Static vs Dynamic IP Addresses: Everything You Need to Know

Static IP, featured image, illustration.

Every computer that’s connected to the internet has an Internet Protocol (IP) address . However, not all IP addresses look or behave the same way.

Understanding the difference between dynamic and static IPs is vital if you’re working with computer networks or servers. By learning more about each protocol, you can choose the most appropriate solution for your needs.

In this article, we’ll discuss the difference between static vs dynamic IPs. We’ll also help you figure out your IP address and explain how to assign it a fixed number (if that’s what you prefer).

Let’s get to work!

An Introduction to Static IP and Dynamic IP Addresses

As we mentioned before, every internet-enabled device has an IP address. It can be a unique numeric or alphanumeric string of characters, depending on which protocol you use. Most devices use IPv4 addresses, which look similar to this: 151.164.152.92.

Although IP addresses may appear random at first, they include a lot of information about your current network. Here’s what each segment in the above example represents:

  • 151.164.xx.xx — This first half of the IP address identifies your network. It can refer to an internet provider or even a broader set of devices, depending on your location.
  • xx.xx.152.92 — The second half of the IP address identifies your host and each machine in your network. Not all devices on your local network will share the same IP address.

Keep in mind that this is just one example of an IP address. When we talk about “static” addresses, we’re referring to a series of numbers that identify your device and never change.

If you have a dynamic IP address, the numeric identifier will change periodically. Usually, this adjustment is made by your internet service provider (ISP), often without you even realizing it (since it usually doesn’t affect the browsing experience).

Determining What Your IP Is

Finding your IP address works differently depending on which operating system (OS) you’re using. Let’s go over the process for both Windows and macOS devices.

How to Find Your IP Address in Windows

The easiest way to find your IP address in Windows is to open the start menu, type “cmd” and launch the command prompt. Once the command prompt opens, type “ipconfig /all” and hit the Enter key.

The command prompt will return information about all of your network adapters, so you’ll need to identify which one you’re using:

Looking up your IP address using the Windows command prompt.

That’s a lot of information to sort through, but there are only two elements that are important right now:

  • IPv4 Address: This is your IP address, and in this case, we’re using the IPv4 protocol.
  • DHCP Enabled: If the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is enabled, it means you don’t have a static IP address.

We’ll discuss the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic vs static IPs in a moment. For now, let’s go over how to find your IP address if you’re using macOS.

How to Find Your IP Address in macOS

If you’re using macOS, the quickest way to find your IP address is to open the Network Preferences menu and select the network you’re using. Click on the relevant Advanced button, and then select the TCP/IP tab:

Finding your IP address on macOS.

Your IP address will show up next to either the IPv4 Address or IPv6 Address, depending on which protocol your network uses. We’ll talk about the difference between these protocols in a later section. For now, check to see if the Using DHCP option is enabled under either section.

If DHCP is enabled, you have a dynamic IP address. You already know the difference between dynamic and static IP addresses, but now it’s time to talk about which option you should be using.

Static vs Dynamic IP Addresses (4 Key Considerations)

There are pros and cons to using either static or dynamic IP addresses. In the following sections, we’ll break down four significant considerations to keep in mind when choosing these types.

1. When You Should Use a Static IP Address

The two kinds of devices most often assigned static IPs are servers and peripherals. If you’re using your device to browse the web, then it technically doesn’t matter if your IP address changes all the time.

However, static IP addresses are a necessity in some situations, including:

  • Connecting to Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) with allowlisted IP addresses
  • Accessing website admin sections with allowlisted IP addresses
  • Accessing your devices remotely

Many web hosts and email providers offer static IP addresses as extras or perks on specific plans. However, you don’t necessarily need a static IP address for running a website.

If you work remotely and you need to connect to a VPN to access work files, the chances are that your employer will ask you to set up a static IP address. Allowlisting IP addresses enables employers and other network administrators to decide who has access to the system, which is critical for security purposes.

Having a static IP address in either of those scenarios also means you’re the only person using it. With a shared IP address, you might get penalized if another user sends spam or sets up a website that’s deemed unsafe.

However, in practice, any reputable web host or email provider will ensure that you don’t run into any problems, even if you’re using a shared IP . At Kinsta, for example, we use a range of shared IP addresses provided by Cloudflare , and your website won’t suffer any downsides from it.

2. When You Should Use a Dynamic IP Address

In most cases, it doesn’t matter if your IP address changes regularly. If you don’t have to access private networks often or no one needs remote access to your device, you can do without a static IP address.

It’s important to note that there are a finite number of IP addresses — even if they change dynamically, some IP addresses end up repeating or getting shared. In the past, shared IP addresses posed severe concerns for websites and personal use. However, these days there are almost no downsides to not having a static IP address.

3. Static vs Dynamic IP Addresses for Home Networks: Which One to Use

Your internet provider will determine whether you use a dynamic or a static IP address in most cases. However, there are always workarounds to set up a static IP address, even if your provider offers dynamic IPs by default.

If you need to connect to a VPN or a website with an allowlist of IP addresses, you will need a static IP. However, if you only require access to your home network devices remotely, most modern tools enable you to connect to them without inputting IP addresses.

Google Chrome Remote Desktop , for example, asks you for a unique access code instead of an IP address:

Connecting to a remote device using Google Chrome Remote Support.

The availability of such tools means that you’ll rarely need a static IP address versus a dynamic one for your home network.

4. Dynamic IP vs Static IP: Safety Considerations

If someone knows your server or personal device’s IP address, they can try to connect to it. Even if your home devices or servers don’t contain any precious information, malicious actors might try to break in. If you have a static IP address, that means those hackers always know where to reach you.

Dynamic IP addresses are the safer option out of the box. However, it’s important to note that even if attackers know where to find you, that doesn’t necessarily mean they will get in. With proper security measures , a static IP address can be just as safe a choice as a dynamic one.

The Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses

So far, we’ve only focused on IPv4 addresses. However, that’s not the only protocol available. IPv6 is another option , which at some point will likely become the norm for IP addresses.

There are several differences between these protocols. The primary reason the world is slowly transitioning to IPv6 is that IPv4 can only support around four billion IP addresses due to how it’s configured.

Since it’s becoming all too common for people to have multiple internet-enabled devices, four billion IP addresses are not enough, even with the help of DHCP. The IPv6 protocol solves that problem by using alphanumeric addresses, in contrast to IPv4’s numbers-only approach.

Here’s an example of what an IPv6 address looks like:

2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:7879

The increased length and the mix of letters and numbers mean that the IPv6 address can support 340 trillion addresses. With such a vast number, we shouldn’t run out for a very long time.

Right now, only about 35% of all devices in the world are using IPv6 addresses. Like IPv4, the IPv6 protocol supports both static and dynamic addresses. That means all of the considerations we’ve talked about so far also apply to this newer protocol.

How to Get a Static IP Address

If you need a static IP address, there are several ways you can get one, depending on what your situation is. In this section, we’ll cover all of them, whether you want to set or change a static IP for a web server or a local network device (wired or wireless).

How to Set a Static IP for a Web or Email Server

If you want to set up a static (non-shared) IP for a web or email server that you don’t host yourself, you’ll need to ask your provider for one. In many cases, web hosting or email providers will offer static IPs as extras if you’re using a VPS or a cloud hosting plan.

Keep in mind that paying for a dedicated server doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll get a static IP. Dynamic IPs are the norm in most cases, so you may still need to pay for an extra one even if you sign up for a dedicated plan.

How to Assign a Static IP Address to a Local Device

Many people recommend contacting your internet provider if you have a dynamic IP address and want a static one. However, in our experience, most internet providers cannot assign static IP addresses to residential customers.

Your best option is to configure a static IP yourself through your OS or router if that includes you. If you need a static IP to connect to another network with an allowlisted address, you can also use a VPN that offers fixed addresses .

How to Assign a Static IP to Windows Devices

As you might recall, IPv4 addresses include both network and host identifiers. In most cases, you can configure your devices to use static IPs without fear of conflict with other addresses.

If you’re using Windows, you can do this by accessing the Network & Internet section under your OS settings, and then selecting Change adapter options :

Changing your network adapter options in Windows.

You’ll see an overview of all of your available network connections. Right-click on your active network connection and select Properties . Next, click on the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) option in the window that pops up, followed by the Properties button:

Accessing your IPv4 settings in Windows.

A new window will open, enabling you to select the Use the following IP address setting. Click on that option, and then set the static IP address you want to use:

Setting a static IP in Windows.

Keep in mind that you can’t just enter any values that you want. Here’s some guidance for filling out each field so that you won’t run into any errors:

  • IP address: The static IP you set should copy the first three segments of your current address. If your address right now is “XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX”, the new one should be “XXX.XXX.XXX.YYY”. That’s because those first segments identify both your network and your host.
  • Subnet mask: If you’re using a residential network, your subnet mask should be “255.255.255.0”, which means your network uses 24 bits for its identifier.
  • Default gateway: This should be your router’s IP address, which you can find by opening the command prompt and typing “ipconfig /all.”

Once you fill out every field, click on OK . If your settings are correct, you’ll have a new static IP.

How to Assign a Static IP to macOS Devices

Assigning a static IP address on a macOS device works in a very similar way. You also have to enter an IP address, a subnet mask, and your default gateway (which you can read about in the previous section).

The only difference is that getting to those settings requires a different route. Here are the three steps to access the Configure IPv4 menu for your active network in macOS:

  • Open the Apple menu, click on System Preferences , and then select the Network option.
  • Click on Ethernet in the left-hand panel.
  • Select the Manually option under the Configure IPv4 menu settings.

Once you complete those steps, you’ll need to fill out the following fields, including your new static IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway:

Setting up a static IP address on macOS.

Save the changes to your network configuration, and you’re good to go. Now your IP address will remain static as long as you don’t revert the changes to your network.

Most internet and web hosting providers will assign you dynamic IP addresses. Typically, that’s not a bad thing. However, there are some situations where having a static IP is necessary, such as if you need to access a work VPN with allowlisted addresses.

If you’re running a website, however, you probably don’t need a static IP. At Kinsta, we offer shared IP addresses provided by Cloudflare to all our customers. Even without a dedicated IP, most of our customers see significant improvements in their sites’ performance .

Host your Static site for free with Kinsta’s Static site hosting and deploy your website directly to the edge.

Do you have any questions about static vs dynamic IP addresses? Let us know in the comments section below!

ip address allocation static

Salman Ravoof is a self-taught web developer, writer, creator, and a huge admirer of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). Besides tech, he's excited by science, philosophy, photography, arts, cats, and food. Learn more about him on his website , and connect with Salman on Twitter .

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DHCP vs. static IP addressing

IP addresses are indispensable to any enterprise IT ecosystem. A network's capability to manage its IP address space is critical to enabling network communication and effective data transfers between network components. A fundamental process in managing IP addresses is IP address allocation or IP provisioning. Since both DHCP IP allocation and static allocation mechanisms often need to be deployed in tandem, it is important to understand the differences between DHCP and static IP allocation to effectively deploy the strategy that suits your networking needs.

On this page, we will discuss:

What is IP allocation, and why should you care?

Dhcp vs. static ip allocation: how do they work, how to decide between dhcp and static allocation: 10 factors to consider.

  • How does OpUtils help you set up and manage your DHCP and static strategies?

IP addresses uniquely identify different network components, such as servers, routers, and end-user devices. IP allocation is the process of assigning these numerical identifiers to all new devices that connect to the network. This is necessary for the devices to establish and run network communications and data transfers with other connected network components in the organization's private or public network.

