might want to know how long that is in hours.

Conventional division returns a floating-point number.

Hours are normally not represented with decimal points. Floor division returns the integer number of hours, dropping the fraction part.

You spend around 225 minutes every week on programming activities. You want to know around how many hours you invest to this activity during a month. Use the \(//\) operator to give the answer.

The modulus operator % works on integer values. It computes the remainder when dividing the first integer by the second one.

The modulus operator is more useful than it seems.

For example, you can check whether one number is divisible by another—if x % y is zero, then x is divisible by y .

String Operations #

In general, you cannot perform mathematical operations on strings, even if the strings look like numbers, so the following operations are illegal: '2'-'1' 'eggs'/'easy' 'third'*'a charm'

But there are two exceptions, + and * .

The + operator performs string concatenation, which means it joins the strings by linking them end-to-end.

The * operator also works on strings; it performs repetition.

Speedy Gonzales is a cartoon known to be the fastest mouse in all Mexico . He is also famous for saying “Arriba Arriba Andale Arriba Arriba Yepa”. Can you use the following variables, namely arriba , andale and yepa to print the mentioned expression? Don’t forget to use the string operators.

Asking the User for Input #

The programs we have written so far accept no input from the user.

To get data from the user through the Python prompt, we can use the built-in function input .

When input is called your whole program stops and waits for the user to enter the required data. Once the user types the value and presses Return or Enter , the function returns the input value as a string and the program continues with its execution.

Try it out!

You can also print a message to clarify the purpose of the required input as follows.

The resulting string can later be translated to a different type, like an integer or a float. To do so, you use the functions int and float , respectively. But be careful, the user might introduce a value that cannot be converted to the type you required.

We want to know the name of a user so we can display a welcome message in our program. The message should say something like “Hello \(name\) , welcome to our hello world program!”.

Script Mode #

So far we have run Python in interactive mode in these Jupyter notebooks, which means that you interact directly with the interpreter in the code cells . The interactive mode is a good way to get started, but if you are working with more than a few lines of code, it can be clumsy. The alternative is to save code in a file called a script and then run the interpreter in script mode to execute the script. By convention, Python scripts have names that end with .py .

Use the PyCharm icon in Anaconda Navigator to create and execute stand-alone Python scripts. Later in the course, you will have to work with Python projects for the assignments, in order to get acquainted with another way of interacing with Python code.

This Jupyter Notebook is based on Chapter 2 of the books Python for Everybody [ Sev16 ] and Think Python (Sections 5.1, 7.1, 7.2, and 5.12) [ Dow15 ] .

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Assignment Operators in Python

Operators are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic, logical, bitwise computations. The value the operator operates on is known as Operand .

Here, we will cover Assignment Operators in Python. So, Assignment Operators are used to assigning values to variables. 

Now Let’s see each Assignment Operator one by one.

1) Assign: This operator is used to assign the value of the right side of the expression to the left side operand.

2) Add and Assign: This operator is used to add the right side operand with the left side operand and then assigning the result to the left operand.


3) Subtract and Assign: This operator is used to subtract the right operand from the left operand and then assigning the result to the left operand.

Example –

 4) Multiply and Assign: This operator is used to multiply the right operand with the left operand and then assigning the result to the left operand.

 5) Divide and Assign: This operator is used to divide the left operand with the right operand and then assigning the result to the left operand.

 6) Modulus and Assign: This operator is used to take the modulus using the left and the right operands and then assigning the result to the left operand.

7) Divide (floor) and Assign: This operator is used to divide the left operand with the right operand and then assigning the result(floor) to the left operand.

 8) Exponent and Assign: This operator is used to calculate the exponent(raise power) value using operands and then assigning the result to the left operand.

9) Bitwise AND and Assign: This operator is used to perform Bitwise AND on both operands and then assigning the result to the left operand.

10) Bitwise OR and Assign: This operator is used to perform Bitwise OR on the operands and then assigning result to the left operand.

11) Bitwise XOR and Assign:  This operator is used to perform Bitwise XOR on the operands and then assigning result to the left operand.

12) Bitwise Right Shift and Assign: This operator is used to perform Bitwise right shift on the operands and then assigning result to the left operand.

 13) Bitwise Left Shift and Assign:  This operator is used to perform Bitwise left shift on the operands and then assigning result to the left operand.

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CS105: Introduction to Python

Variables and assignment statements.

