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OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Official reports

  • Paraphrasing
  • Repeating Citations
  • Secondary Referencing
  • Bibliography
  • Referencing Tools
  • Two or Three Authors
  • Four plus Authors
  • Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Editor or Translator
  • Author & Editor or Translator
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Books of Authority
  • Cases with Neutral Citation
  • Cases without neutral citation
  • Unreported Cases
  • Cases before 1865
  • Judges' Names
  • Scot, NI & International
  • Parts of Statutes
  • Statutory Instruments
  • Journal Articles
  • Forthcoming Articles
  • Working Papers
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Hansard & Select Committee reports
  • Command Papers
  • Law Commission Reports

Official reports

  • Official Publications
  • Legislation
  • ECJ & GC cases
  • Decisions of the European Commission
  • European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cases
  • Websites & Blogs
  • Personal Communications
  • Press Release
  • Podcasts & Youtube videos
  • Insight & LPC

Official Reports are usually published by a government department or an organisation, although sometimes an individual author is named.  If the publication has an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) cite it like a book. The ISBN can usually be found on the title page.

Author,  Title  (edition, Publisher | year) page number.

Example of a report with an ISBN:

Department of Health, Our Healthier Nation: A Contract for Health Cm 3852 (The Stationery Office 1998).

If there is no ISBN, cite it using the format below:

Author, │’title’ │(additional information, │publisher│ year)

Example of a report without an ISBN:

Sundeep Aulakh and others, 'Mapping Advantages and Disadvantages: Diversity in the Legal Profession in England and Wales' (SRA 2017).

University of Oxford, 'Report of Commission of Inquiry'  (OUP 1966) vol 1, ch 3

In a footnote, the authors' first name goes first (as in the example above) followed by the last name, and there is a full stop at the end of the footnote. There may also be a pinpoint.

In a bibliography the authors' last name goes first followed by the initials. There is no full stop at the end and no pinpointing.

To cite an official report which is only available online use the following format:

Author, │’title’ │(Month Year) │<URL> │date last assessed

The UK Insolvency Service, ‘Implementation of UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency in Great Britain: Summary of Responses and Government Reply' (March 2006). <www.insolvencydirect.bis.gov.uk/insolvencyprofessionandlegalisation/con_doc_register/registerindex.htm >accessed 17 Feb 2012.

There is no difference between the footnote reference and the bibliography except that the footnote has a full stop at the end of the citation.

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  • A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples

A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples

Published on 28 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 5 May 2022.

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a referencing style used by students and academics in law.

OSCOLA referencing places citations in footnotes, which are marked in the text with footnote numbers:

The judge referred to the precedent established by Caulfield v Baldwin . 1

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Table of contents

Citing sources with oscola footnotes, oscola referencing examples, oscola tables and bibliography.

A citation footnote appears whenever you quote from, paraphrase or otherwise refer to the content of a source in your text.

A footnote is marked in the text with a footnote number, which appears at the end of the relevant sentence or clause. The number is displayed in superscript (i.e. 1) and appears after any punctuation like a comma or full stop:

These footnotes contain full information on the source cited. The format in which you present this information varies according to the type of source; examples are presented in the following section. A footnote always ends with a full stop:

Standard abbreviations

To save space in OSCOLA citations, abbreviations are used for the names of various publications and legal bodies.

For example, ‘UKSC’ is the United Kingdom Supreme Court, and ‘Cr App R’ refers to the Criminal Appeal Reports.

A full, searchable index of these abbreviations can be found here .

Pinpointing

In OSCOLA referencing, referring to a specific page number within a source is called pinpointing. To pinpoint, simply include a page number at the end of your reference, in addition to any page numbers already included.

For example, in the following citation, the first number refers to the page on which the report begins , while the second number pinpoints the passage you’re referring to :

Where available, paragraph numbers should be used instead of page numbers. Only do this if paragraph numbers are explicitly used in the text. Paragraph numbers appear in square brackets and can be used for pinpointing in the same way as page numbers:

Note that if you’re pinpointing a judge’s comments within a case report, you include the name of the judge, and some special terms and abbreviations are used in the citation and in the text.

If the judge is a peer, refer to them as ‘Lord’, e.g. Lord Williams. If they are a Lord/Lady Justice, use ‘LJ’, e.g. Williams LJ. If neither of these is the case, use ‘J’ for judge, e.g. Williams J:

Cross-referencing repeated citations of the same source

OSCOLA uses a system of cross-referencing to save space when you repeatedly cite the same source. This means that for subsequent references of a source, you don’t have to repeat the full citation.

When you refer to the same source you have just referred to (i.e. when the previous footnote was also about that source), you can simply use ‘ibid’ (Latin for ‘in the same place’):

In this example, the second footnote also refers to Davis v Dignam, but to page 522 instead of page 519.

When the previous reference to the source was in an earlier footnote (i.e. when other citations appear in between), use the author’s last name or the title (shortened if it’s a longer title), followed by the number of the previous citation (in brackets and preceded by ‘n’), then the page number you’re pinpointing (if different than the first citation):

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OSCOLA provides formats for a variety of source types. The most common ones are covered below.

Case reports

When citing a case, you’ll usually begin with a neutral citation – a way of referring to the case that does not relate to a particular report – and then give the details of the report afterwards. If no neutral citation exists, as with cases before 2002, you can just begin with the report.

Additionally, note that the year (for the report) is displayed differently depending on whether it is essential to the citation. For reports where each year is also identified with a volume number, the year appears in normal brackets. For those where multiple volumes appear in one year, the year appears in square brackets.

  • Case report with neutral citation
  • Case report with no neutral citation

Acts of Parliament

Use a short version of the title if the full title is longer than three words. If necessary, refer to specific parts of an Act of Parliament using section, subsection and paragraph numbers.

Statutory instruments

Statutory instruments (SIs) are numbered consecutively throughout the year; it’s this number that appears at the end of the citation – the example below is the 149th SI of 2020.

House of Commons bills are cited slightly differently from House of Lords bills. You write ‘HC Bill’ or ‘HL Bill’ depending upon which house it is, and bill numbers for Commons bills appear in square brackets.

  • House of Commons bill
  • House of Lords bill

Hansard is the official transcript of parliamentary debates in the UK. As with bills, write ‘HC’ for the House of Commons and ‘HL’ for the House of Lords. ‘Deb’ is short for ‘debate’, ‘vol’ for volume, and ‘col’ for column.

Use the full name of the author(s) as written in the source. List the edition (abbreviated to ‘edn’) when it is stated on the title page. Note that OSCOLA recommends abbreviating ‘Oxford University Press’ to ‘OUP’; this is not the case with other publishers.

Certain older books are listed by OSCOLA as ‘works of authority’ and given special abbreviated citations. For example, the following is a citation of volume 3, page 75 of Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England :

OSCOLA provides a list of these abbreviations in their full guide , section 4.2.3.

Journal articles

As with case reports, square brackets are used for years in a journal citation if the year also identifies the volume; normal brackets are used when there are multiple volumes in a year.

Note that standard abbreviations are also used for journal names; here ‘MLR’ refers to Modern Law Review.

In a longer work, such as a thesis or dissertation , OSCOLA requires you to include tables listing any cases and legislation you cited, as well as a bibliography listing any secondary sources . For shorter essays, this is usually not necessary, but do check your institution’s guidelines.

The tables and bibliography appear at the end of your text. The table of cases comes first, followed by the table of legislation, and then the bibliography.

Sources are listed in alphabetical order within each table and in the bibliography.

Table of cases

Cases are written in a similar format here and in the main text; the only difference is the names of the parties involved are not italicised in the table of cases:

Table of legislation

The table of legislation includes all legal sources used other than cases – for example, bills, Acts of Parliament and SIs. Items in the table of legislation are listed in identical form to how they are cited in the text.

Bibliography

A bibliography lists all your secondary sources – that is, everything other than cases and legislation. For example, here you would list Hansard , any books and journal articles cited, and other sources such as blogs, social media and newspapers.

Bibliography entries differ from citations in terms of their presentation of the author’s name. Author names in the bibliography are inverted, and initials are used in place of the first name:

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Caulfield, J. (2022, May 05). A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing | Rules & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 6 May 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/oscola/

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  • OSCOLA Referencing – A complete guide

how to reference a research report oscola

You’ve done it. You’ve extracted the key research, peppered your content with incisive observations, and you’ve just typed the last words of your Law essay conclusion.

And then… it happens. You remember that in all those pages of research, you forgot to reference the sources you used. If only you’d done it in the first place!

Knowing how to cite sources for assignments is a hugely important skill. Even if you’re still at school, learning how to reference now means you won’t get caught out at university.

If you study Law at university, you’ll use the OSCOLA referencing system. This is the Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities. We’ve created a comprehensive guide on exactly what OSCLA is, and how to use it.

What is OSCOLA referencing?

OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style. That means that you add small, superscript numbers (for example, 1,2,3 ) to the sources in your text, which connect to footnotes at the bottom of your page.

You may also have to include a list of tables of cases, legislation and other primary sources at the start of your essay, and a bibliography of second sources at the end. See page 10-11 of the 4th edition of OCSCOLA.

Let’s look at the OSCOLA system in detail, and how you can cite a wide range of legal sources. Our comprehensive guide refers to the 4th edition of OSCOLA produced by the University of Oxford.

Primary Sources

Case citations with neutral citations.