Types of IP allocation

  • Static IP allocation : This traditional approach to IP allocation requires the IP addresses to be manually configured for the endpoints. Statically allocated IP addresses remain associated with the devices' MAC addresses unless revoked manually.
  • Dynamic IP allocation (aka DHCP IP allocation) : Given the growing scale of modern IT ecosystems, manually configuring an IP address for every new device entering the network is impractical. This is why most networks rely on DHCP servers to dynamically allocate and deallocate IP addresses. These servers manage the IP allocation process of the entire network without much manual intervention.

Challenges of IP allocation

  • IP address conflicts : Preventing IP address conflicts is more important than detecting IP address conflicts after they have affected your network. Preventing IP conflicts is often dependent on the effectiveness of your IP allocation strategy. IP data mismanagement or an ineffective IP allocation strategy can lead to duplicate IP allocation, causing an IP address conflict in your network.
  • The static vs. DHCP IP allocation conundrum : Not all network IP allocations can be managed statically or manually. Similarly, it is not advisable to manage all IP allocations with DHCP servers. For instance, while it might be efficient and effective to manage IPs in a modern IT infrastructure with DHCP servers, legacy systems in these infrastructures need static IP allocation. Thus, identifying, understanding, grouping, and isolating network devices or components based on their IP allocation requirements is necessary to avoid network disruption due to IP allocation mismanagement.
  • IP allocation tracking : Tracking IP allocation is necessary to maintain a real-time IP inventory with clear insights into the IP availability and IP utilization details. However, manually maintaining such records can be difficult due to the dynamic nature of IP address allocation using DHCP servers.

Without proper IP allocation, devices in a network can experience conflicts, resulting in connectivity problems and disruptions to network operations. By tracking IP allocations, network admins can ensure that only authorized devices can access the network. This helps you detect and prevent rogue access to your network and reinforce the overall network security.

With IP allocation playing a critical role in maintaining a stable, secure network environment, how does it work?

Static IP address allocation

As mentioned earlier, allocating IP addresses statically depends on manual configurations. This requires network admins to:

  • Plan network address ranges : Admins must analyze the available network address space and determine the IP address ranges for the planned subnets according to the orgnization's networking requirements.
  • Choose IP addresses : Once the network address space is segmented as required, the network admins needs to choose each IP address from the preferred subnet. It is essential to ensure that each IP address is not assigned to another device to avoid IP address conflicts.
  • Access devices' network settings : Network admins are required to physically reach each device, access the network settings, and select the option for manual or static IP configuration.
  • Configure IP address details : In the appropriate settings for each device, network admins are required to specify the preferred IP address and its details, such as the subnet mask and default network gateway information.
  • Maintain records of IP allocations : Once an IP is allocated to a device manually, network admins need to update their IP address tracking records, such as an IP address management spreadsheet or software to avoid duplicate IP allocation.

Dynamic aka DHCP IP allocation

Networks of all scales and complexities often deploy multiple DHCP servers to dynamically assign IP addresses to devices in a network. DHCP IP allocation works by allowing a DHCP server to manage and distribute IP addresses to devices in the network as they request them.

These are the steps involved in DHCP IP allocation:

  • A new device entering your network requests an IP address from the DHCP server by sending out a DHCP discover message.
  • Upon receiving this message, the DHCP server responds with a DHCP offer message, which offers an available IP address to the device to enable network connectivity.
  • When the device receives this message, the device responds with a DHCP request message indicating that it accepts the IP address.
  • Once the DHCP request message is received, the DHCP server allocates the IP address to the device and sends a DHCP acknowledgement message to confirm the dynamic IP allocation.
  • The device can now use this IP address to connect with the organization's network.

DHCP servers dynamically allocate and manage IP addresses as devices connect and disconnect from the network. This helps prevent IP address conflicts by ensuring that each device in the network has a unique IP address.

DHCP and static IP allocation each offers its own set of advantages and disadvantages. For effective network address space allocation and management, it is important to choose an IP address allocation technique that fits your networking requirements.

Here are 10 factors to keep in mind when deciding between static and DHCP IP allocation:

How does OpUtils help you set up and manage your DHCP vs. static strategy?

ManageEngine OpUtils is a comprehensive IP address manager and switch port mapper that offers advanced IP scanning , IP address tracking , and end-to-end advanced port scanning . It offers holistic visibility into your IP address space with:

  • Support for IPv4 and IPv6 : Manage IPv6 and IPv4 in tandem without any additional requirements. Leverage a centralized IP inventory to simplify IP address management (IPAM) .
  • IP address segmentation : Monitor and manage IP address groups across different subnets, supernets, and multiple DHCP server scopes. Simplify IP address tracking with OpUtils' Tree View of monitored IP groups.

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  • DHCP server scope monitoring : Stay in the know about DHCP IP allocation with the DHCP scope monitor. View IP availability metrics and DHCP allocation lease details.
  • Proactive IP monitoring : Set up alert scenarios and thresholds to detect IP issues, such as IP address conflicts or subnet overutilization, and get instantly notified.
  • IP tools : Leverage several IP tools, including Network Scanner and I P Request , which are part of OpUtils' diverse network Toolset that has more than 30 tools for network diagnosis and troubleshooting.

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What Is a Static IP Address?

An explanation of a static IP address and when you would want to use one

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In This Article

Jump to a Section

  • Why Use a Static IP Address?
  • Static vs. Dynamic IP
  • Disadvantages of a Static IP
  • Get a Static IP Address

Fake a Static IP With a Dynamic DNS Service

  • Frequently Asked Questions

A static IP address is an IP address that was manually configured for a device instead of one that was assigned by a DHCP server. It's called static because it doesn't change vs. a dynamic IP address , which does change.

Routers , phones, tablets, desktops, laptops, and any other device that can use an IP address can be configured to have a static IP address. This might be done through the device giving out IP addresses (like the router) or by manually typing the IP address into the device from the device itself.

Static IP addresses are also sometimes referred to as fixed IP addresses or dedicated IP addresses.

Why Would You Use a Static IP Address?

Another way to think of a static IP address is to think of something like an email address, or a physical home address. These addresses don't change—they're static—and it makes contacting or finding someone easy.

Similarly, a static IP address is useful if you host a website from home, have a file server in your network, use networked printers, forward ports to a specific device , run a print server, or use a remote access program . Because a static IP address never changes, other devices always know exactly how to contact a device that uses one.

For example, if a static IP address is set up for a computer in a home network. Once the computer has a specific address tied to it, a router can be set up to always forward certain inbound requests directly to that computer, such as FTP requests if the computer shares files over FTP.

Not using a static IP address (using a dynamic IP that does change) is a hassle if you're hosting a website, for example, because with every new IP address that the computer gets, you have to change the router settings to forward requests to that new address. Neglecting to do this would mean nobody could get to your website because the router has no idea which device in the network is the one that's serving the website.

Another example of a static IP address at work is with DNS servers . DNS servers use static IP addresses so that devices always knows how to connect to them. If they changed often, you'd have to regularly reconfigure those DNS servers on your router or computer to use the internet.

Static IP addresses are also useful for when the device's domain name is inaccessible. Computers that connect to a file server in a workplace network, for instance, could be set up to always connect to the server using the server's static IP instead of its hostname . Even if the DNS server malfunctions, the computers could still access the file server because they communicate with it through the IP address.

With remote access applications such as Windows Remote Desktop, using a static IP address means you can always access that computer with the same address. Using an IP address that changes requires you to know what it changes to so that you can use that new address for the remote connection.

Static vs. Dynamic IP Addresses

The opposite of a never-changing static IP address is an ever-changing dynamic IP address. A dynamic IP address is a regular address like a static IP is, but it's not permanently tied to a device. Instead, dynamic IP addresses are used for a specific amount of time and then returned to an address pool so that other devices can use them.

This is one reason that dynamic IP addresses are useful. If an ISP used static IP addresses for their customers, there'd constantly be a limited supply of addresses for new customers. Dynamic addresses provide a way for IP addresses to be reused when they're not in use elsewhere, providing internet access for more devices than would otherwise be possible.

Static IP addresses limit downtime. When dynamic addresses obtain a new IP address, any user that's connected to the existing one is removed from the connection and has to wait to find the new address. This wouldn't be a wise setup to have if the server hosts a website, a file-sharing service, or an online video game, all of which normally require constantly active connections.

In a local network, such as in a home or place of business, where you use a private IP address , most devices are probably configured for DHCP and thus use dynamic IP addresses.

Disadvantages of Using a Static IP Address

The major disadvantage that static IP addresses have over dynamic addresses is that the devices must be configured manually. The examples given above with regards to a home web server and remote access programs require you to set up the device with an IP address and properly configure the router to communicate with that specific address.

This requires more work than plugging in a router and allowing it to give out dynamic IP addresses via DHCP.

If a device is assigned an IP address of, for example, 192.168.1.110, and you go to a different network that gives out 10.X.X.X addresses, you won't be able to connect with the static IP. Instead, the device will need to be reconfigured to use DHCP (or use a static IP that works with that new network).

Security might be another downfall to using static IP addresses. An address that never changes gives hackers a prolonged time frame to find vulnerabilities in the device's network. The alternative would be using a dynamic IP address that changes and would, therefore, require the attacker to also change how they communicate with the device.

How to Get a Static IP Address

The steps for configuring a static IP address in Windows are fairly similar in Windows 11 through Windows XP. You can also set a static IP address on your phone or tablet.

Some routers reserve an IP address for specific devices that are connected to a network. This is normally done through DHCP Reservation, and it works by associating an IP address with a MAC address so that each time that specific device requests an IP address, the router assigns it the one you chose to associate with that physical MAC address.

You can read more about using DHCP Reservation at your router manufacturer's website. Here are links to instructions on doing this on routers from popular manufacturers: D-Link , Linksys, NETGEAR , Google.

To change the network settings, learn how to log in to your router as an administrator .

Getting a static IP address for your home or business requires contacting your ISP, but it might not be an option depending on the company. Static IP address assignments for public IP addresses are normally more expensive than choosing the dynamic IP option.

Since using a static IP address for a home network may cost more than a regular dynamic IP address, opt for both by using a ​ dynamic DNS (DDNS) service .

Dynamic DNS services associate a changing, dynamic IP address to a hostname that doesn't change. It's like having your own static IP address but at no extra cost than what you're paying for a dynamic IP.

No-IP is one example of a free dynamic DNS service. Download their DNS update client which redirects the hostname you choose to be associated with your current IP address. This means that if you have a dynamic IP address, you can access your network using the same hostname.

A dynamic DNS service is helpful if you need to access your home network with a remote access program but don't want to pay for a static IP address. Similarly, you can host your own website from home and use dynamic DNS to ensure visitors can always access to your website.

The public IP address assigned to the routers of most home and business users is a dynamic IP address. Larger companies usually don't connect to the internet via dynamic IP addresses; instead, they have static IP addresses assigned to them which don't change.

ChangeIP.com is another free DDNS service, but there are many others.

If you're using Windows, you can find your static IP address using the ipconfig command in Command Prompt. Google will also tell you your public IP address if you type "What is my IP address" into the search field. On a Mac, open the Apple menu > System Preferences > Network and select your network to see your IP address.

Use the ifconfig command followed by the name of your network interface and the new IP address you want to use. So it would look something like ifconfig [network interface] [new IP address] .

First, find the Pi's current IP address using the ip r | grep default command and make note of it. Use the sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf command to find the DNS server and the nameserver. Then, edit the dhcpcd.conf file and add the following lines, replacing the information in the brackets with your own:

interface <NETWORK>

static ip_address=<STATICIP>/24

static routers=<ROUTERIP>

static domain_name_servers=<DNSIP>

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How-To Geek

How to set static ip addresses on your router.

Routers both modern and antiquated allow users to set static IP addresses for devices on the network, but what's the practical use of static IP addresses for a home user? Read on as we explore when you should, and shouldn't, assign a static IP.