Computers must be able to remember and store data. This can be accomplished by creating a variable to house a given value. The assignment operator = is used to associate a variable name with a given value. For example, type the command:

in the command line window. This command assigns the value 3.45 to the variable named a . Next, type the command:

in the command window and hit the enter key. You should see the value contained in the variable a echoed to the screen. This variable will remember the value 3.45 until it is assigned a different value. To see this, type these two commands:

You should see the new value contained in the variable a echoed to the screen. The new value has "overwritten" the old value. We must be careful since once an old value has been overwritten, it is no longer remembered. The new value is now what is being remembered.

Although we will not discuss arithmetic operations in detail until the next unit, you can at least be equipped with the syntax for basic operations: + (addition), - (subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division)

For example, entering these command sequentially into the command line window:

would result in 12.32 being echoed to the screen (just as you would expect from a calculator). The syntax for multiplication works similarly. For example:

would result in 35 being echoed to the screen because the variable b has been assigned the value a * 5 where, at the time of execution, the variable a contains a value of 7.

After you read, you should be able to execute simple assignment commands using integer and float values in the command window of the Repl.it IDE. Try typing some more of the examples from this web page to convince yourself that a variable has been assigned a specific value.

In programming, we associate names with values so that we can remember and use them later. Recall Example 1. The repeated computation in that algorithm relied on remembering the intermediate sum and the integer to be added to that sum to get the new sum. In expressing the algorithm, we used th e names current and sum .

In programming, a name that refers to a value in this fashion is called a variable . When we think of values as data stored somewhere i n the computer, we can have a mental image such as the one below for the value 10 stored in the computer and the variable x , which is the name we give to 10. What is most important is to see that there is a binding between x and 10.

The term variable comes from the fact that values that are bound to variables can change throughout computation. Bindings as shown above are created, and changed by assignment statements . An assignment statement associates the name to the left of the symbol = with the value denoted by the expression on the right of =. The binding in the picture is created using an assignment statemen t of the form x = 10 . We usually read such an assignment statement as "10 is assigned to x" or "x is set to 10".

If we want to change the value that x refers to, we can use another assignment statement to do that. Suppose we execute x = 25 in the state where x is bound to 10.Then our image becomes as follows:

Choosing variable names

Suppose that we u sed the variables x and y in place of the variables side and area in the examples above. Now, if we were to compute some other value for the square that depends on the length of the side , such as the perimeter or length of the diagonal, we would have to remember which of x and y , referred to the length of the side because x and y are not as descriptive as side and area . In choosing variable names, we have to keep in mind that programs are read and maintained by human beings, not only executed by machines.

Note about syntax

In Python, variable identifiers can contain uppercase and lowercase letters, digits (provided they don't start with a digit) and the special character _ (underscore). Although it is legal to use uppercase letters in variable identifiers, we typically do not use them by convention. Variable identifiers are also case-sensitive. For example, side and Side are two different variable identifiers.

There is a collection of words, called reserved words (also known as keywords), in Python that have built-in meanings and therefore cannot be used as variable names. For the list of Python's keywords See 2.3.1 of the Python Language Reference.

Syntax and Sema ntic Errors

Now that we know how to write arithmetic expressions and assignment statements in Python, we can pause and think about what Python does if we write something that the Python interpreter cannot interpret. Python informs us about such problems by giving an error message. Broadly speaking there are two categories for Python errors:

  • Syntax errors: These occur when we write Python expressions or statements that are not well-formed according to Python's syntax. For example, if we attempt to write an assignment statement such as 13 = age , Python gives a syntax error. This is because Python syntax says that for an assignment statement to be well-formed it must contain a variable on the left hand side (LHS) of the assignment operator "=" and a well-formed expression on the right hand side (RHS), and 13 is not a variable.
  • Semantic errors: These occur when the Python interpreter cannot evaluate expressions or execute statements because they cannot be associated with a "meaning" that the interpreter can use. For example, the expression age + 1 is well-formed but it has a meaning only when age is already bound to a value. If we attempt to evaluate this expression before age is bound to some value by a prior assignment then Python gives a semantic error.

Even though we have used numerical expressions in all of our examples so far, assignments are not confined to numerical types. They could involve expressions built from any defined type. Recall the table that summarizes the basic types in Python.