An example of a typical case citation with a neutral citation is:

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

The example above shows that this is a case involving Corr and IBC Vehicles Ltd. It was the thirteenth judgement issued by the House of Lords (UKHL) in 2008. It also indicates that a report of the judgement can be found in volume 1 of the series of the Law Reports called the Appeal Cases , beginning at page 884.

Case citations without neutral citations

An example of a typical case citation without a neutral citation is:

Page vs Smith [1996] AC 155 (HL).

When the year is used to identify the law report volume, you should always put it in square brackets. If the relevant law report series was also issued in more than one volume in that particular year, give it a volume number.

When you don’t need to use the year to identify the law report volume, give the year of judgement (not publication) in round brackets.

Where there are multiple parties in cases, you should name only the first claimant and the first defendant. Where cases concern only individuals, leave out forenames and initials. You should abbreviate common words and phrases, for example:

  • BC for Borough Council
  • Co for Company
  • DPP for Director of Public Prosecutions.

When you want to refer to something, use Re instead of, for example, In re or in the matter of. You should use Re the Domestic Abuse Act 2017 rather than In the matter of the Domestic Abuse act 2017.

(See our ‘abbreviations’ section below for further guidance).

Short forms of case names

You should give the name of the case in full when you first mention it in the text or footnotes. After that, you can shorten it.

For example, ‘in Glebe Motors plc v Dixon-Greene’ can be shortened to ‘in the Glebe Motors case’ or ‘in Glebe Motors’. If you do shorten names this way, you should always choose the name which comes first in the full name of the case – in this case Glebe Motors, rather than Dixon-Greene.

Law Reports

A law report is a published report on a judgement. A law report includes features such as a headnote summarising the facts of a case and judgement, and lists of cases considered.

In England and Wales, there are no official law reports of any kind, but the Law Report series by the Incorporated Council of Law Reporting are considered the most authoritative.

If a case is reported in the Law Reports you should cite it in preference to any other report. If you can’t find a judgement in the Law Reports , you should cite the Weekly Law Reports or the All England Law Reports.

If you can’t find a judgement in one of these general series you should refer to a specialist series of law reports such as the Family Law Reports.

When citing courts, indicate the court in brackets after the first page of the report, and before the pinpoint if there is one. A pinpoint is a reference to a particular paragraph of a judgement or page of a report.

Use HL for the House of Lords, CA for the Court of Appeal, QB, CH and F for the division of the High Court, and Com Ct for the Commercial Court within the Queen’s Bench Division.

If you’re citing a case before 1865, it doesn’t require the court. Neither do citations of cases with a neutral citation.

Judges’ names

When you make a reference to a judge in a case, use the judge’s surname followed by the conventional abbreviation identifying their judicial office. You do not need to use ‘the Honourable’.

A High Court judge should be called, for example, ‘Mr Justice Brown’, or, if a woman (and regardless of whether she is married) ‘Mrs Justice Smith). You should abbreviate both as ‘Smith J’.

A House of Lords judge (or ‘Law Lord’) is called ‘Lord Brown’ or ‘Lady Brown’, depending on gender.

The President of the Supreme Court should be abbreviated as, for example, ‘Lord Brown P’; the Deputy President as ‘Lord Brown DP’.

The Lord Chancellor (now no longer a judge) should be abbreviated as ‘Lord Brown LC’, the Lord Chief Justice as ‘Lord Brown CJ’, and the Master of the Rolls as 20 ‘Lord Brown MR’.

The Chancellor of the High Court should be abbreviated as ‘Sir John Brown C’, and Presidents of the Queen’s Bench Division and Family Division as ‘Sir Brown P’.

UK primary legislation

Names of Statutes

You should cite an Act by its short title and year in roman, using capitals for the major words. Don’t put a comma before the year. For example:

Act of Supremacy 1558

Shipping and Trading Interests (Protection) Act 1995.

Don’t use popular titles of Acts, for example, ‘Lord Campbell’s Act’. If you are referring to a particular Act a number of times in the same place, you can provide an abbreviated form of the title in the footnotes, as long as you let your reader know in advance. So, the Children Act 1989 becomes CA 1989 (not just CA).

Parts of statues

Statues are divided into parts, sections, subsections, paragraphs and subparagraphs. The relevant abbrevations are:

part / parts to pt/ pts

section / sections to s / ss

subsection / subsections to sub-s/ sub-ss

paragraph/paragraphs to para/paras

subparagraph / subparagraphs to subpara/subparas

schedule / schedules to sch/schs

Older Statutes

For older statutes, you can give the regnal year and chapter number. For example:

Crown Debts Act 1801 (41 Geo 3 c 90)

You can see from this example that the information in brackets shows that this Act was given royal assent in the forty-first year of the reign of George III.

Explanatory notes to statutes

When citing explanatory notes to statutes, precede the name of the statue with ‘Explanatory notes to the…’. For example,

Explanatory Notes to the Charities Act 2006, para 15.

An example of how to cite a Bill is:

Consolidated Fund HC Bill (2008-09).

You can see that the Bill is cited by its title, the House in which it originated (here, House of Commons), and with the parliamentary session in brackets (here, 2008-09).

UK Secondary Legislation

Statutory Instruments

Statutory instruments (orders, regulations or rules) are numbered consecutively throughout the year. The year combines with the serial number to make an SI number that follows the abbreviations ‘SI’, which we use to identify the legislation.

When you cite a statutory instrument, give the name, year and (after a comma) the SI number. For example:

Penalties for Disorderly Behaviour (Amendment of Minimum Age) Order 2004, SI 2004/3166

Parts of statutory instruments

The rules for referring to parts of statutory instruments are the same as those referring to parts of statues. Use the following abbreviations:

  • regulation / regulations to reg/regs
  • rule/rules to r/rr
  • article/articles to art/arts

European Union legal sources

Official notices of the EU are in the Official Journal of the European Communities ( which is abbreviated to OJ). The OJ citation should be: year, OJ series, number / page. The letter ‘L’ refers to the legislation series.

EU legislation

When you cite EU treaties and protocols, give the title of the legislation, followed by the year of publication, the OK series and the issue and page numbers. For example:

Protocol to the Agreement on the Member States that do not fully apply to the Schengen acquis – Join Declarations [2007] OJ Li129/35.

You should cite Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Recommendations and Opinions by giving the legislation type, number and title, followed by publication details in the OJ. For example:

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [2002] OJ L192/27

The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

For judgements of the European Court of Human Rights, you should cite either the offical reports, the Reports of Judgements and Decisions (ECHR) or the European Human Rights Reports (EHRR). Be aware of the difference before and after 1996. Before 1996, the offocial reports were known and Series A and numbered consecutively. From 2001, case numbers were used instead of page numbers. For example,

Johnston v Ireland (1986) Series A no 122

Osman v UK ECHR 1998 – VIII 3124

Balogh v Hungary App no 47940/99 (ECtHR, 20 July 2004).

Omojudi v UK (2009) EHRR 10

Secondary Sources

You should cite all publications with an ISBN as if they were books, whether you read them online or in hard copy. Older books do not have ISBNs, but you should cite them as books even if you read them online.

Authored Books

You should cite the author’s name first, followed by a comma, and then the title of the book in italics. You should then follow the title with publication information in brackets. You don’t need to give the place of publication. For example:

Tom Bingham, The Rule of Law (Alan Lane 2010).

If the book has more than one volume, you should follow the volume number with the publication details. For example:

Christian von Bar, The Common European Law of Torts, vol 2 (CH Beck 2000), para 76.

Edited and Translated Books

If there is no author, cite the editor or translator as an author, adding in brackets after their name. For example ‘(ed)’ or ‘(tr)’. If there is more than one editor or translator, put ‘(eds)’ or (trs)

Hard copy journals

When you cite hard copy journal articles, give the author’s name first, followed by a comma. Then give the title of the article within single quotation marks, and the publication information as follows:

year of publication (in square brackets if it identifies the volume, in round brackets if there is a separate volume number).

  • the volume number if there is one
  • the name of the journal, in full or abbreviated form, with no full stops
  • the first page of the article.

For example:

Paul Craig, “Theory, “Pure Theory” and Values in Public Law” [2005] PL 440.

Refence case notes with titles as if they were journal articles.

If there is no title, use the name of the case in italics instead, and put ‘note’ at the end of the citation.

Online journals

With online journals that have been published electronically, give publication details the same way you would for hard copy journal articles.

If online journals lack some of the publication elements for OSCOLA, follow the citation advice of the online journal. Remove full stops to comply with OSCOLA.

Working papers

You should cite working papers the same way as electronic journal articles. Seeing as the content of working papers are subject to change, make sure you put the date of access. For example:

Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT accessed 27 July 2010

Other Secondary Sources

Please see the 4th edition of OSCOLA for comprehensive details on how to cite other secondary sources such as:

  • Parliamentary reports
  • Command papers
  • Law commission reports and documents
  • Conference papers
  • Websites and blogs
  • Newspaper articles

We hope you’ve found our complete guide to OSCOLA referencing useful. You can also use the OSCOLA Quick Reference Guide for ease when referencing.

University of York Library

  • Subject Guides

Referencing styles - a Practical Guide

Oscola referencing style.

Used by: the York Law School

Introduction to OSCOLA referencing style

The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) was developed at Oxford University, and is widely used by law schools and publishers to acknowledge source information.

In-text citations & footnotes

OSCOLA uses a footnote citation system.

In the text, a number in superscript 1  is added at the end of a sentence and after the punctuation. 