Quick Links

Dhcp versus static ip assignment, when to use static ip addresses, assigning static ip addresses the smart way.

Dear How-To Geek, After reading over your five things to do with a new router article , I was poking around in the control panel of my router. One of the things I found among all the settings is a table to set static IP addresses. I'm pretty sure that section is self explanatory in as much as I get that it allows you to give a computer a permanent IP address, but I don't really understand why? I've never used that section before and everything on my home network seems to work fine. Should I be using it? It's obviously there for some reason, even if I'm not sure what that reason is! Sincerely, IP Curious

To help you understand the application of static IP addresses, let's start with the setup you (and most readers for that matter) have. The vasty majority of modern computer networks, including the little network in your home controlled by your router, use DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). DHCP is a protocol that automatically assigns a new device an IP address from the pool of available IP addresses without any interaction from the user or a system administrator. Let's use an example to illustrate just how wonderful DHCP is and how easy it makes all of our lives.

Related: How to Set Up Static DHCP So Your Computer's IP Address Doesn't Change

Imagine that a friend visits with their iPad. They want to get on your network and update some apps on the iPad. Without DHCP, you would need to hop on a computer, log into your router's admin panel, and manually assign an available address to your friend's device, say 10.0.0.99. That address would be permanently assigned to your friend's iPad unless you went in later and manually released the address.

With DHCP, however, life is so much easier. Your friend visits, they want to jump on your network, so you give them the Wi-Fi password to login and you're done. As soon as the iPad connected to the router, the router's DHCP server checks the available list of IP addresses, and assigns an address with an expiration date built in. Your friend's iPad is given an address, connected to the network, and then when your friend leaves and is no longer using the network that address will return to the pool for available addresses ready to be assigned to another device.

All that happens behind the scenes and, assuming there isn't a critical error in the router's software, you'll never even need to pay attention to the DHCP process as it will be completely invisible to you. For most applications, like adding mobile devices to your network, general computer use, video game consoles, etc., this is a more than satisfactory arrangement and we should all be happy to have DHCP and not be burdened with the hassle of manually managing our IP assignment tables.

Although DHCP is really great and makes our lives easier, there are situations where using a manually assigned static IP address is quite handy. Let's look at a few situations where you would want to assign a static IP address in order to illustrate the benefits of doing so.

You need reliable name resolution on your network for computers that need to be consistently and accurately found. Although networking protocols have advanced over the years, and the majority of the time using a more abstract protocol like SMB (Server Message Block) to visit computers and shared folders on your network using the familiar //officecomputer/shared_music/ style address works just fine, for some applications it falls apart. For example, when setting up media syncing on XBMC it's necessary to use the IP address of your media source instead of the SMB name.

Any time you rely on a computer or a piece of software to accurately and immediately locate another computer on your network (as is the case with our XBMC example - the client devices need to find the media server hosting the material) with the least chance of error, assigning a static IP address is the way to go. Direct IP-based resolution remains the most stable and error free method of communicating on a network.

You want to impose a human-friendly numbering scheme onto your network devices. For network assignments like giving an address to your friend's iPad or your laptop, you probably don't care where in the available address block the IP comes from because you don't really need to know (or care). If you have devices on your network that you regularly access using command line tools or other IP-oriented applications, it can be really useful to assignment permanent addresses to those devices in a scheme that is friendly to the human memory.

For example, if left to its own devices our router would assign any available address to our three Raspberry Pi XBMC units. Because we frequently tinker with those units and access them by their IP addresses, it made sense to permanently assign addresses to them that would be logical and easy to remember:

The .90 unit is in the basement, the .91 unit is on the first floor, and the .92 unit is on the second floor.

You have an application the expressly relies on IP addresses.  Some applications will only allow you to supple an IP address to refer to other computers on the network. In such cases it would be extremely annoying to have to change the IP address in the application every time the IP address of the remote computer was changed in the DHCP table. Assigning a permanent address to the remote computer prevents you from the hassle of frequently updating your applications. This is why it's quite useful to assign any computer that functions as a server of any sort to a permanent address.

Before you just start assigning static IP addresses left and right, let's go over some basic network hygiene tips that will save you from a headache down the road.

First, check what the IP pool available on your router is. Your router will have a total pool and a pool specifically reserved for DHCP assignments. The total pool available to home routers is typically 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 or 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255 . Then, within those ranges a smaller pool is reserved for the DHCP server, typically around 252 addresses in a range like 10.0.0.2 through 10.0.0.254. Once you know the general pool, you should use the following rules to assign static IP addresses:

  • Never assign an address that ends in .0 or .255 as these addresses are typically reserved for network protocols. This is the reason the example IP address pool above ends at .254.
  • Never assign an address to the very start of the IP pool, e.g. 10.0.0.1 as the start address is always reserved for the router. Even if you've changed the IP address of your router for security purposes , we'd still suggest against assigning a computer.
  • Never assign an address outside of the total available pool of private IP addresses. This means if your router's pool is 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255 every IP you assign (keeping in mind the prior two rules) should fall within that range. Given that there are nearly 17 million addresses in that pool, we're sure you can find one you like.

Some people prefer to only use addresses outside of the DHCP range (e.g. they leave the 10.0.0.2 through 10.0.0.254 block completely untouched) but we don't feel strongly enough about that to consider it an outright rule. Given the improbability of a home user needing 252 device addresses simultaneously, it's perfectly fine to assign a device to one of those addresses if you'd prefer to keep everything in, say, the 10.0.0.x block.

Related: How and Why All Devices in Your Home Share One IP Address

Understanding IP Address Assignment: A Complete Guide

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Introduction

In today's interconnected world, where almost every aspect of our lives relies on the internet, understanding IP address assignment is crucial for ensuring online security and efficient network management. An IP address serves as a unique identifier for devices connected to a network, allowing them to communicate with each other and access the vast resources available on the internet. Whether you're a technical professional, a network administrator, or simply an internet user, having a solid grasp of how IP addresses are assigned within the same network can greatly enhance your ability to troubleshoot connectivity issues and protect your data.

The Basics of IP Addresses

Before delving into the intricacies of IP address assignment in the same network, it's important to have a basic understanding of what an IP address is. In simple terms, an IP address is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. It consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., 192.168.0.1) and can be either IPv4 or IPv6 format.

IP Address Allocation Methods

There are several methods used for allocating IP addresses within a network. One commonly used method is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP allows devices to obtain an IP address automatically from a central server, simplifying the process of managing large networks. Another method is static IP address assignment, where an administrator manually assigns specific addresses to devices within the network. This method provides more control but requires careful planning and documentation.

Considerations for Efficient IP Address Allocation

Efficient allocation of IP addresses is essential for optimizing network performance and avoiding conflicts. When assigning IP addresses, administrators need to consider factors such as subnetting, addressing schemes, and future scalability requirements. By carefully planning the allocation process and implementing best practices such as using private IP ranges and avoiding overlapping subnets, administrators can ensure smooth operation of their networks without running out of available addresses.

IP Address Assignment in the Same Network

When two routers are connected within the same network, they need to obtain unique IP addresses to communicate effectively. This can be achieved through various methods, such as using different subnets or configuring one router as a DHCP server and the other as a client. Understanding how IP address assignment works in this scenario is crucial for maintaining proper network functionality and avoiding conflicts.

Basics of IP Addresses

IP addresses are a fundamental aspect of computer networking that allows devices to communicate with each other over the internet. An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is a unique numerical label assigned to each device connected to a network. It serves as an identifier for both the source and destination of data packets transmitted across the network.

The structure of an IP address consists of four sets of numbers separated by periods (e.g., 192.168.0.1). Each set can range from 0 to 255, resulting in a total of approximately 4.3 billion possible unique combinations for IPv4 addresses. However, with the increasing number of devices connected to the internet, IPv6 addresses were introduced to provide a significantly larger pool of available addresses.

IPv4 addresses are still predominantly used today and are divided into different classes based on their range and purpose. Class A addresses have the first octet reserved for network identification, allowing for a large number of hosts within each network. Class B addresses reserve the first two octets for network identification and provide a balance between network size and number of hosts per network. Class C addresses allocate the first three octets for network identification and are commonly used in small networks.

With the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, IPv6 was developed to overcome this limitation by utilizing 128-bit addressing scheme, providing an enormous pool of potential IP addresses - approximately 3.4 x 10^38 unique combinations.

IPv6 addresses are represented in hexadecimal format separated by colons (e.g., 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334). The longer length allows for more efficient routing and eliminates the need for Network Address Translation (NAT) due to its vast address space.

Understanding these basics is essential when it comes to assigning IP addresses in a network. Network administrators must consider various factors such as the number of devices, network topology, and security requirements when deciding on the IP address allocation method.

In the next section, we will explore different methods of IP address assignment, including Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment. These methods play a crucial role in efficiently managing IP addresses within a network and ensuring seamless communication between devices.

Methods of IP Address Assignment

IP address assignment is a crucial aspect of network management and plays a vital role in ensuring seamless connectivity and efficient data transfer. There are primarily two methods of assigning IP addresses in a network: dynamic IP address assignment using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and static IP address assignment.

Dynamic IP Address Assignment using DHCP

Dynamic IP address assignment is the most commonly used method in modern networks. It involves the use of DHCP servers, which dynamically allocate IP addresses to devices on the network. When a device connects to the network, it sends a DHCP request to the DHCP server, which responds by assigning an available IP address from its pool.

One of the key benefits of dynamic IP address assignment is its simplicity and scalability. With dynamic allocation, network administrators don't have to manually configure each device's IP address. Instead, they can rely on the DHCP server to handle this task automatically. This significantly reduces administrative overhead and makes it easier to manage large networks with numerous devices.

Another advantage of dynamic allocation is that it allows for efficient utilization of available IP addresses. Since addresses are assigned on-demand, there is no wastage of unused addresses. This is particularly beneficial in scenarios where devices frequently connect and disconnect from the network, such as in public Wi-Fi hotspots or corporate environments with a high turnover rate.

However, dynamic allocation does have some drawbacks as well. One potential issue is that devices may receive different IP addresses each time they connect to the network. While this might not be an issue for most users, it can cause problems for certain applications or services that rely on consistent addressing.

Additionally, dynamic allocation introduces a dependency on the DHCP server. If the server goes down or becomes unreachable, devices will not be able to obtain an IP address and will be unable to connect to the network. To mitigate this risk, redundant DHCP servers can be deployed for high availability.

Static IP Address Assignment

Static IP address assignment involves manually configuring each device's IP address within the network. Unlike dynamic allocation, where addresses are assigned on-demand, static assignment requires administrators to assign a specific IP address to each device.

One of the main advantages of static IP address assignment is stability. Since devices have fixed addresses, there is no risk of them receiving different addresses each time they connect to the network. This can be beneficial for applications or services that require consistent addressing, such as servers hosting websites or databases.

Static assignment also provides greater control over network resources. Administrators can allocate specific IP addresses to devices based on their requirements or security considerations. For example, critical servers or network infrastructure devices can be assigned static addresses to ensure their availability and ease of management.

However, static IP address assignment has its limitations as well. It can be time-consuming and error-prone, especially in large networks with numerous devices. Any changes to the network topology or addition/removal of devices may require manual reconfiguration of IP addresses, which can be a tedious task.

Furthermore, static allocation can lead to inefficient utilization of available IP addresses. Each device is assigned a fixed address regardless of whether it is actively using the network or not. This can result in wastage of unused addresses and may pose challenges in scenarios where addressing space is limited.

In order to efficiently allocate IP addresses within a network, there are several important considerations that need to be taken into account. By carefully planning and managing the allocation process, network administrators can optimize their IP address usage and ensure smooth operation of their network.