The following video shows execution of assignment statements involving strings. It also introduces some commonly used operators on strings. For more information see the online documentation. In the video below, you see the Python shell displaying "=> None" after the assignment statements. This is unique to the Python shell presented in the video. In most Python programming environments, nothing is displayed after an assignment statement. The difference in behavior stems from version differences between the programming environment used in the video and in the activities, and can be safely ignored.

Distinguishing Expressions and Assignments

So far in the module, we have been careful to keep the distinction between the terms expression and statement because there is a conceptual difference between them, which is sometimes overlooked. Expressions denote values; they are evaluated to yield a value. On the other hand, statements are commands (instructions) that change the state of the computer. You can think of state here as some representation of computer memory and the binding of variables and values in the memory. In a state where the variable side is bound to the integer 3, and the variable area is yet unbound, the value of the expression side + 2 is 5. The assignment statement side = side + 2 , changes the state so that value 5 is bound to side in the new state. Note that when you type an expression in the Python shell, Python evaluates the expression and you get a value in return. On the other hand, if you type an assignment statement nothing is returned. Assignment statements do not return a value. Try, for example, typing x = 100 + 50 . Python adds 100 to 50, gets the value 150, and binds x to 150. However, we only see the prompt >>> after Python does the assignment. We don't see the change in the state until we inspect the value of x , by invoking x .

What we have learned so far can be summarized as using the Python interpreter to manipulate values of some primitive data types such as integers, real numbers, and character strings by evaluating expressions that involve built-in operators on these types. Assignments statements let us name the values that appear in expressions. While what we have learned so far allows us to do some computations conveniently, they are limited in their generality and reusability. Next, we introduce functions as a means to make computations more general and reusable.

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Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables:

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2.3: Arithmetic Operations and Assignment Statements

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  • Page ID 206261

  • Robert Belford
  • University of Arkansas at Little Rock

hypothes.is tag:  s20iostpy03ualr Download Assignment:  S2020py03

Learning Objectives

Students will be able to:

  • Explain each Python arithmetic operator
  • Explain the meaning and use of an  assignment statement
  • Explain the use of "+"  and "*" with strings and numbers
  • Use the  int()   and  float()  functions to convert string input to numbers for computation
  • Incorporate numeric formatting into print statements
  • Recognize the four main operations of a computer within a simple Python program
  • Create  input  statements in Python
  • Create  Python  code that performs mathematical and string operations
  • Create  Python  code that uses assignment statements
  • Create  Python   code that formats numeric output

Prior Knowledge

  • Understanding of Python print and input statements
  • Understanding of mathematical operations
  • Understanding of flowchart input symbols

Further Reading

  • https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Non-Programmer%27s_Tutorial_for_Python_3/Hello,_World
  • https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Non-Programmer%27s_Tutorial_for_Python_3/Who_Goes_There%3F

Model 1: Arithmetic Operators in  Python

Python includes several arithmetic operators: addition, subtraction, multiplication, two types of division, exponentiation and  mod .

Critical Thinking Questions:

1.  Draw a line between each flowchart symbol and its corresponding line of Python code. Make note of any problems.

2. Execute the print statements in the previous Python program

    a.  Next to each print statement above, write the output.     b.  What is the value of the following line of code?

    c.  Predict the values of 17%3 and 18%3 without using your computer.

3.  Explain the purpose of each arithmetic operation:

a.               +          ____________________________

b.               -           ____________________________

c.               *          ____________________________

d.               **        ____________________________

e.               /           ____________________________

f.                //          ____________________________

g.                %         ____________________________

An  assignment statement  is a line of code that uses a "=" sign. The statement stores the result of an operation performed on the right-hand side of the sign into the variable memory location on the left-hand side.

4.         Enter and execute the following lines of Python code in the editor window of your IDE (e.g. Thonny):

 a.  What are the variables in the above python program?    b.  What does the  assignment statement :  MethaneMolMs = 16  do?    c.  What happens if you replace the comma (,) in the print statements with a plus sign (+) and execute the code again?  Why does this happen?

5.    What is stored in memory after each assignment statement is executed?

variable assignments

Note: Concatenating Strings in python

The "+"  concatenates  the two strings stored in the variables into one string.    "+" can only be used when both operators are strings.