The reference is then given in the footnote at the bottom of the page.

Where you cite an author of a secondary source their name should appear as it does on the publication with first name/ initials before surname.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.1 and 1.2

Bibliography

The bibliography at the end of the document includes the full details of each source so the reader can find them themselves. The list is organised by type of source, and then alphabetically. See below for more details on organising the bibliography.

The information to include depends on the types of source - see the examples.

Useful resources

  • OSCOLA Referencing style A downloadable version of this OSCOLA style guide, with some extra details
  • OSCOLA Quick Reference Guide A handy 1 page summary of OSCOLA style
  • OSCOLA 4th Edition The full OSCOLA Standard
  • OSCOLA for international law Details for citing international law sources

how to reference a research report oscola

Guidance for all source types

Citing a source multiple times in the same document.

For a case, cite in full the first time. For further references to the case, use a short form of the case name and a cross-citation in brackets to the original footnote. If the case name is included in the text, omit it in the footnote.

If the subsequent citation is directly after the full citation, simply use the term ‘ibid’. If pinpointing specific paragraphs, place these in square brackets.

When referring to a previous citation a number of footnotes back, use the short version of the case and add n as an abbreviation signposting the number of the footnote

For subsequent citation of legislation, abbreviations are acceptable. For subsequent citation of secondary sources, you only need the author’s surname.

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 1.2

Citing multiple sources in the same footnote

For  multiple references  within one footnote use semi-colons to distinguish between them and put them in chronological order with the oldest first. For example, this footnote refers to two cases:

If one or more references are more relevant than the others put these first and then ‘see also’. For example:

Also, order the sources with legislation before cases, and primary sources before secondary.

Using pinpoints and page numbers

A pinpoint is a precise reference to the part of a judgment or report through numbered paragraphs or page numbers. There are a number of ways you can pinpoint specific details within publications, depending on what the publication is. When citing more than one paragraph, place the numbers in square brackets. In this first example the pinpoints are at the end to paragraphs 42 and 45 of the case:

In this example for a secondary source the page number 131 is given at the end:

 For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 2.1.6 and OSCOLA 4.2.5

Cross-citation

Cross citation is when you are referring to discussion in another part of your writing, for example on an earlier page or in a previous chapter. It is good practice to use cross citation as little as possible.

Try to be specific and use a specific footnote number (For example  See n 52  for the footnote. OR:  See text to n 22 .)

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 1.2.2 

Direct quotes

You need to be very precise when using quotations.

Short quotations (less than three lines)

Use  single quotation marks  and include within the text. For example:

Longer quotations (longer than three lines)

Use an indented paragraph, no quotation marks and a line space above and below.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA 1.5

Citing a source you've read about in a different source (secondary referencing)

This means referring to a source you have not read that you have found within another source that you are using.  Try to avoid secondary referencing as it is always preferable to use the original source and you should always try to locate this.

If you find you have to use secondary referencing, in the footnote cite the source you have read, followed by ‘citing’… For example:

In the bibliography insert only the source you have read. There is no specific guidance on this within OSCOLA. 

Naming judges

When referring to a judge within a case, use the judge’s surname followed by the correct abbreviation.  (Mr or Mrs Justice Smith should be called Smith J in your text).

The exception to this rule is when the judge holds a title. A Court of Appeal Judge who is Lord or Lady Smith should be referred to as  Smith LJ .

  • A House of Lords judge should be referred to as  Lord or Lady Smith  and should not be abbreviated.
  • A Supreme Court judge should be referred to as  Lord Smith SCJ.
  • The Lord Chief Justice can be abbreviated to  Lord Woolf CJ.

For more detailed information see OSCOLA 2.1.7

Using Westlaw or Lexis Library

You do not need to include any information about Westlaw or Lexis Library in your citations, as this is just the portal through which you accessed the report, legislation or article. Simply reference the relevant source as you would a paper copy. 

Using Latin terms within footnotes

The only Latin term that is acceptable to use within the OSCOLA style is ‘ibid’, for the instances when you are referring to the same source in consecutive footnotes. Do not use other terms such as supra, op cit, loc cit.

For more information see OSCOLA 1.2.3 u 

Using abbreviations

OSCOLA abbreviates a wide range of legal sources and institutions.

Do not use punctuation when using an abbreviation. Eg, the Director of Public Prosecutions should appear as DPP not D.P.P.

For a comprehensive list of legal abbreviations, use the Cardiff index . You can search by abbreviation to find the title, or by title to find the abbreviation.

For more detailed information, see OSCOLA Appendix 4.2 

Questions about referencing?

Contact your Faculty Librarians if you have any questions about referencing.

Commonly used sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for key source types.

Use these examples alongside the information given in the 'Guidance for all source types' box.

Act of Parliament

You should refer to the year the Act was passed rather than the year it came into force. 

Use the short title and refer to specific sections of the Act eg

 OR use s for Section in the middle of a sentence. For example:

Footnote: 

You do not need to footnote an Act if you make it identifiable in the text. 

Bibliography:   List Legislation and Cases separately in alphabetical order in the bibliography. 

See the  OSCOLA guides  and our Referencing with Confidence OSCOLA Guide for more details. 

Case citations including neutral citations: List cases in the bibliography in alphabetic order of case names. Use the following format to cite cases.

Case name in italics [year] court number, [year] OR (year) volume report abbreviation first page

If you have included the case name in the text, you do not have to include the case names in the footnote: In text:  refer to the text giving case names in italics eg: In  Phipps v Boardman 31  …..

Bibliography:

For most sources in OSCOLA, the bibliographic format is the same as the footnote. List legislation, cases and secondary sources in separate sections of your bibliography in alphabetical order. 

Treat case notes with titles as if they are journal articles. Where there is no title, use the name of the case in italics instead, and add (note) at the end of the citation:

See 3.3.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book 1 author

Capitalise the first letter of each major word of the title. Page numbers stand-alone without p or pp. use the following format for the footnote:

Information to include: Author,  Title in Italics  (edition, publisher date) page.

Book 2 or 3 authors

If the book has up to three authors, include ‘and’ in between each author. Use Initials or forename unpunctuated and with no spaces followed by surname. 

Information to include: Author, Title in Italics Capitalising Major Words  (Edition, Publisher Year) page. 

Bibliography: 

See 3.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Book (4 or more authors)

If a book has  more than three authors,  include ‘ and others’  after the name of the first author.

Edited book (& chapters)

Chapter in an edited book.

Information to include: author, ‘Title of chapter' in editor (ed), title in italics  (additional information, publisher year)

See 3.2.3 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Edited book

See 3.2.2 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Journal article / paper

Journal article / paper (print copy).

Footnotes: author, | ‘title’ | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article / paper,| specific page referred to

author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article / paper

Put a comma after the first page of the article / paper if you want to refer to a particular page or set of pages:

If the year serves as the volume identifier, put the year in square brackets [ ]. If there is a separate volume number, put the year in round brackets  ().

In the Young example, 72 is the volume number. Bibliography:

Omit reference to specific page numbers (other than the first page of the article / paper) in your bibliographic entry.

Journal article / paper (electronic copy)

If you source a publication online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version. There is no need to cite an electronic source for such a publication.

author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed

If the information is only available online, give the URL before the accessed date information.

See 3.3.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Further sources

Examples of in-text citations and reference list entries for other source types.

Cite a Bill by its title, the House in which it originated, the Parliamentary session in brackets, and the running number assigned to it. Running numbers for House of Commons Bills are put in square brackets; those for House of Lords Bills are not. When a Bill is reprinted at any stage it is given a new running number.

Title | HC Bill | (session) | [number] OR title | HL Bill | (session) | number

Footnote and bibliography: 

In the bibliography, list bills in alphabetical order under the heading Secondary Sources.

Copied from 2.4.5 OSCOLA 4th edn. 

Where there is no relevant advice elsewhere in OSCOLA, follow the general principles for secondary sources when citing websites and blogs. If there is no author identified, and it is appropriate to cite an anonymous source, begin the citation with the title in the usual way. If there is no date of publication on the website, give only the date of access.

Author, 'Web page title' ( Website in Italics , Full Date) <URL> accessed Date

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.8 for more details. 

Book (translated to English)

If you read a book that was translated from another language (eg, you read an English translation of a book orginally written in German), cite the translation:

If there is an author and translator, reference as follows:

See 3.2.2  OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Book (read in another language)

If you read a book in a language other than English (eg, you read a book written in German), cite the primary source in the original language:

Footnote:  

Bibliography:  

See 1.4 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details. 

Book review

Cite a book review in the same way as a journal article, but without the quote marks. For example,

Copied from  OSCOLA FAQs

Command paper

The abbreviation preceding a command paper number depends on the year of publication:

1833–69 (C (1stseries)) 1870–99 (C (2nd series)) 1900–18 (Cd) 1919–56 (Cmd) 1957–86 (Cmnd) 1986– (Cm)

Footnotes and bibliography:

In the bibliography, list Command Papers alphabetically by author in Secondary Sources. 

For more details see 3.4.3 OSCOLA 4th ed. 

Conference papers

See 3.4.6 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Dictionary (hard copy)

Dictionary (online).

Also consider elements of the style advice for websites and blogs (section 3.4.8).