One of the key factors to consider when assigning IP addresses is the size of the network. The number of devices that will be connected to the network determines the range of IP addresses that will be required. It is essential to accurately estimate the number of devices that will need an IP address in order to avoid running out of available addresses or wasting them unnecessarily.

Another consideration is the type of devices that will be connected to the network. Different devices have different requirements in terms of IP address assignment. For example, servers and other critical infrastructure typically require static IP addresses for stability and ease of access. On the other hand, client devices such as laptops and smartphones can often use dynamic IP addresses assigned by a DHCP server.

The physical layout of the network is also an important factor to consider. In larger networks with multiple subnets or VLANs, it may be necessary to segment IP address ranges accordingly. This allows for better organization and management of IP addresses, making it easier to troubleshoot issues and implement security measures.

Security is another crucial consideration when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should implement measures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems to protect against unauthorized access or malicious activities. Additionally, assigning unique IP addresses to each device enables better tracking and monitoring, facilitating quick identification and response in case of any security incidents.

Efficient utilization of IP address ranges can also be achieved through proper documentation and record-keeping. Maintaining an up-to-date inventory of all assigned IP addresses helps prevent conflicts or duplicate assignments. It also aids in identifying unused or underutilized portions of the address space, allowing for more efficient allocation in the future.

Furthermore, considering future growth and scalability is essential when allocating IP addresses. Network administrators should plan for potential expansion and allocate IP address ranges accordingly. This foresight ensures that there will be sufficient addresses available to accommodate new devices or additional network segments without disrupting the existing infrastructure.

In any network, the assignment of IP addresses is a crucial aspect that allows devices to communicate with each other effectively. When it comes to IP address assignment in the same network, there are specific considerations and methods to ensure efficient allocation. In this section, we will delve into how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses and discuss subnetting and IP address range distribution.

To understand how two routers in the same network obtain IP addresses, it's essential to grasp the concept of subnetting. Subnetting involves dividing a larger network into smaller subnetworks or subnets. Each subnet has its own unique range of IP addresses that can be assigned to devices within that particular subnet. This division helps manage and organize large networks efficiently.

When it comes to assigning IP addresses within a subnet, there are various methods available. One common method is manual or static IP address assignment. In this approach, network administrators manually assign a specific IP address to each device within the network. Static IP addresses are typically used for devices that require consistent connectivity and need to be easily identifiable on the network.

Another widely used method for IP address assignment is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP is a networking protocol that enables automatic allocation of IP addresses within a network. With DHCP, a server is responsible for assigning IP addresses dynamically as devices connect to the network. This dynamic allocation ensures efficient utilization of available IP addresses by temporarily assigning them to connected devices when needed.

When considering efficient allocation of IP addresses in the same network, several factors come into play. One important consideration is proper planning and design of subnets based on anticipated device count and future growth projections. By carefully analyzing these factors, administrators can allocate appropriate ranges of IP addresses for each subnet, minimizing wastage and ensuring scalability.

Additionally, implementing proper security measures is crucial when assigning IP addresses in the same network. Network administrators should consider implementing firewalls, access control lists (ACLs), and other security mechanisms to protect against unauthorized access and potential IP address conflicts.

Furthermore, monitoring and managing IP address usage is essential for efficient allocation. Regular audits can help identify any unused or underutilized IP addresses that can be reclaimed and allocated to devices as needed. This proactive approach ensures that IP addresses are utilized optimally within the network.

The proper assignment of IP addresses is crucial for maintaining network security and efficiency. Throughout this guide, we have covered the basics of IP addresses, explored different methods of IP address assignment, and discussed considerations for efficient allocation.

In conclusion, understanding IP address assignment in the same network is essential for network administrators and technical professionals. By following proper allocation methods such as DHCP or static IP assignment, organizations can ensure that each device on their network has a unique identifier. This not only enables effective communication and data transfer but also enhances network security by preventing unauthorized access.

Moreover, considering factors like subnetting, scalability, and future growth can help optimize IP address allocation within a network. Network administrators should carefully plan and allocate IP addresses to avoid conflicts or wastage of resources.

Overall, a well-managed IP address assignment process is vital for the smooth functioning of any network. It allows devices to connect seamlessly while ensuring security measures are in place. By adhering to best practices and staying updated with advancements in networking technology, organizations can effectively manage their IP address assignments.

In conclusion, this guide has provided a comprehensive overview of IP address assignment in the same network. We hope it has equipped you with the knowledge needed to make informed decisions regarding your network's IP address allocation. Remember that proper IP address assignment is not only important for connectivity but also plays a significant role in maintaining online security and optimizing network performance.

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IP stands for Internet Protocol . IP address may be a distinctive numerical symbol allotted to every device on a network to spot each affiliation unambiguously. The distinction between Static and Dynamic IP address lies inside the length of allotted scientific discipline address. The static scientific discipline address is fastened scientific discipline address that is manually allotted to a tool for a protracted amount of your time. On the opposite hand, the Dynamic scientific discipline address often changes whenever user boots his/her machine, and it’s mechanically allotted.    Difference between Static and Dynamic IP address:

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Static and dynamic IP address configurations: DHCP deployment

%t min read | by Damon Garn

Static and dynamic IP address configurations: DHCP deployment

In my Static and dynamic IP address configurations for DHCP article, I discussed the pros and cons of static versus dynamic IP address allocation. Typically, sysadmins will manually configure servers and network devices (routers, switches, firewalls, etc.) with static IP address configurations. These addresses don’t change (unless the administrator changes them), which is important for making services easy to find on the network.

With dynamic IP configurations, client devices lease an IP configuration from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. This server is configured with a pool of available IPs and other settings. Clients contact the server and temporarily borrow an IP address configuration.

In this article, I demonstrate how to configure DHCP on a Linux server.

[ You might also like:  Using systemd features to secure services ]

Manage the DHCP service

First, install the DHCP service on your selected Linux box. This box should have a static IP address. DHCP is a very lightweight service, so feel free to co-locate other services such as name resolution on the same device.

Note : By using the -y option, yum will automatically install any dependencies necessary.

Configure a DHCP scope

Next, edit the DHCP configuration file to set the scope. However, before this step, you should make certain you understand the addressing scheme in your network segment. In my courses, I recommend establishing the entire range of addresses, then identifying the static IPs within the range. Next, determine the remaining IPs that are available for DHCP clients to lease. The following information details this process.

How many static IP addresses?

Figure out how many servers, routers, switches, printers, and other network devices will require static IP addresses. Add some additional addresses to this group to account for network growth (it seems like we’re always deploying more print devices).

What are the static and dynamic IP address ranges?

Set the range of static IPs in a distinct group. I like to use the front of the available address range. For example, in a simple Class C network of 192.168.2.0/24, I might set aside 192.168.2.1 through 192.168.2.50 for static IPs. If that’s true, you may assume I have about 30 devices that merit static IP addresses, and I have left about twenty addresses to grow into. Therefore, the available address space for DHCP is 192.168.2.51 through 192.168.2.254 (remember, 192.168.2.255 is the subnet broadcast address).

This screenshot from the part one article is a reminder:

spreadsheet tracking IP addresses, MAC addresses, hostnames, etc

Note : Some administrators include the static IPs in the scope and then manually mark them as excluded or unavailable to the DHCP service for leasing. I’m not a fan of this approach. I prefer that the DHCP not even be aware of the addresses that are statically assigned.

What is the router’s IP address?

Document the router’s IP address because this will be the default gateway value. Administrators tend to choose either the first or the last address in the static range. In my case, I’d configure the router’s IP address as 192.168.2.1/24, so the default gateway value in DHCP is 192.168.2.1.

Where are the name servers?

Name resolution is a critical network service. You should configure clients for at least two DNS name servers for fault tolerance. When set manually, this configuration is in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

Note that the DNS name servers don’t have to be on the same subnet as the DNS clients.

Lease duration

In the next section, I’ll go over the lease generation process whereby clients receive their IP address configurations. For now, suffice it to say that the IP address configuration is temporary. Two values are configured on the DHCP server to govern this lease time:

default-lease-time - How long the lease is valid before renewal attempts begin.

max-lease-time - The point at which the IP address configuration is no longer valid and the client is no longer considered a lease-holder.

Configure the DHCP server

Now that you understand the IP address assignments in the subnet, you can configure the DHCP scope. The scope is the range of available IP addresses, as well as options such as default gateway. There is good documentation here .

Create the DHCP scope

Begin by editing the dhcp.conf configuration file (you’ll need root privileges to do so). I prefer Vim :

Next, add the values you identified in the previous section. Here is a subnet declaration (scope):

Remember, that spelling counts and typos can cause you a lot of trouble. Check your entries carefully. A mistake in this file can prevent many workstations from having valid network identities.

Reserved IP addresses

It is possible to reserve an IP address for a specific host. This is not the same thing as a statically-assigned IP address. Static IP addresses are configured manually, directly on the client. Reserved IP addresses are leased from the DHCP server, but the given client will always receive the same IP address. The DHCP service identifies the client by MAC address, as seen below.

Start the DHCP service

Start and enable the DHCP service. RHEL 7 and 8 rely on systemd to manage services, so you’ll type the following commands:

See this article I wrote for a summary on successfully deploying services.

Don’t forget to open the DHCP port in the firewall:

Explore the DORA process

Now that the DHCP server is configured, here is the lease generation process. This is a four-step process, and I like to point out that it is entirely initiated and managed by the client, not the server. DHCP is a very passive network service.

The process is:

  • Acknowledge

Which spells the acronym DORA .

  • The client broadcasts a DHCPDiscover message on the subnet, which the DHCP server hears.
  • The DHCP server broadcasts a DHCPOffer on the subnet, which the client hears.
  • The client broadcasts a DHCPRequest message, formally requesting the use of the IP address configuration.
  • The DHCP server broadcasts a DHCPAck message that confirms the lease.

The lease must be renewed periodically, based on the DHCP Lease Time setting. This is particularly important in today’s networks that often contain many transient devices such as laptops, tablets, and phones. The lease renewal process is steps three and four. Many client devices, especially desktops, will maintain their IP address settings for a very long time, renewing the configuration over and over.

Updating the IP address configuration

You may need to obtain a new IP address configuration with updated settings. This can be an important part of network troubleshooting.

Manually generate a new lease with nmcli

You can manually force the lease generation process by using the nmcli command. You must know the connection name and then down and up the card.

Manually force lease generation with dhclient

You can also use the dhclient command to generate a new DHCP lease manually. Here are the commands:

dhclient -r to release it

dhclient (no option) to lease a new one

dhclient -r eth0 for specific NIC

Note : use -v for verbose output

Remember, if the client’s IP address is 169.254.x.x, it could not lease an IP address from the DHCP server.

Other DHCP considerations

There are many ways to customize DHCP to suit your needs. This article only covers the most common options. Two settings to keep in mind are lease times and dealing with routers.

Managing lease times

There is a good trick to be aware of. Use short lease durations on networks with many portable devices or virtual machines that come and go quickly from the network. These short leases will allow IP addresses to be recycled regularly. Use longer durations on unchanging networks (such as a subnet containing mostly desktop computers). In theory, the longer durations reduced network traffic by requiring fewer renewals, but on today’s networks, that traffic is inconsequential.

Routers and DHCP

There is one other aspect of DHCP design to consider. The DORA process covered above occurs entirely by broadcast. Routers, as a general rule, are configured to stop broadcasts. That’s just part of what they do. There are three approaches you can take to managing this problem:

  • Place a DHCP server on each subnet (no routers between the DHCP server and its clients).
  • Place a DHCP relay agent on each subnet that sends DHCP lease generation traffic via unicast to the DHCP server on a different subnet.
  • Use RFC 1542-compliant routers, which can be configured to recognize and pass DHCP broadcast traffic.