6.         Run the following program in the editor window of your IDE (e.g. Thonny) to see what happens if you try to use the "+" with strings instead of numbers?

   a.  The third line of code contains an assignment statement. What is stored in  fullName   when the line is executed?    b.  What is the difference between the two output lines?    c.  How could you alter your assignment statements so that  print(fullName)  gives the same output as  print(firstName,lastName)    d. Only one of the following programs will work. Which one will work, and why doesn’t the other work? Try doing this without running the programs!

   e.  Run the programs above and see if you were correct.    f.  The program that worked above results in no space between the number and the street name. How can you alter the code so that it prints properly while using a concatenation operator?

7.  Before entering the following code into the Python interpreter (Thonny IDE editor window), predict the output of this program.

Now execute it.  What is the actual output?  Is this what you thought it would do?  Explain.

8.   Let’s take a look at a python program that prompts the user for two numbers and subtracts them. 

            Execute the following code by entering it in the editor window of Thonny.

      a.   What output do you expect?       b.   What is the actual output       c.   Revise the program in the following manner:

  • Between lines two and three add the following lines of code:       num1 = int(firstNumber)      num2 = int(secondNumber)
  • Next, replace the statement:     difference = firstNumber – secondNumber with the statement:     difference = num1 – num2
  • Execute the program again. What output did you get?

     d.  Explain the purpose of the function  int().      e.  Explain how the changes in the program produced the desired output.

Model 3: Formatting Output in  Python

There are multiple ways to format output in python. The old way is to use the string modulo %, and the new way is with a format method function.

9.  Look closely at the output for python program 7.

    a. How do you indicate the number of decimals to display using

the string modulo (%) ______________________________________________________

the format function ________________________________________________________

     b. What happens to the number if you tell it to display less decimals than are in the number, regardless of formatting method used?

     c. What type of code allows you to right justify your numbers?

10.       Execute the following code by entering it in the editor window of Thonny.

a.  Does the output look like standard output for something that has dollars and cents associated with it?

b.  Replace the last line of code with the following:

print("Total cost of laptops: $%.2f" % price)   

print("Total cost of laptops:" ,format(price, '.2f.))

                Discuss the change in the output.


c.  Replace the last line of code with the following:

print("Total cost of laptops: $",   format(price,'.2f') print("Total cost of laptops: $" ,format(price, '.2f.))

              Discuss the change in the output.

d.  Experiment with the number ".2" in the ‘0.2f’ of the print above statement by substituting the following numbers and explain the results.

                     .4         ___________________________________________________

                     .0         ___________________________________________________

                     .1         ___________________________________________________

                     .8         ___________________________________________________

e.  Now try the following numbers in the same print statement. These numbers contain a whole number and a decimal. Explain the output for each number.

                     02.5     ___________________________________________________

                     08.2     ___________________________________________________

                     03.1     ___________________________________________________

f.  Explain what each part of the format function:  format(variable,  "%n.nf")  does in a print statement where n.n represents a number.

variable ____________________________           First n _________________________

Second n_______________________                      f    _________________________

g.          Revise the print statement by changing the "f" to "d" and  laptopCost = 600 . Execute the statements and explain the output format.

            print("Total cost of laptops: %2d" % price)             print("Total cost of laptops: %10d" % price)

h.         Explain how the function  format(var,'10d')  formats numeric data.  var  represents a whole number.

11.    Use the following program and output to answer the questions below.

a.   From the code and comments in the previous program, explain how the four main operations are implemented in this program. b.  There is one new function in this sample program.  What is it? From the corresponding output, determine what it does.

Application Questions: Use the Python Interpreter to check your work

  • 8 to the 4 th  power
  • The sum of 5 and 6 multiplied by the quotient of 34 and 7 using floating point arithmetic  
  • Write an assignment statement that stores the remainder obtained from dividing 87 and 8 in the variable  leftover  
  • Assume:  

courseLabel = "CHEM" courseNumber = "3350"

Write a line of Python code that concatenates the label with the number and stores the result in the variable  courseName . Be sure that there is a space between the course label and the course number when they are concatenated.

  • Write one line of Python code that will print the word "Happy!" one hundred times.  
  • Write one line of code that calculates the cost of 15 items and stores the result in the variable  totalCost
  • Write one line of code that prints the total cost with a label, a dollar sign, and exactly two decimal places.  Sample output:  Total cost: $22.5  
  • Assume: 

height1 = 67850 height2 = 456

Use Python formatting to write two print statements that will produce the following output exactly at it appears below:


Homework Assignment: s2020py03

Download the assignment from the website, fill out the word document, and upload to your Google Drive folder the completed assignment along with the two python files.