For the OED online, open the full entry for the word, and click on the Cite button (top right above the definition). Follow that example, tidying it up to make it consistent with OSCOLA styles (eg, change double quotes to single and full stops to commas, removing those that are unnecessary; change OED Online to italics; change Oxford University Press to OUP and put it before the date; and remove http:// from the web address and delete any text after the Entry number, then put angle brackets around the url):

For other online dictionaries, follow the general advice above. You need a date of publication or at least a date of access (ie when you looked at it), as they are generally updated regularly.

Copied from  OSCOLA FAQs. 

When citing personal communications, such as emails and letters, give the author and recipient of the communication, and the date. If you are yourself the author or recipient of the communication, say ‘from author’ or ‘to author’ as appropriate.

See 3.4.11 OSCOLA 4th edn for more details

Encyclopedia

Cite as a book but exclude author or editor and publisher. Include the edition and year. Pinpoints such as volumes and page numbers come after the publication information.

If citing an online encyclopedia, give the URL and date of access:

See OSCOLA 4th edn 3.2.6 for more details. 

Entry in a reference book

List in the bibliography in alphabetical order under Secondary Sources. 

European Court of Justice case

European union regulation, hansard & parliamentary reports.

There are three series of Hansard, one reporting debates on the floor of the House of Commons, one debates in the House of Lords, and one debates in the Public Bill committees of the House of Commons, which replaced standing committees in 2007. When referring to the first two series, cite the House abbreviation (HL or HC), followed by ‘Deb’, then the full date, the volume and the column. Use ‘col’ or ‘cols’ for column(s). In the House of Commons, written answers are indicated by the suffix ‘W’ after the column number; in the House of Lords, they are indicated by the prefix ‘WA’ before the column number.

HL Deb OR HC Deb | date, | volume, | column

See 3.4.2 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

When citing an interview you conducted yourself, give the name, position and institution (as relevant) of the interviewee, and the location and full date of the interview. If the interview was conducted by someone else, the interviewer’s name should appear at the beginning of the citation.

See 3.4.10 OSCOLA 4th ed. for more details. 

Footnote and bibliography:

Newspaper article

When citing newspaper articles, give the author, the title, the name of the newspaper in italics and then in brackets the city of publication and the date. Some newspapers have ‘The’ in the title and some do not. If known, give the number of the page on which the article was published, after the brackets. If the newspaper is divided into sections, and the page numbering begins afresh in each section, put the section name in roman before the page number, with a space but no comma between the two. If the reference is to an editorial, cite the author as ‘Editorial’. If the article is sourced from the web and there is no page number available, provide the web address and date of access.

List under Secondary Sources

Copied from OSCOLA 4th edn 3.4.9 

The general principles for ‘other secondary sources’ (OSCOLA 4th ed. 3.4.1) suggest the following form for citing podcasts, YouTube videos and similar sources:

Author, ‘Title’ (publication date) <url> accessed xx month 2014

If there is no clear author, give the organisation providing the source as the author. The examples below include a suggestion for citing the comments of a particular person.

If referring to comments by someone in particular, add that information as you would a pinpoint, before the url. Include the person's position if relevant. For example:

Another alternative, particularly if the podcast is quite long, would be to provide the minutes and seconds of the excerpt:

Copied from  OSCOLA FAQs 

Public communication

Author, 'Title' (additional information, publisher year)

Examples taken from  OSCOLA FAQs

List by author in Secondary Sources 

Radio programme

Footnote: Speaker (if a direct quote)/Presenter, 'Title of the programme' (Radio station, date of the programme)

Enter in alphabetical order in the Secondary Sources. If there is a direct quote/speaker, reverse the author's name as usual.

Use this format:

Author, 'Title' (Additonal information, edition if later than first, Publisher day Month year if available) page number if required.

Footnotes: 

Bibliography : 

List alphabetically in author order in secondary sources, giving the authors surname first.

Republished source

Author,  Title of book  (First published publication year, Edition if late than first, publisher, publication year) page if required.

Television programme

Footnote:  Use the following format: Main contributor [Role of main contributor],'Title of programme' [Television series episode] in Title of series (Additional information if required, Publisher, Year )

If you wish to refer to someone speaking during the programme, follow this format: Cite the name of the speaker (if a direct quote), the title of the programme, the radio station and the date of the programme. If there is no obvious author/speaker, begin the citation with the title of the programme. If available online, include the URL and date of access. For example:

List under Secondary Sources in alphabetical order

When citing an unpublished thesis, give the author, the title and then in brackets the type of thesis, university and year of completion.

Copied from 3.4.7 OSCOLA 4th edn.

United Nations Court of Human Rights

If the information is available in print, reference the print version. If only available on the web, reference as follows: 

Footnote and Bibliography:

In the bibliography, list in Secondary Sources.

YouTube video

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The University of Manchester

Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: OSCOLA

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The information contained within these pages is intended as a general referencing guideline.

Please check with your supervisor to ensure that you are following the specific guidelines required by your school.

What is OSCOLA?

The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is designed to facilitate accurate citation of authorities, legislation, and other legal materials. It is widely used in law schools and by journal and book publishers in the UK and beyond.

Nota bene: This is a footnote style of referencing.

OSCOLA is edited by the Oxford Law Faculty, in consultation with the OSCOLA Editorial Advisory Board.

The information detailed within this webpage is based on the Book:

When referencing at Manchester

Whenever you paraphrase or quote a source or use the ideas of another person, you need to cite the source of the material.

  • Insert a footnote marker after the full stop at the end of the sentence or after the word or phrase to which it relates to.
  • At the bottom of the page, note the footnote number and give the full citation.
  • End the footnote with a full stop.

Number your footnotes continuously through your document, starting at 1.

It is vital to acknowledge your sources, both to improve the quality of your essay and to avoid plagiarism (discussed in more detail in the essay writing guide).

Bibliography

At the end of your essay there should be a bibliography listing the materials that you have used. Different types of source (books, articles, cases, etc) should be in separate sections.

Books and articles should be listed in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author; cases should be given alphabetically according to the name of the first named party; other materials should be presented alphabetically by title. In addition to the bibliography, you should refer to your sources in your essay itself.

Different disciplines have different traditions as to how sources are referenced, both in your bibliography and in your essay. Below are suggestions for law subjects.

For law subjects a suitable referencing system is the Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA). Produced by the Faculty of Law in Oxford, this is used in many law schools in the United Kingdom and by some law publishers

In your essay

Use footnotes to give details of your sources and not at the end of your work.

You should use the format that you would use in your bibliography; it is unnecessary to put “See” before the citation. However, you will need to add “pinpoints” to indicate the relevant page(s) or paragraph(s) of the book, article, case, etc. that contains the relevant discussion. In OSCOLA specific pages are referred to by giving the page number (without any “page”or “p” before it), while paragraphs are denoted by using square brackets (without any“ para”).

OSCOLA Primary sources

Do not use full stops in abbreviations. Separate citations with a semi-colon.

The following provide examples of how you reference primary sources.

Give the party names, followed by the neutral citation, followed by the Law Reports citation (eg AC, Ch, QB). If there is no neutral citation, give the Law Reports citation followed by the court in brackets. If the  case  is  not  reported  in  the  Law  Reports,  cite  the  All ER or the WLR, or failing that a specialist report.

Corr v IBC Vehicles Ltd [2008] UKHL 13, [2008] 1 AC 884

R (Roberts) v Parole Board [2004] EWCA Civ 1031, [2005] QB 410

Page v Smith [1996] AC 155 (HL)

When   pinpointing,   give   paragraph   numbers   in square brackets at the end of the citation.  If the judgment has no paragraph numbers, provide the page number pinpoint after the court.

Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45]

Bunt v Tilley [2006] EWHC 407 (QB), [2006] 3 All ER 336 [1]–[37]

R v Leeds County Court , ex p Morris [1990] QB 523 (QB) 530–31

If citing a particular judge:

Arscott v The Coal Authority [2004] EWCA Civ 892, [2005] Env LR 6 [27] (Laws LJ)

Statutes and statutory instruments

Act of Supremacy 1558

Human Rights Act 1998, s 15(1)(b)

Penalties for Disorderly Behaviour (Amendment of Minimum Age) Order 2004, SI 2004/3166

EU legislation and cases

Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union [2008] OJ C115/13

Council Regulation (EC) 139/2004 on the control of concentrations between undertakings (EC Merger Regulation) [2004] OJ L24/1, art 5

Case C–176/03 Commission v Council [2005] ECR I–7879, paras 47–48

European Court of Human Rights

Omojudi v UK (2009) 51 EHRR 10

Osman v UK ECHR 1998–VIII 3124

Balogh v Hungary App no 47940/99 (ECHR, 20 July 2004)

Simpson v UK (1989) 64 DR 188

OSCOLA Secondary sources

This guide provides you with examples of how to cite references correctly in the text of your assignments.

OSCOLA does not purport to be comprehensive, but gives rules and examples for the main UK legal primary sources, and for many types of secondary sources. As far as possible, the guidelines in OSCOLA are based on common practice in UK legal citation, but with a minimum of punctuation. When citing materials not mentioned in OSCOLA, use the general principles in OSCOLA as a guide, and try to maintain consistency.

The following provide examples of how you reference secondary sources.

Give  the  author’s  name  in  the  same  form  as  in  the  publication,   except   in   bibliographies,   where   you   should   give   only   the   surname   followed   by   the   initial(s).  Give  relevant  information  about  editions,  translators  and  so  forth  before  the  publisher,  and  give  page  numbers  at  the  end  of  the  citation,  after  the brackets.