[ Getting started with containers? Check out this free course. Deploying containerized applications: A technical overview . ]

DHCP is a simple service but an absolutely critical one. Understanding the lease generation process helps with network troubleshooting. Proper planning and tracking are essential to ensuring you don’t permit duplicate IP address problems to enter your network environment.

Static and dynamic IP configurations for DHCP

Damon Garn owns Cogspinner Coaction, LLC, a technical writing, editing, and IT project company based in Colorado Springs, CO. Damon authored many CompTIA Official Instructor and Student Guides (Linux+, Cloud+, Cloud Essentials+, Server+) and developed a broad library of interactive, scored labs. He regularly contributes to Enable Sysadmin, SearchNetworking, and CompTIA article repositories. Damon has 20 years of experience as a technical trainer covering Linux, Windows Server, and security content. He is a former sysadmin for US Figure Skating. He lives in Colorado Springs with his family and is a writer, musician, and amateur genealogist. More about me

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What is IPv4 Autoconfiguration and why it overwrites static IP

I have to connect to a router with a static IP and subnet (machine automation, not internet). In ipconfig, subnet mask shows the subnet address I inputed but the IP is assigned a different one from the address I inputted. The previous computer connects properly and the only difference I notice in ipconfig is the new computer has "Autoconfiguration IPv4".

What is IPv4 Autoconfiguration? IP should be assigned from the router's DHCP, and if there is a IP-MAC conflict I should receive an error message. Why is IPv4 Autoconfiguration appear in PC's command prompt instead of the usual IPv4 in this case?

Googling yield a solution but that require modification of the registry to disable Autoconfiguration. I had already had the latest driver update. I suspect there is an alternative solution.

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  • Please provide a screenshot of the network connection’s IPv4 properties, where you entered your desired IP address etc. –  Daniel B Aug 22, 2017 at 6:09
  • Picture uploaded. As you see I set IP to be 100.0.0.255/255.255.0.0 but ipconfig shows Autoconfiguration IPv4 169.254.196.218/255.255.0.0 –  KMC Aug 22, 2017 at 6:55
  • It might be that Windows incorrectly assumes that .255 is an incorrect IP, but it is valid with that subnet mask. Did you try any other IP addresses? –  Paul Aug 22, 2017 at 6:59
  • Unfortunately I cannot since the device is fixed sending message only to 255. Why would OS autoconfiguration IPv4? Shouldn't that be the job of the router's DHCP? –  KMC Aug 22, 2017 at 7:11
  • Just making sure: You’re positive you set up the correct network adapter? –  Daniel B Aug 22, 2017 at 7:19

6 Answers 6

The screenshot shows an IPv4 address that start with 169.254.

This is from the "link local" range (e.g., RFC 3927 page 31 discusses what Windows XP using these addresses). Some people call these addresses "APIPA" addresses, named after Windows XP's process called Automatic Private IP Assignment (APIPA).

It seems that as technology has advanced, there are now two causes that commonly resulting in an address in this range.

  • Windows will use this if it is set to use DHCP, and it tries to get an address from a DHCP server, and fails.
  • "Duplicate Address Detection" ("DAD") has resulted in noticing an IP address conflict. From the comments that have been made, it seems that the feature of "Duplicate Address Detection" detection may also result in automatically assigning a different IP address, even if an IP address is statically configured.

The potential fixes to having such an address can be:

  • check the logs to see if there is anything mentioned about a duplicate IP address. If so, try to determine what other device had that address, and why it did. If it got that address by DHCP, try to determine which DHCP server was used by each address that got that address, and troubleshoot the DHCP server(s). (Note that accidentally having an unknown extra DHCP server might be a common cause for this.)
  • get DHCP communication functioning successfully,
  • or to go to the NIC properties and specify an "Alternate Configuration" process that uses a specified "User configuration", or to use a static IP address.

Why DHCP isn't working is a separate question. This is the correct answer for specifically what you asked, which is: "What is IPv4 Autoconfiguration".

As for why DCHP overwrites static IP: DHCP usually doesn't. If you see an Autoconfiguration address in Microsoft Windows, then you're not using a "static IP" assignment. (Instead, you're configured to be trying to use DHCP, or DAD is taking effect.)

According to one comment (which was made via a proposed suggested edit), newer versions of Microsoft Windows may silently set an autoconfig IP (instead of showing a message on the screen). This is likely caused by DAD.

Trying to disable DAD might not be a great way to fix the problem, as that may cause the computer to start working on the desired IP address, but not address the issue that another device is trying to use the same IP address (which may cause problems immediately, or later when the other device starts being more active again).

TOOGAM's user avatar

  • It's worth noting that in the time since this answer was written, RFC 3927 has been rejected . –  Brett Holman Jun 6, 2022 at 14:11
  • 4 @BrettHolman I don't see that being the case. Having reviewed this (because I understand an RFC may be deprecated/obsoleted, but never heard of an RFC being "rejected"), I've determined that Errata ID 6293 has been rejected. Errata ID 6293 seems to be a proposed complaint/correction/update about RFC 3927, and this Errata was probably rejected due to a procedural concern: the rejector seems to indicate that if that text is going to be properly updated than that should happen by drafting a new RFC, not making an Errata on the old RFC. (So the RFC itself was never "rejected" that I can see.) –  TOOGAM Jun 15, 2022 at 18:43
  • Thank you for the clarification, I mistook the attached Errata rejection for rejection of the RFC. I really appreciate the response :) –  Brett Holman Jun 16, 2022 at 14:38

As the alternative to editing registry you can try this solution:

  • open command line
  • check id of network connection - it will be in the 1st column: netsh interface ipv4 show inter
  • run this command replacing <id> with id of your network connection: netsh interface ipv4 set interface <id> dadtransmits=0 store=persistent
  • open services.msc and disable dhcp client
  • disconnect network cable, restart computer, start dhcp client service and plug in network cable
source: http://the-it-wonders.blogspot.com/2013/04/autoconfiguration-ipv4-address-196254xx.html

Since I can't add comment to TOOGAM's answer: autoconfiguration apparently can overwrite static ip configuration. Today I had a laptop (with Windows 10, version 1709) that couldn't access network and had both static ip and autoconfiguration ip visible in ipconfig output even though I put static ip in network card configuration.

jacob_w's user avatar

  • Thanks jacob_w. This happened to us today too for no apparent reason, and your fix made it work. We've done many machines the same way and this is the first time we've seen this, so go figure. If anyone works out the actual reason this happens, please post. –  radsdau Jun 12, 2018 at 6:11
  • I feel pretty certain that steps 4 and 5 could be replaced by this: run IPConfig /release and then run IPConfig /renew . That may take a while, but would be faster (and easier) than the steps 4 and 5 provided, and would fully accomplish the critical steps that would happen by performing the longer steps 4 and 5 listed here. The basic reason either approach (either version of steps 4 and 5) would work is simply re-attempting a DHCP Discover or DHCP Request communication. –  TOOGAM Dec 15, 2019 at 14:24
  • If that works, the typical real problem is unreliability with the DHCP process. That could happen due to bad networking (bad center of cables, loose connection in the connectors of cables, wireless signal interference, filled DHCP scope which may randomly have an available address based on other devices)... maybe too many possible causes to list them all here, but not caused by a bad registry setting. –  TOOGAM Dec 15, 2019 at 14:28

I had the same issue and in my case i had a static IP

So the Comment by another person "As for why it overwrites static IP: It doesn't. -- Is Incorrect

In my scenario it was one of the VMs and there was another VM with the same IP. Instead of throwing the error about duplicate IP in my case it performed Auto Configuration

SeanClt's user avatar

  • 1 this was my issue. i'm working with a printer that has a static ip of 192.168.123.100. I connected this printer to my laptop through ethernet, and also set the NIC ip to be 192.168.123.100, but because it conflicted with the printer's ip, the NIC defaulted back to 169.254. –  Simon Sep 12, 2019 at 18:22
  • On professionally-run networks I've encountered, we didn't typically have encounter duplicate addresses, so "duplicate address detection" wasn't actively affecting things. The " Obtain an IP address automatically " option basically boiled down to attempting DHCP, and if that failed, using the Alternate Configuration tab (which was usually unconfigured, resulting in APIPA assigning an IPv4 (169.254.*) link-local address. The " Use the following address " option resulted in a static IP, not causing DHCP or Link-Local to work. –  TOOGAM Dec 15, 2019 at 14:41
  • I suspect that if Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is being particularly useful, that may be because of some sort of issue with DHCP (e.g., server doesn't exist on the LAN being used, which may be quite likely with some "virtual machine" setups... or a filled DHCP scope, which may be remedied with an increased scope size or figuring out what is using up the addresses in an existing scope). My inclination would be to figure out why DHCP is not being a working, reliable solution, and trying to address that as a problem. (Of course, that works for me, who knows how to set up/troubleshoot DHCP) –  TOOGAM Dec 15, 2019 at 14:44
  • 1 Question is about static IP –  SeanClt Dec 15, 2019 at 15:21

I had the same issue. I read that this is because the NIC card is not working properly, even though the Ethernet card said it was working properly. I have an HP desktop computer. I went to HP support, downloaded and reinstalled the Realtek Ethernet Controller Drivers for it and it fixed the card problem. No more autoconfiguration ipv4 address. Hope this help others.

Worthwelle's user avatar

  • 2 You say "No more autoconfiguration ipv4 address." But that's wrong, based on the output you quote, as the output says " Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes ". What is true is that you didn't get an Autoconfiguration address from the "Link-local" (IPv4 169.254.*) range. Instead, your Autoconfiguration successfully got an address from the DHCP server, which is identified in your output on the line that says " DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . : 172.16.0.1 ". So whatever device is at 172.16.0.1 (which is also your Default Gateway, so is some type of router) served you well, with DHCP. –  TOOGAM Dec 15, 2019 at 14:32

Its caused by a conflicting IP address. (Someone else on the same network has the same IP).

Changing the static IP helped me, but i am aware its not always practical. For me it worked because i connect to this computer alone.

Locoz's user avatar

  • 1 Your answer could be improved with additional supporting information. Please edit to add further details, such as citations or documentation, so that others can confirm that your answer is correct. You can find more information on how to write good answers in the help center . –  Community Bot May 4, 2023 at 12:06

I had the same issue.

I had a hyper-v instance with several network adapters, all set with static IP addresses.

One instance was set up with 8 network adapters, all static IP. One adapter would have an auto configured ipv4 169 address, eventhough I set it with a static IP. Very frustrating, and after trying many other things I figured it out. It had been set with a static IP address that was already taken by another device. Simply changing the static IP address fixed the autoconfigured 169 issue.

Calvin Larsen's user avatar

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Elastic IP addresses

An Elastic IP address is a static IPv4 address designed for dynamic cloud computing. An Elastic IP address is allocated to your AWS account, and is yours until you release it. By using an Elastic IP address, you can mask the failure of an instance or software by rapidly remapping the address to another instance in your account. Alternatively, you can specify the Elastic IP address in a DNS record for your domain, so that your domain points to your instance. For more information, see the documentation for your domain registrar , or Set up dynamic DNS on your Amazon Linux 2 instance in the Amazon Linux 2 User Guide .

An Elastic IP address is a public IPv4 address, which is reachable from the internet. If your instance does not have a public IPv4 address, you can associate an Elastic IP address with your instance to enable communication with the internet. For example, this allows you to connect to your instance from your local computer.

Elastic IP address pricing

Elastic ip address basics, work with elastic ip addresses, elastic ip address quota.

AWS charges for all public IPv4 addresses, including public IPv4 addresses associated with running instances and Elastic IP addresses. For more information, see the Public IPv4 Address tab on the Amazon VPC pricing page .

The following are the basic characteristics of an Elastic IP address:

An Elastic IP address is static; it does not change over time.