1. (5 pts)  Write a Python program that prompts the user for two numbers, and then gives the sum and product of those two numbers. Your sample output should look like this:

Enter your first number:10 Enter your second number:2 The sum of these numbers is: 12 The product of these two numbers is: 20

  • Your program must contain documentation lines that include your name, the date, a line that states "Py03 Homework question 1" and a description line that indicates what the program is supposed to do. 
  • Paste the code this word document and upload to your Google drive when the assignment is completed, with file name [your last name]_py03_HWQ1
  • Save the program as a python file (ends with .py), with file name [your last name]_py03Q1_program and upload that to the Google Drive.

2. (10 pts) Write a program that calculates the molarity of a solution. Molarity is defined as numbers of moles per liter solvent. Your program will calculate molarity and must ask for the substance name, its molecular weight, how many grams of substance you are putting in solution, and the total volume of the solution. Report your calculated value of molarity to 3 decimal places. Your output should also be separated from the input with a line containing 80 asterixis.

Assuming you are using sodium chloride, your input and output should look like:


  • Your program must contain documentation lines that include your name, the date, a line that states "Py03 Homework question 2" and a description line that indicates what the program is supposed to do. 
  • Paste the code to question two below
  • Save the program as a python file (ends with .py), with file name [your last name]_py03Q2_program and upload that to the Google Drive.

3. (4 pts) Make two hypothes.is annotations dealing with external open access resources on formatting with the format function method of formatting.  These need the tag of s20iostpy03ualr .

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  1. Assigning multiple variables in one line in Python

    an assignment statement python

  2. Python Assignment Statement and Types

    an assignment statement python

  3. #5 Variables, Assignment statements in Python || Python Course 2020

    an assignment statement python

  4. PPT

    an assignment statement python

  5. Variable Assignment in Python

    an assignment statement python

  6. Assignment Statement in Python

    an assignment statement python


  1. 7. Simple statements

    An assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that this can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter yielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of the target lists, from left to right. Assignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target (list).

  2. Different Forms of Assignment Statements in Python

    We use Python assignment statements to assign objects to names. The target of an assignment statement is written on the left side of the equal sign (=), and the object on the right can be an arbitrary expression that computes an object. There are some important properties of assignment in Python :-

  3. Python's Assignment Operator: Write Robust Assignments

    Augmented Assignment Operators in Python Augmented Mathematical Assignment Operators Augmented Assignments for Concatenation and Repetition Augmented Bitwise Assignment Operators Other Assignment Variants Annotated Assignment Statements Assignment Expressions With the Walrus Operator Managed Attribute Assignments Implicit Assignments in Python

  4. How To Use Assignment Expressions in Python

    Python 3.8, released in October 2019, adds assignment expressions to Python via the := syntax. The assignment expression syntax is also sometimes called "the walrus operator" because := vaguely resembles a walrus with tusks. Assignment expressions allow variable assignments to occur inside of larger expressions.

  5. Introduction into Python Statements: Assignment, Conditional Examples

    Assignment Statement x = 10 In this example, the value 10 is assigned to the variable x using the assignment statement. Conditional Statement x = 3 if x < 5: print ("x is less than 5") else: print ("x is greater than or equal to 5") In this example, the if-else statement is used to check the value of x and print a corresponding message.

  6. PEP 572

    The construct's formal name is "Assignment Expressions" (as per the PEP title), but they may also be referred to as "Named Expressions" (e.g. the CPython reference implementation uses that name internally). Rationale

  7. Variables and Assignment

    The assignment operator, denoted by the "=" symbol, is the operator that is used to assign values to variables in Python. The line x=1 takes the known value, 1, and assigns that value to the variable with name "x". After executing this line, this number will be stored into this variable.

  8. Assignment Expressions: The Walrus Operator

    Assignment expression are written with a new notation (:=) .This operator is often called the walrus operator as it resembles the eyes and tusks of a walrus on its side. Assignment expressions allow you to assign and return a value in the same expression.

  9. Variable Assignment

    Variables in PythonMartin Breuss 06:29. Think of a variable as a name attached to a particular object. In Python, variables need not be declared or defined in advance, as is the case in many other programming languages. To create a variable, you just assign it a value and then start using it. Assignment is done with a single equals sign ( = ).