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985) 268

Gareth Jones, Goff and Jones: The Law of Restitution (1st supp, 7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2009)

K Zweigert and H Kötz, An Introduction to Comparative Law (Tony Weir tr, 3rd edn, OUP 1998)

Chapter of edited book

Francis Rose, ‘The Evolution of the Species’ in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2006

Encyclopaedias

Halsbury’s Laws (5th edn, 2010) vol 57, para 53

Journal articles

Paul Craig, ‘Theory, “Pure Theory” and Values in Public Law’ [2005] PL 440

When pinpointing, put a comma between the first page of the article and the page pinpoint.

JAG Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Political

Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64

Online journal

Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT < https://ejlt.org//article/view/17 > accessed 27 July 2010

Command papers and Law Commission report

Department for International Development, Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future (White Paper, Cm 7656, 2009) ch 5 Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008) paras .12–3.17

Websites and blogs

Sarah Cole, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ ( Naked Law , 1 May 2009) www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html  accessed 19 November 2009

Newspaper articles

Jane Croft, ‘Supreme Court Warns on Quality’ Financial Times (London, 1 July 2010) 3

Reference management software & OSCOLA

  • EndNote Online
  • Microsoft Word

The OSCOLA style is not available in the EndNote software, But can be downloaded from this page (below).

  • OSCOLA 4th Edition EndNote output styles are provided solely for use by licensed owners of EndNote and with the EndNote product.

EndNote Online is free  web-based implementation of EndNote. OSCOLA is one of the styles available when using EndNote Online.

Mendeley is a free reference manager and an academic social network . Manage your research, showcase your work, connect and collaborate with others.

OSCOLA is available as a style to download and add.

To quickly insert a footnote in word use Ctrl-Alt-F then insert your reference.

Further information

University of Oxford provide a faq section on their website supporting OSCOLA enquiries: https://www.law.ox.ac.uk/oscola-faqs

Cardiff University provide a thorough tutorial for Citing the law , which will show you how to:

  • Cite cases and legislation, i.e. the ‘primary’ sources of law, in the accepted way
  • Refer to ‘secondary’ sources such as books, journals and government reports in your work
  • Cite using OSCOLA, the Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities, fourth edition

Cardiff also provide the Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations : This database allows you to search for the meaning of abbreviations for English language legal publications, from the British Isles, the Commonwealth and the United States, including those covering international and comparative law.

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University Library

Referencing.

  • About Referencing
  • Referencing Policy
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Need more help with referencing? Contact your Liaison Librarian .

Referencing Training

Welcome to your Law Library Referencing page. If you have a specific question please check if the answer is included in the ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ section of this page. Please also ensure you complete the OSCOLA KnowHow Tutorial , review the OSCOLA referencing guides, and access Cite Them Right for citation examples. To access key library resources pertaining to your subject and/or discipline please visit the Law Library Guide . If you still have questions, please send an email to your Liaison Librarian at [email protected] .

OSCOLA Referencing Style

OSCOLA (Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities) is the style used by the Law School at the University of Liverpool.  

OSCOLA is minimal style and uses very little punctuation. It may be quite different to any referencing style you have used before, however the OSCOLA Quick Guide will help you by providing examples and advice on how to use OSCOLA in your work.

OSCOLA Style Guides

Use the guides below to help you format your references correctly in the OSCOLA style. The OSCOLA Quick Guide covers the majority of sources you will need to cite and provides additional advice, such as the best way to refer to the same source several times and incorporating quotations into your work. 

  • OSCOLA Quick Guide This Quick Guide provides examples and guidance on how to cite in the OSCOLA style. The guide covers the most common sources you will need to cite within your work, including case law, legislation, EU sources, international treaties, books, journal articles and many other document types. Help on using footnotes and guidance on creating a bibliography is also included.

OSCOLA referencing: Support and guidance Sway resource

The materials in this Sway file will help you to understand the importance of academic referencing and how to reference appropriately and in the correct style. The Sway file is a mixture of text, videos and activities to support the development of your referencing and academic integrity skills. Click on the three dots in the top right hand corner of the image below to open up the Sway in a new tab.

  • OSCOLA 4th edition - University of Oxford This is a link to the guide for the 4th edition of OSCOLA, produced by the University of Oxford. We advise you only consult this guide if the source you need to cite is not included in the OSCOLA Quick Guide.
  • Citing International Law in OSCOLA Guidance on citing international legal sources is not included in the 4th edition of OSCOLA. See the OSCOLA Quick Guide for help with citing international treaties, judgments and international documents in general. For anything more complex, see this section from an earlier edition of OSCOLA.

OSCOLA KnowHow tutorial

The KnowHow OSCOLA Referencing tutorial provides you with detailed information on the OSCOLA referencing style and provides you with the opportunity to practice using the style with some activity questions.

OSCOLA Referencing Tutorial

Cite Them Right

The Cite Them Right website not only offers many examples on how to cite a variety of sources but also gives you an opportunity to practice citing your sources using a provided template for both the footnotes and bibliography. 

Cite Them Right logo

OSCOLA FAQs

See more...

OSCOLA and reference management software

For longer pieces of work such as dissertations, you may want to use reference management software.  EndNote  is available via the University network.

OSCOLA can be used with EndNote , although some editing of references may be required. For more information see the OSCOLA referencing software guidance  created by the University of Oxford.

The University Library offers EndNote workshops for those new to the software. Check the Library Training Calendar for details.

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OSCOLA (Law) Referencing Guide

  • Help and Support
  • Pinpointing
  • Subsequent citations and cross references: using ibid and n

Bibliography

  • Understanding Legal Citations
  • European Court of Human Rights
  • UK Legislation - Primary Legislation
  • UK Legislation (Secondary Legislation)
  • Order of Author's
  • Books, eBooks, Pace Codes
  • Edited Book
  • Journal Articles
  • Legal Encyclopaedias

Official Government Publications

Command papers, white and green papers, select committe reports, law commission reports, hansard and parliamentary papers.

  • Webpages and Social Media
  • OSCOLA FAQs

An official publication  is a publication issued by an organisation that may be considered an official body, and then made available to the public. This includes  Command Papers, White and Green papers, relevant treaties, government responses to select committee reports, Law Commission Reports and Hansard.

These sources should be included in your footnotes and your structured bibliography. Sometimes there is no personal author so the organisation is deemed to be the corporate author. 

The author could be a government department or role.

Footnote Format:

Author,  Title  (Command Paper number, year) pinpoints as required

Footnote examples: 

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government,  The Rough Sleeping Strategy  (Cm 9685, 2018) ch 4.

Department for International Development, Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future  (White Paper, Cm 7656, 2009) ch 5.

Take care to note the abbreviation for a Command Paper as shown on its title page. There have been six series of Command Papers and each series has its own unique abbreviation.

The abbreviation preceding a command paper number depends on the year of publication:

1833–69 (C (1st series)

1870–99 (C (2nd series)

1900–18 (Cd)

1919–56 (Cmd)

1957–86 (Cmnd)

1986– (Cm)

In the bibliography, list Command Papers alphabetically by author in Secondary Sources. The format is the same as the footnote but without the full stop at the end.

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government,  The Rough Sleeping Strategy  (Cm 9685, 2018)

Department for International Development, Eliminating World Poverty: Building our Common Future  (White Paper, Cm 7656, 2009)

To create a reference to a Select Committee Report , use the name of the committee, followed by the name of the report in italics and either HC or HL in brackets. You then need the years of Parliament session and the serial number of the report, the session and after a comma the paper number and volume number (the latter in roman numerals). This you can find on the bottom of the reports title page.  For reports of joint committees, cite both the House of Lords and House of Commons paper numbers.

To pinpoint paragraphs, use para or paras before the numbers.

Footnote Examples: 

Defence Select Committee,  Iraq: An Initial Assessment of Post-conflict Operations  (HC 2004-05 65-I) paras 85-91.

Joint Committee on Human Rights, Legislative Scrutiny: Equality Bill (second report); Digital Economy Bill (2009–10, HL 73, HC 425) 14–16.

Bibliography:

Do not include the full stop at the end of the reference, pinpoints should not be used in the bibliography.

Law Commission,  Report Title in italics   (Law Commission report number, year) paragraph number.

Footnote Examples:

Law Commission,  Simplification of the Immigration Rules   (Law Com No 242, 2019) para 6.1.

Law Commission, Reforming Bribery (Law Com No 313, 2008) paras 3.12-3.17.

References to Parliamentary debates (Hansard) should include the House abbreviation. If the entry is House of Commons (HC) or House of Lords (HL).  This is followed by 'Deb' for debate, the date, volume, and common number.

If you are referring to a written answer in the House of Commons put a 'W' after the column number. if you are referring to a written answer in the House of Lords put 'WA' before the column number.

Footnote format:

HC OR HL Deb Date, Vol, Col.

HC Deb 16 June 2020, vol 677, col 705W.

HL Deb 20 March 2018, vol 790, col WA234.

The above format applies to both online and printed versions.

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Referencing and citations - OSCOLA: Journals

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Referencing and citations - OSCOLA

Journals Contents

In a nutshell.

When citing articles, give the author’s name first, followed by a comma. Then give the title of the article, in roman within single quotation marks. After the title, give the publication information.

Do NOT italicise either the article title or the journal.

Preferred journal abbreviations can be checked on the Cardiff Index .

Alternatively you may specify abbreviations in a table at the beginning of your work.

Journal articles

Start with the article author (first name/initial then surname, multiple authors to be treated as per books), then the article title in single quotes.