An Elastic IP address is for use in a specific Region only, and cannot be moved to a different Region.

An Elastic IP address comes from Amazon's pool of IPv4 addresses, or from a custom IPv4 address pool that you have brought to your AWS account.

To use an Elastic IP address, you first allocate one to your account, and then associate it with your instance or a network interface.

When you associate an Elastic IP address with an instance, it is also associated with the instance's primary network interface. When you associate an Elastic IP address with a network interface that is attached to an instance, it is also associated with the instance.

When you associate an Elastic IP address with an instance or its primary network interface, the instance's public IPv4 address (if it had one) is released back into Amazon's pool of public IPv4 addresses. You cannot reuse a public IPv4 address, and you cannot convert a public IPv4 address to an Elastic IP address. For more information, see Public IPv4 addresses .

You can disassociate an Elastic IP address from a resource, and then associate it with a different resource. To avoid unexpected behavior, ensure that all active connections to the resource named in the existing association are closed before you make the change. After you have associated your Elastic IP address to a different resource, you can reopen your connections to the newly associated resource.

A disassociated Elastic IP address remains allocated to your account until you explicitly release it. You are charged for all Elastic IP addresses in your account, regardless of whether they are associated or disassociated with an instance. For more information, see the Public IPv4 Address tab on the Amazon VPC pricing page.

When you associate an Elastic IP address with an instance that previously had a public IPv4 address, the public DNS host name of the instance changes to match the Elastic IP address.

We resolve a public DNS host name to the public IPv4 address or the Elastic IP address of the instance outside the network of the instance, and to the private IPv4 address of the instance from within the network of the instance.

When you allocate an Elastic IP address from an IP address pool that you have brought to your AWS account, it does not count toward your Elastic IP address limits. For more information, see Elastic IP address quota .

When you allocate the Elastic IP addresses, you can associate the Elastic IP addresses with a network border group. This is the location from which we advertise the CIDR block. Setting the network border group limits the CIDR block to this group. If you do not specify the network border group, we set the border group containing all of the Availability Zones in the Region (for example, us-west-2 ).

An Elastic IP address is for use in a specific network border group only.

The following sections describe how you can work with Elastic IP addresses.

Allocate an Elastic IP address

Describe your elastic ip addresses, tag an elastic ip address, associate an elastic ip address with an instance or network interface, disassociate an elastic ip address, transfer elastic ip addresses, release an elastic ip address, recover an elastic ip address, use reverse dns for email applications.

You can allocate an Elastic IP address from Amazon's pool of public IPv4 addresses, or from a custom IP address pool that you have brought to your AWS account. For more information about bringing your own IP address range to your AWS account, see Bring your own IP addresses (BYOIP) in Amazon EC2 .

You can allocate an Elastic IP address using one of the following methods.

To allocate an Elastic IP address

Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/ .

In the navigation pane, choose Network & Security , Elastic IPs .

Choose Allocate Elastic IP address .

(Optional) When you allocate an Elastic IP address (EIP), you choose the Network border group in which to allocate the EIP. A network border group is a collection of Availability Zones (AZs), Local Zones, or Wavelength Zones from which AWS advertises a public IP address. Local Zones and Wavelength Zones may have different network border groups than the AZs in a Region to ensure minimum latency or physical distance between the AWS network and the customers accessing the resources in these Zones.

You must allocate an EIP in the same network border group as the AWS resource that will be associated with the EIP. An EIP in one network border group can only be advertised in zones in that network border group and not in any other zones represented by other network border groups.

If you have Local Zones or Wavelength Zones enabled (for more information, see Enable a Local Zone or Enable Wavelength Zones ), you can choose a network border group for AZs, Local Zones, or Wavelength Zones. Choose the network border group carefully as the EIP and the AWS resource it is associated with must reside in the same network border group. You can use the EC2 console to view the network border group that your Availability Zones, Local Zones, or Wavelength Zones are in (see Local Zones ). Typically, all Availability Zones in a Region belong to the same network border group, whereas Local Zones or Wavelength Zones belong to their own separate network border groups.

If you don't have Local Zones or Wavelength Zones enabled, when you allocate an EIP, the network border group that represents all of the AZs for the Region (such as us-west-2 ) is predefined for you and you cannot change it. This means that the EIP that you allocate to this network border group will be advertised in all AZs in the Region you're in.

For Public IPv4 address pool , choose one of the following:

Amazon's pool of IPv4 addresses —If you want an IPv4 address to be allocated from Amazon's pool of IPv4 addresses.

Public IPv4 address that you bring to your AWS account —If you want to allocate an IPv4 address from an IP address pool that you have brought to your AWS account. This option is disabled if you do not have any IP address pools.

Customer owned pool of IPv4 addresses —If you want to allocate an IPv4 address from a pool created from your on-premises network for use with an AWS Outpost. This option is disabled if you do not have an AWS Outpost.

(Optional) Add or remove a tag.

[Add a tag] Choose Add new tag and do the following:

For Key , enter the key name.

For Value , enter the key value.

[Remove a tag] Choose Remove to the right of the tag’s Key and Value.

Choose Allocate .

Use the allocate-address AWS CLI command.

Use the New-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

You can describe an Elastic IP address using one of the following methods.

To describe your Elastic IP addresses

In the navigation pane, choose Elastic IPs .

Select the Elastic IP address to view and choose Actions , View details .

Use the describe-addresses AWS CLI command.

Use the Get-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

You can assign custom tags to your Elastic IP addresses to categorize them in different ways, for example, by purpose, owner, or environment. This helps you to quickly find a specific Elastic IP address based on the custom tags that you assigned to it.

Cost allocation tracking using Elastic IP address tags is not supported.

You can tag an Elastic IP address using one of the following methods.

To tag an Elastic IP address

Select the Elastic IP address to tag and choose Actions , View details .

In the Tags section, choose Manage tags .

Specify a tag key and value pair.

(Optional) Choose Add tag to add additional tags.

Choose Save .

Use the create-tags AWS CLI command.

Use the New-EC2Tag AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

The New-EC2Tag command needs a Tag parameter, which specifies the key and value pair to be used for the Elastic IP address tag. The following commands create the Tag parameter.

If you're associating an Elastic IP address with your instance to enable communication with the internet, you must also ensure that your instance is in a public subnet. For more information, see Internet gateways in the Amazon VPC User Guide .

You can associate an Elastic IP address with an instance or network interface using one of the following methods.

To associate an Elastic IP address with an instance

Select the Elastic IP address to associate and choose Actions , Associate Elastic IP address .

For Resource type , choose Instance .

For instance, choose the instance with which to associate the Elastic IP address. You can also enter text to search for a specific instance.

(Optional) For Private IP address , specify a private IP address with which to associate the Elastic IP address.

Choose Associate .

To associate an Elastic IP address with a network interface

For Resource type , choose Network interface .

For Network interface , choose the network interface with which to associate the Elastic IP address. You can also enter text to search for a specific network interface.

To associate an Elastic IP address

Use the associate-address AWS CLI command.

Use the Register-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

You can disassociate an Elastic IP address from an instance or network interface at any time. After you disassociate the Elastic IP address, you can reassociate it with another resource.

You can disassociate an Elastic IP address using one of the following methods.

To disassociate and reassociate an Elastic IP address

Select the Elastic IP address to disassociate, choose Actions , Disassociate Elastic IP address .

Choose Disassociate .

To disassociate an Elastic IP address

Use the disassociate-address AWS CLI command.

Use the Unregister-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

This section describes how to transfer Elastic IP addresses from one AWS account to another. Transferring Elastic IP addresses can be helpful in the following situations:

Organizational restructuring – Use Elastic IP address transfers to quickly move workloads from one AWS account to another. You don't have to wait for new Elastic IP addresses to be allowlisted in your security groups and NACLs.

Centralized security administration – Use a centralized AWS security account to track and transfer Elastic IP addresses that have been vetted for security compliance.

Disaster recovery – Use Elastic IP address transfers to quickly remap IPs for public-facing internet workloads during emergency events.

There is no charge for transferring Elastic IP addresses.

Enable Elastic IP address transfer

Disable elastic ip address transfer, accept a transferred elastic ip address.

This section describes how to accept a transferred Elastic IP address. Note the following limitations related to enabling Elastic IP addresses for transfer:

You can transfer Elastic IP addresses from any AWS account (source account) to any other AWS account in the same AWS Region (transfer account).

When you transfer an Elastic IP address, there is a two-step handshake between the AWS accounts. When the source account starts the transfer, the transfer accounts have seven days to accept the Elastic IP address transfer. During those seven days, the source account can view the pending transfer (for example in the AWS console or by using the describe-address-transfers AWS CLI command). After seven days, the transfer expires and ownership of the Elastic IP address returns to the source account.

Accepted transfers are visible to the source account (for example in the AWS console or by using the describe-address-transfers AWS CLI command) for three days after the transfers have been accepted.

AWS does not notify transfer accounts about pending Elastic IP address transfer requests. The owner of the source account must notify the owner of the transfer account that there is an Elastic IP address transfer request that they must accept.

Any tags that are associated with an Elastic IP address being transferred are reset when the transfer is complete.

You cannot transfer Elastic IP addresses allocated from public IPv4 address pools that you bring to your AWS account – commonly referred to as Bring Your Own IP (BYOIP) address pools.

If you attempt to transfer an Elastic IP address that has a reverse DNS record associated with it, you can begin the transfer process, but the transfer account will not be able to accept the transfer until the associated DNS record is removed.

If you have enabled and configured AWS Outposts, you might have allocated Elastic IP addresses from a customer-owned IP address pool (CoIP). You cannot transfer Elastic IP addresses allocated from a CoIP. However, you can use AWS RAM to share a CoIP with another account. For more information, see Customer-owned IP addresses in the AWS Outposts User Guide .

You can use Amazon VPC IPAM to track the transfer of Elastic IP addresses to accounts in an organization from AWS Organizations. For more information, see View IP address history . If an Elastic IP address is transferred to an AWS account outside of the organization, the IPAM audit history of the Elastic IP address is lost.

These steps must be completed by the source account.

To enable Elastic IP address transfer

Ensure that you're using the source AWS account.

Select one or more Elastic IP address to enable for transfer and choose Actions , Enable transfer .

If you are transferring multiple Elastic IP addresses, you’ll see the Transfer type option. Choose one of the following options:

Choose Single account if you are transferring the Elastic IP addresses to a single AWS account.

Choose Multiple accounts if you are transferring the Elastic IP addresses to multiple AWS accounts.

Under Transfer account ID , enter the IDs of the AWS accounts that you want to transfer the Elastic IP addresses to.

Confirm the transfer by entering enable in the text box.

Choose Submit .

To accept the transfer, see Accept a transferred Elastic IP address . To disable the transfer, see Disable Elastic IP address transfer .

Use the enable-address-transfer command.

Use the Enable-EC2AddressTransfer command.

This section describes how to disable an Elastic IP transfer after the transfer has been enabled.

These steps must be completed by the source account that enabled the transfer.

To disable an Elastic IP address transfer

In the resource list of Elastic IPs, ensure that you have the property enabled that shows the column Transfer status .

Select one or more Elastic IP address that have a Transfer status of Pending , and choose Actions , Disable transfer .

Confirm by entering disable in the text box.

To disable Elastic IP address transfer

Use the disable-address-transfer command.

Use the Disable-EC2AddressTransfer command.

This section describes how to accept a transferred Elastic IP address.

When accepting transfers, note the following exceptions that might occur and how to resolve them:

AddressLimitExceeded : If your transfer account has exceeded the Elastic IP address quota, the source account can enable Elastic IP address transfer, but this exception occurs when the transfer account tries to accept the transfer. By default, all AWS accounts are limited to 5 Elastic IP addresses per Region. See Elastic IP address quota for instructions on increasing the limit.