  10. Assignment in Python

    00:12 Recall some things I've already mentioned: Assignment is the process of binding a name to an object. Parameter names are also bound to objects on function entry in Python. And again, this is how Python's argument passing mechanism gets its name. 00:29 But how exactly does that work? 00:33 Let's take a closer look.

  11. Variables, Expressions, and Assignments

    Assignment Statements# We have already seen that Python allows you to evaluate expressions, for instance 40 + 2. It is very convenient if we are able to store the calculated value in some variable for future use. The latter can be done via an assignment statement. An assignment statement creates a new variable with a given name and assigns it a ...

  12. PDF 1. The Assignment Statement and Types

    1. The Assignment Statement and Types Topics: Python's Interactive Mode Variables Expressions Assignment Strings, Ints, and Floats The Python Interactive Shell Python can be used in a way that reminds you of a calculator. In the ``command shell of your system simply type python and you will be met with a prompt... >

  13. Python Statements With Examples- PYnative

    A statement is an instruction that a Python interpreter can execute. So, in simple words, we can say anything written in Python is a statement. Python statement ends with the token NEWLINE character. It means each line in a Python script is a statement. For example, a = 10 is an assignment statement. where a is a variable name and

  14. Assignment Statement in Python

    Learn the basics of assignment statements in Python in this tutorial. We'll cover the syntax and usage of the assignment operator, including multiple assignments. We'll also show you some...

  15. The Walrus Operator: Python 3.8 Assignment Expressions

    Note: A statement in Python is a unit of code. An expression is a special statement that can be evaluated to some value. For example, 1 + 2 is an expression that evaluates to the value 3, while number = 1 + 2 is an assignment statement that doesn't evaluate to a value.

  16. python

    This works: if isBig (y): return isBig (y) This does NOT work: if fruit = isBig (y): return fruit Why doesn't the 2nd one work!? I want a 1-liner. Except, the 1st one will call the function TWICE. How to make it 1 liner, without calling the function twice? python if-statement variable-assignment Share Improve this question Follow

  17. Assignment Operators in Python

    1) Assign: This operator is used to assign the value of the right side of the expression to the left side operand. Syntax: x = y + z Example: Python3 # Assigning values using # Assignment Operator a = 3 b = 5 c = a + b # Output print(c) Output: 8

  18. python

    10 Answers Sorted by: 169 Why not try it out? >>> def some_func (): ... return 2 ... >>> if (a = some_func ()): File "<stdin>", line 1 if (a = some_func ()): ^ SyntaxError: invalid syntax So, no. Update: This is possible (with different syntax) in Python 3.8 if a := some_func (): Share Improve this answer Follow edited Apr 10, 2021 at 14:17

  19. CS105: Variables and Assignment Statements

    The assignment operator = is used to associate a variable name with a given value. For example, type the command: a=3.45. in the command line window. This command assigns the value 3.45 to the variable named a. Next, type the command: a. in the command window and hit the enter key. You should see the value contained in the variable a echoed to ...

  20. Assignments

    Assignments. One of the basic operations in any computer language is the assignment statement. The assignment statement allows us to associate a variable name with a value, so we can more easily manipulate our data. In python, like many other languages, the equal sign ( =) is used to assign a value to a variable; the variable name is put on the ...

  21. Assignment Expression Syntax

    Assignment Expression Syntax. For more information on concepts covered in this lesson, you can check out: Walrus operator syntax. One of the main reasons assignments were not expressions in Python from the beginning is the visual likeness of the assignment operator (=) and the equality comparison operator (==). This could potentially lead to bugs.

  22. Python Assignment Operators

    Python Assignment Operators. Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables: Operator. Example. Same As. Try it. =. x = 5. x = 5.

  23. 2.3: Arithmetic Operations and Assignment Statements

    An assignment statement is a line of code that uses a "=" sign. The statement stores the result of an operation performed on the right-hand side of the sign into the variable memory location on the left-hand side. 4. Enter and execute the following lines of Python code in the editor window of your IDE (e.g. Thonny):

  24. BNF Notation: Dive Deeper Into Python's Grammar

    Having an optional list of expressions after the word return is consistent with the fact that Python allows return statements without an explicit return value. In this case, the language automatically ... exception. Check out the Walrus Operator Syntax section from The Walrus Operator: Python 3.8 Assignment Expressions to figure out why you ...