After the title, give the publication information in the following order:

   · year of publication, in square brackets if it identifies the volume, in round brackets if there is a separate volume number;

   · the volume number if there is one (include an issue number only if the page numbers begin again for each issue within a volume, in which case put the issue number in brackets immediately after the volume number);

   · the name of the journal in roman, in full or abbreviated form, with no full stops; and

   · the first page of the article.

So articles from journals without independently numbered volumes should follow the format:

author, | ‘title’ | [year] | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article.

  •  Paul Craig, ‘Theory, "Pure Theory" and Values in Public Law’ [2005] PL 440.

Articles from journals which do have independently numbered volumes should follow the format:

author, | ‘title’ | (year) | volume | journal name or abbreviation | first page of article.

  •  Alison L Young, ‘In Defence of Due Deference’ (2009) 72 MLR 554.

Put a comma after the first page of the article if there is a pinpoint.

  •  JAG Griffith, ‘The Common Law and the Political Constitution’ (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64.

Journal databases/e-only journals

If you source an article online which is also available in hard copy, cite the hard copy version. There is no need to cite an electronic source for such a publication. This will be the case for virtually all articles found in Westlaw, Lexis and Hein Online.

When citing journal articles which have been published only electronically, give publication details as for articles in hard copy journals, but note that online journals may lack some of the publication elements (for example, many do not include page numbers).

If citation advice is provided by the online journal, follow it, removing full stops as necessary to comply with OSCOLA.

Follow the citation with the web address (in angled brackets) and the date you most recently accessed the article. Pinpoints follow the citation and come before the web address.

Citations should follow the format:

author, | ‘title’ | [year] OR (year) | volume/issue | journal name or abbreviation | <web address> | date accessed.

  •  Graham Greenleaf, ‘The Global Development of Free Access to Legal Information’ (2010) 1(1) EJLT <http://ejlt.org/article/view/17> accessed 27 July 2010.

Pinpoints follow the citation and come before the web address.

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Law: Referencing Using OSCOLA

  • Using the Library
  • Finding your reading list items using One Search
  • One Search for Research
  • Introduction to Academic Resources
  • Law Books and Journals
  • Cases, Legislation and Websites
  • Referencing Using OSCOLA

OSCOLA Referencing

Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities is the accepted method for the referencing of legal materials, such as law cases, statutes and parliamentary papers, for example.  In-text citations appear as footnotes and there is a formal set of abbreviations for key sources, such as AC for Appeal Cases.

If you are studying Law at UWS you will be given guidance on the way in which you are required to use OSCOLA and you must adhere to this.

The following web site from the Faculty of Law at University of Oxford contains very useful information:

  • OSCOLA 4th ed

What is referencing and why do I have to do it?

Referencing is the method we use to acknowledge the work of other authors.

It serves three principal aims:

  • To support your arguments with evidence. Referencing demonstrates that your own arguments are grounded in a body of existing research and have been developed through an examination of the relevant literature.
  • Referencing is an important means by which we credit other authors for any ideas, arguments, quotations, and other forms of intellectual property which are not your own. Not providing an acknowledgement for the work of others is considered plagiarism (note that plagiarism can be both intentional and unintentional). You must always provide a citation when you use another author's intellectual ideas, whether you are paraphrasing (putting it into your own words), summarising, or directly quoting from the source.
  • Referencing shows the reader where they can access the original sources you have used (the evidence) to verify or fact check. It also helps the reader to carry out additional research of their own.

Please note!

Referencing is an essential, integral and accepted part of academic study and practice and must be used in the vast majority of academic assignments within all subject areas and at all levels of study.

Everyone, from Level 7 students to published academic researchers, will be required to reference throughout their academic career.

Referencing Using OSCOLA - Cite Them Right Online

The Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a widely recognised and widely used citation style specifically designed for legal research and writing in the United Kingdom. Here are some reasons why OSCOLA is preferred over other referencing styles in the context of legal writing:

Specialisation for Legal Sources: OSCOLA is tailored for the unique requirements of legal research, making it highly suitable for law students, legal professionals, and legal academics. It provides detailed rules for citing legal authorities, such as cases, legislation, and secondary sources, ensuring accuracy and consistency in legal writing.

UK Legal System: OSCOLA is designed to align with the legal system of the United Kingdom, including its court hierarchy, case law reporting, and parliamentary practices. This makes it the ideal choice for legal documents related to UK law.

Academic Acceptance: OSCOLA is widely accepted by UK law schools and academic institutions, and it is often the required citation style for legal research papers, theses, and dissertations. Using OSCOLA can help students meet academic standards and expectations.

Clarity and Precision: OSCOLA's clear and specific rules for citing legal sources reduce the likelihood of errors and ambiguities in legal writing. This precision is crucial in legal documents where accuracy and clarity are paramount.

Comprehensive Guidelines: OSCOLA provides comprehensive guidelines for citing a wide range of legal materials, including cases, statutes, statutory instruments, law reports, and legal journals. It also covers secondary sources, treaties, and international materials.

Regular Updates: OSCOLA is periodically updated to reflect changes in legal citation practices and technology. This ensures that it remains current and relevant to the evolving legal landscape.

Respected Standard: In the field of law, adherence to a recognised and respected citation standard like OSCOLA helps establish the credibility and professionalism of legal documents.

While OSCOLA is the preferred style for legal writing in the UK, the choice of a citation style may also depend on institutional requirements and individual preferences. However, for those working within the UK legal system, OSCOLA offers a comprehensive and specialised framework for accurate and consistent legal citations.

In Cite Them Right Online, click on Choose Your Referencing Style- and then select OSCOLA. Here you will find example of how to reference items using the Oxford University standard for the citation of legal authorities (OSCOLA) style. 

  • Referencing at UWS
  • Cite Them Right Online Login to Cite Them Right Online, access the Tutorial to learn about referencing, quiz yourself on your knowledge, explore multiple referencing examples and use the 'you try' feature to generate accurate references for your sources. more... less... Login with your university email and password.

Case Citation

  • About Case Citations
  • Case Citation Reference (Scotland)
  • Case Citation Reference

Understanding case citations is crucial for students studying law for several reasons:

Facilitates Efficient Research: Case citations serve as standardized references, making it easier for students to locate specific court decisions quickly and efficiently during their research. With a proper citation, students can pinpoint the exact case they need without sifting through numerous legal documents.

Provides a Consistent Identifier: Case citations provide a consistent and unique identifier for each court decision, regardless of where it is published. This ensures uniformity in legal referencing and citation practices, making it easier for legal professionals, scholars, and students to communicate effectively about legal matters.

Enhances Credibility and Accuracy: Accurate citation of cases enhances the credibility of legal research and writing. Properly citing cases demonstrates thoroughness and attention to detail, which are essential qualities in legal practice. It also helps to avoid plagiarism and ensures that credit is given to the original sources of legal authority.

Supports Legal Analysis: Familiarity with case citations allows students to trace the development of legal principles over time by referencing landmark cases and their subsequent interpretations. This deepens students' understanding of legal concepts and enables them to analyze the application of law in different contexts.

Prepares for Legal Practice: In legal practice, the ability to navigate and interpret case law is essential. Understanding case citations equips students with the skills they need to conduct effective legal research, draft persuasive arguments, and support their positions with relevant precedents when they enter the legal profession.

Overall, knowledge of case citations is fundamental for law students as it streamlines legal research, ensures accuracy and consistency in legal writing, supports critical analysis of legal principles, and prepares students for successful careers in law.

What do case citations look like.

Case citations typically follow a standardised format, which may vary slightly depending on the jurisdiction. However, they generally include the following elements:

Case Name: The names of the parties involved in the legal dispute are listed, with the plaintiff (or claimant) usually mentioned first, followed by the defendant. In some cases, the names of multiple parties may be included.

Year of Decision: The year in which the case was decided by the court is provided. This helps to identify the temporal context of the case and allows users to distinguish between cases with similar names.

Volume and Law Report Series: The volume number and name of the law report series where the case is published are indicated. Law report series are specialized publications that compile and publish court decisions. Common law report series include the Official Law Reports (e.g., AC, QB, Ch) and specialist series (e.g., All England Law Reports, Weekly Law Reports).

Page Number: The page number within the law report series where the case begins is specified. This allows users to locate the case within the relevant publication.

Court Identifier (Optional): In some jurisdictions, an abbreviation or identifier for the court that heard the case may be included. This provides additional context about the judicial authority responsible for the decision.

For example, a case citation in the United Kingdom might appear as follows:

R v Brown 19931993 2 WLR 556

In this citation:

  • R v Brown is the name of the case.
  • 19931993 indicates the year the case was decided.
  • 2 WLR refers to the volume and name of the law report series (in this case, the Weekly Law Reports).
  • 556 is the page number where the case begins in the law report.

Overall, the format of case citations provides a standardised and structured way to reference and identify court decisions, making it easier for legal professionals, scholars, and students to locate and cite relevant cases in their research and writing.

In the legal world, case citation serves as a method for legal professionals to pinpoint previous court case decisions. These citations can be found in specialised series of books known as reporters (or law reports), or in a neutral style that highlights a decision irrespective of its publication source. While case citations vary across jurisdictions, they typically include consistent key details.   In Scotland, case citations follow a slightly different format compared to those used in other jurisdictions. A typical case citation in Scotland includes the following elements:

Case Name: The name of the case, which identifies the parties involved in the legal dispute. For example, "Smith v. Jones" or "R (on the application of Smith) v. Jones."