InvalidTransfer.AddressCustomPtrSet : If you or someone in your organization has configured the Elastic IP address that you are attempting to transfer to use reverse DNS lookup, the source account can enable transfer for the Elastic IP address, but this exception occurs when the transfer account tries to accept the transfer. To resolve this issue, the source account must remove the DNS record for the Elastic IP address. For more information, see Use reverse DNS for email applications .

InvalidTransfer.AddressAssociated : If an Elastic IP address is associated with an ENI or EC2 instance, the source account can enable transfer for the Elastic IP address, but this exception occurs when the transfer account tries to accept the transfer. To resolve this issue, the source account must disassociate the Elastic IP address. For more information, see Disassociate an Elastic IP address .

For any other exceptions, contact AWS Support .

These steps must be completed by the transfer account.

To accept an Elastic IP address transfer

Ensure that you're using the transfer account.

Choose Actions , Accept transfer .

No tags that are associated with the Elastic IP address being transferred are transferred with the Elastic IP address when you accept the transfer. If you want to define a Name tag for the Elastic IP address that you are accepting, select Create a tag with a key of 'Name' and a value that you specify .

Enter the Elastic IP address that you want to transfer.

If you are accepting multiple transferred Elastic IP addresses, choose Add address to enter an additional Elastic IP address.

Use the accept-address-transfer command.

Use the Approve-EC2AddressTransfer command.

If you no longer need an Elastic IP address, we recommend that you release it using one of the following methods. The address to release must not be currently associated with an AWS resource, such as an EC2 instance, NAT gateway, or Network Load Balancer.

If you contacted AWS support to set up reverse DNS for an Elastic IP (EIP) address, you can remove the reverse DNS, but you can’t release the Elastic IP address because it’s been locked by AWS support. To unlock the Elastic IP address, contact AWS Support . Once the Elastic IP address is unlocked, you can release the Elastic IP address.

To release an Elastic IP address

Select the Elastic IP address to release and choose Actions , Release Elastic IP addresses .

Choose Release .

Use the release-address AWS CLI command.

Use the Remove-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command.

If you have released your Elastic IP address, you might be able to recover it. The following rules apply:

You cannot recover an Elastic IP address if it has been allocated to another AWS account, or if it will result in your exceeding your Elastic IP address limit.

You cannot recover tags associated with an Elastic IP address.

You can recover an Elastic IP address using the Amazon EC2 API or a command line tool only.

To recover an Elastic IP address

Use the allocate-address AWS CLI command and specify the IP address using the --address parameter as follows.

Use the New-EC2Address AWS Tools for Windows PowerShell command and specify the IP address using the -Address parameter as follows.

If you intend to send email to third parties from an instance, we recommend that you provision one or more Elastic IP addresses and assign static reverse DNS records to the Elastic IP addresses that you use to send email. This can help you avoid having your email flagged as spam by some anti-spam organizations. AWS works with ISPs and internet anti-spam organizations to reduce the chance that your email sent from these addresses will be flagged as spam.

Considerations

Before you create a reverse DNS record, you must set a corresponding forward DNS record (record type A) that points to your Elastic IP address.

If a reverse DNS record is associated with an Elastic IP address, the Elastic IP address is locked to your account and cannot be released from your account until the record is removed.

AWS GovCloud (US) Region

You can't create a reverse DNS record using the console or AWS CLI. AWS must assign the static reverse DNS records for you. Open Request to remove reverse DNS and email sending limitations and provide us with your Elastic IP addresses and reverse DNS records.

Create a reverse DNS record

To create a reverse DNS record, choose the tab that matches your preferred method.

Select the Elastic IP address and choose Actions , Update reverse DNS .

For Reverse DNS domain name , enter the domain name.

Enter update to confirm.

Choose Update .

Use the modify-address-attribute command in the AWS CLI, as shown in the following example:

Remove a reverse DNS record

To remove a reverse DNS record, choose the tab that matches your preferred method.

For Reverse DNS domain name , clear the domain name.

Use the reset-address-attribute command in the AWS CLI, as shown in the following example:

If you receive the following error when you run the command, you can submit a Request to remove email sending limitations to AWS Support for assistance.

The address with allocation id cannot be released because it is locked to your account .

By default, all AWS accounts have a quota of five (5) Elastic IP addresses per Region, because public (IPv4) internet addresses are a scarce public resource. We strongly encourage you to use an Elastic IP address primarily for the ability to remap the address to another instance in the case of instance failure, and to use DNS hostnames for all other inter-node communication.

To verify how many Elastic IP addresses are in use

Open the Amazon EC2 console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/ec2/ and choose Elastic IPs from the navigation pane.

To verify your current account quota for Elastic IP addresses

Open the Service Quotas console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/servicequotas/ .

From the navigation bar (at the top of the screen), select a Region.

On the Dashboard, choose Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) .

If Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is not listed on the Dashboard, choose AWS services , enter EC2 in the search field, and then choose Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) .

On the Amazon EC2 service quotas page, enter IP in the search field. The limit is EC2-VPC Elastic IPs . For more information, choose the limit.

If you think your architecture warrants additional Elastic IP addresses, you can request a quota increase directly from the Service Quotas console. To request a quota increase, choose Request increase at account-level . For more information, see Amazon EC2 service quotas .

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Public IP addresses

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On September 30, 2025, Basic SKU public IPs will be retired. For more information, see the official announcement . If you are currently using Basic SKU public IPs, make sure to upgrade to Standard SKU public IPs prior to the retirement date. For guidance on upgrading, visit Upgrading a basic public IP address to Standard SKU - Guidance .

Public IP addresses allow Internet resources to communicate inbound to Azure resources. Public IP addresses enable Azure resources to communicate to Internet and public-facing Azure services. You dedicate the address to the resource until you unassign it. A resource without a public IP assigned can communicate outbound. Azure dynamically assigns an available IP address that isn't dedicated to the resource. For more information about outbound connections in Azure, see Understand outbound connections .

In Azure Resource Manager, a public IP address is a resource that has its own properties.

The following resources can be associated with a public IP address:

Virtual machine network interfaces

Virtual Machine Scale Sets

Public Load Balancers

Virtual Network Gateways (VPN/ER)

NAT gateways

Application Gateways

Azure Firewalls

Bastion Hosts

Route Servers

Api Management

For Virtual Machine Scale Sets, use Public IP Prefixes .

At-a-glance

The following table shows the property a public IP can be associated to a resource and the allocation methods. Public IPv6 support isn't available for all resource types at this time.

IP address version

Public IP addresses can be created with an IPv4 or IPv6 address. You may be given the option to create a dual-stack deployment with a IPv4 and IPv6 address.

Public IP addresses are created with a SKU of Standard or Basic . The SKU determines their functionality including allocation method, feature support, and resources they can be associated with. Full details are listed in the table below:

Basic SKU IPv4 addresses can be upgraded after creation to Standard SKU. To learn about SKU upgrade, refer to Public IP upgrade .

Virtual machines attached to a backend pool do not need a public IP address to be attached to a public load balancer. But if they do, matching SKUs are required for load balancer and public IP resources. You can't have a mixture of basic SKU resources and standard SKU resources. You can't attach standalone virtual machines, virtual machines in an availability set resource, or a virtual machine scale set resources to both SKUs simultaneously. New designs should consider using Standard SKU resources. For more information about a standard load balancer, see Standard Load Balancer .

IP address assignment

Public IPs have two types of assignments:

Static - The resource is assigned an IP address at the time it's created. The IP address is released when the resource is deleted.

Dynamic - The IP address isn't given to the resource at the time of creation when selecting dynamic. The IP is assigned when you associate the public IP address with a resource. The IP address is released when you stop, or delete the resource.

Static public IP addresses are commonly used in the following scenarios:

When you must update firewall rules to communicate with your Azure resources.

DNS name resolution, where a change in IP address would require updating A records.

Your Azure resources communicate with other apps or services that use an IP address-based security model.

You use TLS/SSL certificates linked to an IP address.

Even when you set the allocation method to static , you cannot specify the actual IP address assigned to the public IP address resource. Azure assigns the IP address from a pool of available IP addresses in the Azure location the resource is created in.

Basic public IP addresses are commonly used for when there's no dependency on the IP address.

For example, a public IP resource is released from a resource named Resource A . Resource A receives a different IP on start-up if the public IP resource is reassigned. Any associated IP address is released if the allocation method is changed from static to dynamic . Any associated IP address is unchanged if the allocation method is changed from dynamic to static . Set the allocation method to static to ensure the IP address remains the same.

Domain Name Label

Select this option to specify a DNS label for a public IP resource. This functionality works for both IPv4 addresses (32-bit A records) and IPv6 addresses (128-bit AAAA records). This selection creates a mapping for domainnamelabel . location .cloudapp.azure.com to the public IP in the Azure-managed DNS.

For instance, creation of a public IP with the following settings:

contoso as a domainnamelabel

West US Azure location

The fully qualified domain name (FQDN) contoso.westus.cloudapp.azure.com resolves to the public IP address of the resource.

Each domain name label created must be unique within its Azure location.

If a custom domain is desired for services that use a public IP, you can use Azure DNS or an external DNS provider for your DNS Record.

Domain Name Label Scope (preview)

Public IPs also have an optional parameter for Domain Name Label Scope , which defines what domain label an object with the same name will use. This feature can help to prevent "dangling DNS names" which can be reused by malicious actors. When this option is chosen, the public IP address' DNS name will have an additional string in between the domainnamelabel and location fields, e.g. contoso.fjdng2acavhkevd8.westus.cloudapp.Azure.com . (This string is a hash generated from input specific to your subscription, resource group, domain name label, and other properties.)

Domain Name Label Scope is currently in public preview. It's provided without a service-level agreement, and is not recommended for production workloads. For more information, see Supplemental Terms of Use for Microsoft Azure Previews .

The value of the Domain Name Label Scope must match one of the options below:

For example, if SubscriptionReuse is selected as the option, and a customer who has the example domain name label contoso.fjdng2acavhkevd8.westus.cloudapp.Azure.com deletes and re-deploys a public IP address using the same template as before, the domain name label will remain the same. If the customer deploys a public IP address using this same template under a different subscription, the domain name label would change (e.g. contoso.c9ghbqhhbxevhzg9.westus.cloudapp.Azure.com ).

The domain name label scope can only be specified at the creation of a public IP address.

Availability Zone

Public IP addresses with a standard SKU can be created as nonzonal, zonal, or zone-redundant in regions that support availability zones .

A zone-redundant IP is created in all zones for a region and can survive any single zone failure. A zonal IP is tied to a specific availability zone, and shares fate with the health of the zone. A "nonzonal" public IP address is placed into a zone for you by Azure and doesn't give a guarantee of redundancy.

In regions without availability zones, all public IP addresses are created as nonzonal. Public IP addresses created in a region that is later upgraded to have availability zones remain nonzonal. A public IP's availability zone can't be changed after the public IP's creation.

All basic SKU public IP addresses are created as non-zonal. Any IP that is upgraded from a basic SKU to standard SKU remains non-zonal.

Other public IP address features

There are other attributes that can be used for a public IP address.

The Global Tier option creates a global anycast IP that can be used with cross-region load balancers.

The Internet Routing Preference option minimizes the time that traffic spends on the Microsoft network, lowering the egress data transfer cost.

At this time, both the Tier and Routing Preference feature are available for standard SKU IPv4 addresses only. They can't be utilized on the same IP address concurrently.

Azure provides a default outbound access IP for VMs that either aren't assigned a public IP address or are in the backend pool of an internal basic Azure load balancer. The default outbound access IP mechanism provides an outbound IP address that isn't configurable.