Year of Decision: The year in which the case was decided by the court.

Court: The abbreviation for the court that heard the case. Common abbreviations include "CS," "SC," or "FC" for the Court of Session, the Supreme Court of Scotland, and the High Court of Justiciary, respectively.

Volume: The volume number of the law report series in which the case is published.

Abbreviation for Law Report Series: The abbreviated name of the law report series where the case is published. Common Scottish law report series include "SLT" (Session Cases), "Scot LR" (Scottish Law Reporter), and "JC" (Justiciary Cases).

Page Number: The page number within the law report series where the case begins.

For example, a case citation in Scotland might appear as follows:

Smith v. Jones [2005] CSOH 123

  • "Smith v. Jones" is the name of the case.
  • "[2005]" indicates the year the case was decided.
  • "CSOH" is the abbreviation for the Court of Session, Outer House.
  • "123" is the page number where the case begins in the law report.

This citation format allows legal professionals in Scotland to accurately reference and locate specific cases within Scottish legal publications.

A case citation is a standardised reference used to uniquely identify a legal case. It typically includes information about the case name, the volume and name of the law report series where the case is published, the page number where the case begins, and sometimes additional details such as the court and the year of the decision. 

For example, a case citation in the UK might look like this:

R v Brown [1993] 2 WLR 556

  • "R v Brown" is the name of the case.
  • "[1993]" indicates the year the case was decided.
  • "2 WLR" refers to the volume and name of the law report series (in this case, the Weekly Law Reports).
  • "556" is the page number where the case begins in the law report.

Case citations serve as a precise and standardised way to refer to legal cases, making it easy for legal professionals to locate and reference specific cases in legal research and proceedings.

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Q. How do I reference a House of Commons Briefing paper (OSCOLA)?

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Answered By: Claire Mazer Last Updated: 16 Oct, 2023     Views: 7678

See the example used here:  Shale gas and fracking (parliament.uk)

Use the pattern described at OSCOLA s.3.4 Other Secondary Sources: author, | ‘title’ | (additional information, | publisher | year) also adding: <URL link> accessed date month year.

The author and title are immediately clear from the document. In the centre of the citation you have (additional information, | publisher | year) so use the following information: (Briefing Paper No CBP 6073, House of Commons Library 31 March 2020). The link to the paper should be non-live, i.e. just text as follows in this example: < https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06073/SN06073.pdf  >. The date of access is when you accessed the briefing paper, and uses a specific date format, for example: 16 October 2023. Avoid using th after 16 (as in 16 th  ). The month should be provided in full (October), not Oct or 16/10/23. The year should also be provided in full (2023).

Footnote:  Sara Priestley, 'Shale gas and fracking'  (Briefing Paper No CBP 6073, House of Commons Library 31 March 2020)  < https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06073/SN06073.pdf  > accessed  16 October 2023.

Remember in your bibliography Sara Priestley’s (the author) name will appear as Priestley S, … rest of citation…

Bibliography:  Priestley S,  'Shale gas and fracking'  (Briefing Paper No CBP 6073, House of Commons Library 31 March 2020)  < https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06073/SN06073.pdf  > accessed  16 October 2023.

For further help, please contact Claire Mazer (Law librarian) [email protected] or the Academic Services team [email protected]

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  • Referencing and Citing

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how to reference a research report oscola

OSCOLA referencing guide

  • Elements of OSCOLA referencing
  • General principles
  • Order of author’s name
  • Source abbreviations
  • Page numbers and other pinpoints
  • Secondary references
  • Footnotes referencing style

Bibliography

  • Encyclopaedias

Government publications

  • Conference papers (published)
  • Journal articles
  • Newspaper articles
  • UK Statutes (Acts)
  • European cases
  • European legislation
  • Repeating citations – short forms and ibid
  • Need help with referencing?

Government publications fall into different categories including Command Papers, Law Commission Reports and Hansard. These sources should be included in your footnotes and your structured bibliography.

Command papers

In terms of the author, this could be a government department or role.

Author,  Title  (Command Paper number, year) pinpoints as required

Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, The Rough Sleeping Strategy (Cm 9685, 2018) ch 4.

Be careful to note the abbreviation for a Command Paper as shown on its title page. There have been six series of Command Papers and each series has its own unique abbreviation.

This is the same as the footnote but without the full stop at the end.

Law Commission reports

Law Commission,  Report Title   (Law Commission report number, year) paragraph number.

Law Commission,  Simplification of the Immigration Rules   (Law Com No 242, 2019) para 6.1.

Hansard and Parliamentary papers

Hansard references need to indicate if the entry is House of Commons (HC) or House of Lords (HL).  This is followed by 'Deb' for debate, the date, volume, and common number.

If you are referring to a written answer in the House of Commons put a 'W' after the column number. if you are referring to a written answer in the House of Lords put 'WA' before the column number.

Format: 

HC OR HL Deb Date, Vol, Col.

HC Deb 16 June 2020, vol 677, col 705W.

HL Deb 20 March 2018, vol 790, col WA234.

The above format applies to both online and printed versions.

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AI has already figured out how to deceive humans

  • A new research paper found that various AI systems have learned the art of deception. 
  • Deception is the "systematic inducement of false beliefs."
  • This poses several risks for society, from fraud to election tampering.

Insider Today

AI can boost productivity by helping us code, write, and synthesize vast amounts of data. It can now also deceive us.

A range of AI systems have learned techniques to systematically induce "false beliefs in others to accomplish some outcome other than the truth," according to a new research paper .

The paper focused on two types of AI systems: special-use systems like Meta's CICERO, which are designed to complete a specific task, and general-purpose systems like OpenAI's GPT-4 , which are trained to perform a diverse range of tasks.

While these systems are trained to be honest, they often learn deceptive tricks through their training because they can be more effective than taking the high road.

"Generally speaking, we think AI deception arises because a deception-based strategy turned out to be the best way to perform well at the given AI's training task. Deception helps them achieve their goals," the paper's first author Peter S. Park, an AI existential safety postdoctoral fellow at MIT, said in a news release .

Meta's CICERO is "an expert liar"

AI systems trained to "win games that have a social element" are especially likely to deceive.

Meta's CICERO, for example, was developed to play the game Diplomacy — a classic strategy game that requires players to build and break alliances.

Related stories

Meta said it trained CICERO to be "largely honest and helpful to its speaking partners," but the study found that CICERO "turned out to be an expert liar." It made commitments it never intended to keep, betrayed allies, and told outright lies.

GPT-4 can convince you it has impaired vision

Even general-purpose systems like GPT-4 can manipulate humans.

In a study cited by the paper, GPT-4 manipulated a TaskRabbit worker by pretending to have a vision impairment.

In the study, GPT-4 was tasked with hiring a human to solve a CAPTCHA test. The model also received hints from a human evaluator every time it got stuck, but it was never prompted to lie. When the human it was tasked to hire questioned its identity, GPT-4 came up with the excuse of having vision impairment to explain why it needed help.

The tactic worked. The human responded to GPT-4 by immediately solving the test.

Research also shows that course-correcting deceptive models isn't easy.

In a study from January co-authored by Anthropic, the maker of Claude, researchers found that once AI models learn the tricks of deception, it's hard for safety training techniques to reverse them.

They concluded that not only can a model learn to exhibit deceptive behavior, once it does, standard safety training techniques could "fail to remove such deception" and "create a false impression of safety."

The dangers deceptive AI models pose are "increasingly serious"

The paper calls for policymakers to advocate for stronger AI regulation since deceptive AI systems can pose significant risks to democracy.

As the 2024 presidential election nears , AI can be easily manipulated to spread fake news, generate divisive social media posts, and impersonate candidates through robocalls and deepfake videos, the paper noted. It also makes it easier for terrorist groups to spread propaganda and recruit new members.

The paper's potential solutions include subjecting deceptive models to more "robust risk-assessment requirements," implementing laws that require AI systems and their outputs to be clearly distinguished from humans and their outputs, and investing in tools to mitigate deception.

"We as a society need as much time as we can get to prepare for the more advanced deception of future AI products and open-source models," Park told Cell Press. "As the deceptive capabilities of AI systems become more advanced, the dangers they pose to society will become increasingly serious."

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In a decade of drug overdoses, more than 320,000 American children lost a parent

Rhitu Chatterjee

how to reference a research report oscola

Esther Nesbitt lost two of her children to drug overdoses, and her grandchildren are among more than 320,000 who lost parents in the overdose epidemic. Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images hide caption

Esther Nesbitt lost two of her children to drug overdoses, and her grandchildren are among more than 320,000 who lost parents in the overdose epidemic.

More than 320,000 children across the United States lost a parent due to a drug overdose between 2011 and 2021. That's according to a new study published in JAMA Psychiatry Wednesday.

"It's a call to arms to pay close attention to the consequences of a parent who dies due to a drug overdose," saysHarvard neuroscientist Charles Nelson III , who wasn't involved in the new study.

The impact of the country's overdose epidemic on children is something "we really don't speak much about," says Dr. Nora Volkow , director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and an author of the new study.

"The [overdose] numbers and mortality are so high that it attracts all of the attention and urgency to address it, to protect people from dying," she adds. "But at the same time, we've basically neglected to realize that when someone dies, there is a family that's left behind. And if the family has young children, that makes them very, very vulnerable."

Several federal agencies including the Substance Abuse and Mental Health administration and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the study.

Kids who experience the death of a parent or a primary caregiver are at risk of a range of poor health and educational outcomes, according to previous research.

For example, the death of a parent makes children more likely to do poorly at school and even drop out . A 2018 study found that children who experienced the sudden death of a parent are more likely to have trouble functioning and have symptoms of depression and post traumatic stress disorder.

The new paper was inspired by recent studies on estimates of children who lost a parent or primary caregiver to Covid-19 , says Volkow, drawing attention to the multigenerational effects of the pandemic.

Volkow and her co-authors found that the rate of children who lost a parent from an overdose rose by 134% during the study period – from 27 per 100,000 children in 2011 to 63 per 100,000 in 2021.

More children — over 192,000 — lost a father to drug overdose compared to the 129,000 who lost a mother.

More than half of these bereaved kids had parents who died between the ages of 26 to 40 years, followed by 41 to 64 years, and 18 to 25 years.

The largest number of parents who died were non-Hispanic White, followed by Hispanic and Black. However, the highest rate of parental drug overdose losses were among American Indian and Alaska Native children.

"Children that come from underrepresented groups with higher adversity, economic and social, which already puts them at higher risk for behavioral health disorders and mental health disorders," says Volkow. Those risks can be further exacerbated by the death of a parent due to overdose, she adds.

"When I read the [new] paper, I had this sense of déja vu," says Nelson, who is an author of a 2021 study that estimated the number of children in the United States who lost a parent due to COVID-19-related causes.

However, the long term risks may be even greater for kids who lost a parent due to a drug overdose, says Nelson.

how to reference a research report oscola

A memorial for those lost to the opioid epidemic in Binghamton, NY, in Aug. 2021. A study in JAMA Psychiatry Wednesday tallies how many children lost parents to overdoses. Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images hide caption

A memorial for those lost to the opioid epidemic in Binghamton, NY, in Aug. 2021. A study in JAMA Psychiatry Wednesday tallies how many children lost parents to overdoses.

"There's so many factors involved so that kids could get very, very tangled up in their thinking about why their parent overdosed," says Nelson.

For example, a child might get preoccupied with questions like "Was it preventable? Why did my father do this? Why didn't they stop taking drugs?" he says.

Besides, as the study points out, growing up in a household where a parent uses substances is itself a childhood trauma with potential for long-term health consequences for a child. "There's all the neglect that goes along with that, with certain substances. That's very common," says Nelson. "There is the abuse that sometimes travels with that."

As a result, a child whose parent died from a drug overdose may experience complex grief, and need more specialized mental health care, he adds.

There are other factors adding more stress to the lives of these bereaved children, says Nelson. "The worst of it is the stigma associated with having lost a parent to an overdose," he says. "So that would mean that these kids could be stigmatized in school."

Then there is the risk of future substance use. "As these kids get to adolescence, they too might start using drugs," says Nelson. "It gets really complicated."

Volkow hopes the study will spur actions to better address the needs of these children, so their long-term risks can be minimized. For example, she hopes there will be efforts made to keep children with their siblings and/or other relatives, with families receiving the supports and services they need to address these children's mental health needs.

"If a child loses a parent, [and] the child welfare system comes in and they remove them and take them away from other siblings, and then they lose not just the parent, they lose the sibling, they lose the school system that they have," says Volkow.

And there is a lot more to be done to prevent the death of parents due to overdoses in the first place, says Volkow, through policies that encourage parents to seek treatment for their substance use.

However, parents, especially mothers (and pregnant women) face tremendous stigma and punitive state laws which discourage them from seeking treatment, she says.

'As a physician, if someone comes to me and they are actually taking drugs and say they are pregnant, I have to report that," Volkow says.

In some states, such reporting eventually leads to the child being taken away from the mother soon after birth. Laws like these discourage women from seeking treatment for substance use, she adds. "Seeking treatment should not be something that people should be afraid of."

  • opioid addiciton
  • opioid crisis
  • children grief

COMMENTS

  1. OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Official reports

    Official reports. Official Reports are usually published by a government department or an organisation, although sometimes an individual author is named. If the publication has an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) cite it like a book. The ISBN can usually be found on the title page.

  2. A Quick Guide to OSCOLA Referencing

    OSCOLA referencing examples. OSCOLA provides formats for a variety of source types. The most common ones are covered below. Case reports. When citing a case, you'll usually begin with a neutral citation - a way of referring to the case that does not relate to a particular report - and then give the details of the report afterwards.

  3. OSCOLA Referencing

    OSCOLA is a footnote referencing style. That means that you add small, superscript numbers (for example, 1,2,3) to the sources in your text, which connect to footnotes at the bottom of your page. You may also have to include a list of tables of cases, legislation and other primary sources at the start of your essay, and a bibliography of second ...

  4. PDF OSCOLA Quick Reference Guide

    OSCOLA Quick Reference Guide Primary Sources Do not use full stops in abbreviations. Separate citations with a semi-colon. Cases Give the party names, followed by the neutral citation, followed by the Law Reports citation (eg AC, Ch, QB). If there is no neutral citation, give the Law Reports citation followed by the court in brackets. If

  5. OSCOLA

    OSCOLA uses a footnote citation system. In the text, a number in superscript 1 is added at the end of a sentence and after the punctuation. Neville states that The Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal was involved in developing the OSCOLA referencing system. 1. The reference is then given in the footnote at the bottom of the page.

  6. Guide to OSCOLA Referencing

    Where possible cite the official reports, the European Court Reports (ECR). If an ECR report is unavailable, the second best report is usually the Common Market Law Reports (CMLR). The Law Reports, the Weekly Law Reports or the All England Reports can also be cited. For an unreported case, cite the relevant notice in the Official Journal (OJ).

  7. PDF OSCOLA Referencing Quick Guide

    This is a quick guide to citing and referencing using the Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) (4th edition) referencing system. For more detailed examples go to Cite Them Right Online, or see the official guidance on the University of Oxford's OSCOLA page. Your referencing includes three stages: — a ...

  8. Referencing guide at the University of Manchester: OSCOLA

    Give the party names, followed by the neutral citation, followed by the Law Reports citation (eg AC, Ch, QB). If there is no neutral citation, give the Law Reports citation followed by the court in brackets. If the case is not reported in the Law Reports, cite the All ER or the WLR, or failing that a specialist report.

  9. PDF OSCOLA

    one citation is given in a single footnote reference, separate them with semi-colons . 1.1.1 Citing cases When citing cases, give the name of the case, the neutral citation (if appropriate), and volume and first page of the relevant law report, and where necessary the court . If the

  10. OSCOLA

    OSCOLA is minimal style and uses very little punctuation. It may be quite different to any referencing style you have used before, however the OSCOLA Quick Guide will help you by providing examples and advice on how to use OSCOLA in your work. Use the guides below to help you format your references correctly in the OSCOLA style.

  11. LibGuides: OSCOLA (Law) Referencing Guide: Official Publications

    OSCOLA Law referencing guidance. To create a reference to a Select Committee Report, use the name of the committee, followed by the name of the report in italics and either HC or HL in brackets. You then need the years of Parliament session and the serial number of the report, the session and after a comma the paper number and volume number (the latter in roman numerals).

  12. LibGuides: Referencing and citations

    If citation advice is provided by the online journal, follow it, removing full stops as necessary to comply with OSCOLA. Follow the citation with the web address (in angled brackets) and the date you most recently accessed the article. Pinpoints follow the citation and come before the web address. Citations should follow the format:

  13. Referencing Using OSCOLA

    Referencing is the method we use to acknowledge the work of other authors. It serves three principal aims: To support your arguments with evidence. Referencing demonstrates that your own arguments are grounded in a body of existing research and have been developed through an examination of the relevant literature.

  14. Citing and referencing (OSCOLA)

    OSCOLA Ireland is the most commonly used system for the citation of legal authorities in Irish Higher Education. OSCOLA provides a uniform way to reference all types of primary and secondary materials which you will need to cite in your written work. All quotations, direct and indirect references, and cited examples need to be clearly marked up ...

  15. Q. How do I reference a House of Commons Briefing paper (OSCOLA)?

    Use the pattern described at OSCOLA s.3.4 Other Secondary Sources: author, | 'title' | (additional information, | publisher | year) also adding: <URL link> accessed date month year. The author and title are immediately clear from the document. In the centre of the citation you have (additional information, | publisher | year) so use the ...

  16. Legal Research and Writing: OSCOLA

    The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA), created by the Oxford University, is a footnote referencing style mainly used to cite British legal information and publications. This style is often used to cite references when studying law in HKU. This page includes some general principles and examples of citing commonly ...

  17. LLS Home: OSCOLA referencing guide: Government publications

    Command papers. In terms of the author, this could be a government department or role. Format: Author, Title (Command Paper number, year) pinpoints as required. Footnote. Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government, The Rough Sleeping Strategy (Cm 9685, 2018) ch 4. Be careful to note the abbreviation for a Command Paper as shown on ...

  18. AI Has Already Figured Out How to Deceive Humans

    GPT-4 can convince you it has impaired vision. Even general-purpose systems like GPT-4 can manipulate humans.. In a study cited by the paper, GPT-4 manipulated a TaskRabbit worker by pretending to ...

  19. More than 320,000 children lost a parent to drug overdoses in a ...

    In a decade of drug overdoses, more than 320,000 American children lost a parent. Esther Nesbitt lost two of her children to drug overdoses, and her grandchildren are among more than 320,000 who ...