The default outbound access IP is disabled when one of the following events happens:

  • A public IP address is assigned to the VM.
  • The VM is placed in the backend pool of a standard load balancer, with or without outbound rules.
  • An Azure NAT Gateway resource is assigned to the subnet of the VM.

VMs that you create by using virtual machine scale sets in flexible orchestration mode don't have default outbound access.

For more information about outbound connections in Azure, see Default outbound access in Azure and Use Source Network Address Translation (SNAT) for outbound connections .

The limits for IP addressing are listed in the full set of limits for networking in Azure. The limits are per region and per subscription.

Contact support to increase above the default limits based on your business needs.

Public IPv4 addresses have a nominal charge; Public IPv6 addresses have no charge.

To learn more about IP address pricing in Azure, review the IP address pricing page.

Limitations for IPv6

VPN gateways can't be used in a virtual network with IPv6 enabled, either directly or peered with "UseRemoteGateway".

Azure doesn't support IPv6 communication for containers.

Use of IPv6-only virtual machines or virtual machines scale sets aren't supported. Each NIC must include at least one IPv4 IP configuration (dual-stack).

IPv6 ranges can't be added to a virtual network with existing resource navigation links when adding IPv6 to existing IPv4 deployments.

Forward DNS for IPv6 is supported for Azure public DNS. Reverse DNS isn't supported.

Routing Preference Internet isn't supported.

For more information on IPv6 in Azure, see here .

Learn about Private IP Addresses in Azure

Deploy a VM with a static public IP using the Azure portal

Coming soon: Throughout 2024 we will be phasing out GitHub Issues as the feedback mechanism for content and replacing it with a new feedback system. For more information see: https://aka.ms/ContentUserFeedback .

Submit and view feedback for

Additional resources

How to Configure Static IP Address on Ubuntu 24.04 (Desktop)

In this article, we will show you how to configure static ip address on Ubuntu 24.04 desktop step by step.

When you want a persistent IP address on your Ubuntu 24.04 desktop, then you must a configure a static IP address. Whenever we install Ubuntu then DHCP is enabled by default, and it will try to fetch the IP address from DHCP server if it is available over the network.

In Ubuntu Desktop 24.04, there are two ways to configure static IP address:

  • Graphical User Interface
  • Command Line

We will cover both the methods in this article.

Prerequisites

  • Pre-Install Ubuntu 24.04
  • Regular user with sudo rights
  • Basic understanding of networks

Configure Static IP Address on Ubuntu 24.04 Using GUI

Login to your desktop, click on the network icon and then choose Wired option as shown below:

Wired-Network-Settings-Ubuntu-24-04

We will get the following window, click on “ gearbox” icon

Gearbox-Icon-Ubuntu-24-04-Network-WiredSettings

Go to IPv4 tab, there you will see that DHCP is enabled for automatic IP allocation.

Automatic-DHCP-Option-Ubuntu-24-04-Network-Settings-GUI

Choose Manual option to configure static IP address and specify IP details (IP address, netmask, gateway and DNS IP) as show below:

Note: Change the IP details that suits to your network

Configure Static IP Address On Ubuntu 24.04

Click on Apply .

Next, disable and enable the interface to make above changes into effect.

Above screen confirms that we have successfully configured static IP address on our Ubuntu 24.04 desktop.

Configure Static IP Address on Ubuntu 24.04 Using Command Line

We can use netplan utility and its configuration file to assign the static ip on the interface (like ep0s3 or eth0).

Netplan configuration file are placed in /etc/netplan directory. Under this directory there should be a file with name 01-netcfg.yaml , 50-cloud-init.yaml or may be else depending on your environment.

Netplan-Configuration-file-Ubuntu-24-04-Desktop

Edit netplan configuration file, in our case it is 01-netcfg.yaml

save and close the file.

Note: In above file, replace the IP address details and interface according to your setup. We have also used renderer as “ NetworkManager ” which instructs netplan to use NetworkManager as its backend. It is used for desktops and for the servers and headless environments use “ networkd ” instead of NetworkManager.

Configure Static IP Address On Ubuntu 24.04 Command Line

Set the permission on this file using chmod command,

To make above changes into the affect, run below netplan apply command.

Next, verify the IP address and network connectivity.

Verify-IP-Details-Ubuntu-24-04-Desktop

Perfect, output above shows that we have successfully configure static ip address using netplan utility.

That’s all from this article. We hope you have found it informative and useful, feel free to post your queries and feedback in below comments section.

Read Also : How to Install Git on Ubuntu 24.04

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Computer Hope

Static allocation

A static allocation may refer to any of the following:

1. With computer memory , static allocation is a section set aside for an application when it is first loaded. This section of memory is used for one specific application at a time. It is made available again once that application is closed.

Related information

  • Memory (RAM) help and support.

IP address

2. With a network or network device , static allocation or a static IP address assigns a fixed address . For example, assigning a computer a fixed IP address of 192.168.123.114 never changes unless done so manually. This address is designated by the user and not the network.

Assigning a computer a static IP address that's incompatible with the netmask or your network configuration prevents the computer from communicating properly with the network.

  • Network and network card help and support .

Dedicated IP , Dynamic allocation , IP , Memory terms , Network terms

IP Subnet Calculator

This calculator returns a variety of information regarding Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and IPv6 subnets including possible network addresses, usable host ranges, subnet mask, and IP class, among others.

IPv4 Subnet Calculator

Ipv6 subnet calculator.

Related Bandwidth Calculator | Binary Calculator

A subnet is a division of an IP network (internet protocol suite), where an IP network is a set of communications protocols used on the Internet and other similar networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).

The act of dividing a network into at least two separate networks is called subnetting, and routers are devices that allow traffic exchange between subnetworks, serving as a physical boundary. IPv4 is the most common network addressing architecture used, though the use of IPv6 has been growing since 2006.

An IP address is comprised of a network number (routing prefix) and a rest field (host identifier). A rest field is an identifier that is specific to a given host or network interface. A routing prefix is often expressed using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation for both IPv4 and IPv6. CIDR is a method used to create unique identifiers for networks, as well as individual devices. For IPv4, networks can also be characterized using a subnet mask, which is sometimes expressed in dot-decimal notation, as shown in the "Subnet" field in the calculator. All hosts on a subnetwork have the same network prefix, unlike the host identifier, which is a unique local identification. In IPv4, these subnet masks are used to differentiate the network number and host identifier. In IPv6, the network prefix performs a similar function as the subnet mask in IPv4, with the prefix length representing the number of bits in the address.

Prior to the introduction of CIDR, IPv4 network prefixes could be directly obtained from the IP address based on the class (A, B, or C, which vary based on the range of IP addresses they include) of the address and the network mask. Since the introduction of CIDRs, however, assigning an IP address to a network interface requires both an address and its network mask.

Below is a table providing typical subnets for IPv4.

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How to set Static private ip to NIC in Azure using terraform?

I am creating a NIC in Azure using terraform script. by default it's allocate dynamic private ip to NIC. If i select private_ip_address_allocation = "Static" then i have to pass Static ip and it's very hard to manage all ips information.

I have tried using like below - Terraform - provision static ip addresses on Azure

It will work for 1 NIC but it i have already 20 NIC assigned with Static ips then not able to get ips and set available static ip.

How can i automate set private ip to Static in terraform code itself ?

  • azure-networking

sanjayparmar's user avatar

2 Answers 2

There isn't an easy solution to this, unfortunately. If you want a NIC with static internal IP then Azure expects you to tell it what IP you want to use, it will not pick on for you. If you look at the example for doing this with an ARM template, they are cheating and setting the IP to dynamic first, so Azure generates an IP and then changing the mode to static.

So in Terraform, you would need to do something similar, create the NIC with a dynamic IP first, then create the same NIC a second time but make it static this time.

The alternative is to use the cidrsubnet notation in Terraform to generate a valid IP address in your subnet. This will work, but the problem here is you have no guarantee that this IP is not already in use by other resources in your subnet unless you have created them all with Terraform and made sure to increment the IPs each time.

Yuvaraj Jayavel's user avatar

  • i have done the same. first create dynamic and then using data and output pass value to private ip to make it static but in this case i have to run 2 times. –  sanjayparmar Aug 19, 2019 at 7:08
  • @sam-cogan, you have a typo in the last sentence of the first para, it should read "... and then changing the mode to static" –  Rodion Sychev Apr 12, 2021 at 19:37
  • @RodionSychev thanks, fixed –  Sam Cogan Apr 14, 2021 at 8:55
  • This answer is obsolete, "dynamic" does not behave like described here –  Klaas Nov 5, 2022 at 7:28

So this seems to be a misconception about what "dynamic" means for a private IP in Azure. Creating a NIC in Azure with a "dynamic" private ip means the IP is assigned upon creation of the interface and only freed upon deletion of the interface.

This means it behaves exactly as "static" interfaces.

The only difference is that a "static" interface has a user assigned (as in input parameter) IP, a "dynamic" interface is automatically assigned a free IP from the subnet. I have send a PR to update the tf docs https://github.com/hashicorp/terraform-provider-azurerm/pull/15264

https://github.com/Azure/azure-quickstart-templates/issues/12159

Just to make it 100% clear, this does mean a "dynamic" IP never changes unless you delete the ipconfig resource. It won't change on deallocation of the VM, it won't change when your VM crashes and starts on another host.

Klaas's user avatar

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GlobalProtect Support for DHCP-Based IP Address Assignments

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Red Hat OpenShift 101 for OpenStack admins: Configuration

Feature image for Red Hat OpenShift

In the previous post , we oversaw the required  Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform   operators , their roles, and the format used to create the  Red Hat OpenStack Services on OpenShift (RHOSO) control plane. In this article, let’s review the deployment process.

We’ll base our observations on the Development Preview 3 code from  https://github.com/rh-osp-demo/dp-demo/ .

Let’s begin with the OpenStack Operator.

The OpenStack Operator

The OpenStack Operator consists of three parts (a CatalogSource , an OperatorGroup , and a Subscription ), each defining a different resource for managing Operators within an OpenShift/ Kubernetes cluster using the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). The resources aim to set up an Operator for OpenStack, likely for managing OpenStack services within the cluster, are as follows:

These resources collectively set up an environment where the OpenStack Operator is available to be installed in the  openstack-operators namespace. The CatalogSource provides the metadata about available operators, including the OpenStack Operator, sourced from a specified image. The OperatorGroup defines the scope within which the Operator can operate, and the Subscription triggers the installation and management of the OpenStack Operator according to the specified channel and source catalog.

Let’s focus on the CatalogSource part:

  • name: openstack-operator-index  - The name of the CatalogSource .
  • namespace: openstack-operators - The namespace where the CatalogSource is created.
  • sourceType: grpc   - Indicates that the catalog source uses gRPC to serve the index of available operators.
  • secrets: A list of secrets, in this case, osp-operators-secret , that might be used by the catalog source, potentially for accessing private repositories.
  • gprcPodConfig : Contains configuration specific to the pod serving the gRPC requests.
  • securityContextConfig: legacy - Specifies a security context configuration for the pod. The exact meaning of "legacy" can depend on the cluster configuration.
  • image : The container image URL for the operator index image, which should be adjusted to match the environment. This image hosts metadata about the operators available for installation, including the OpenStack operator.

Network isolation

Now that the operator is installed, let’s prepare the networking for the control plane, then the data plane.

First, we’ll work with the NNCP file used to configure the data plane network, which will configure the topology for each data plane network. It looks like the following ( source file ):

This YAML file defines a  NodeNetworkConfigurationPolicy for use with the NMState Operator in an OpenShift or Kubernetes environment. The policy specifies desired network configurations for nodes that match the defined nodeSelector. Here's a breakdown of the key components:

  • apiVersion : Specifies the version of the NMState API used.
  • kind : Identifies the resource type as NodeNetworkConfigurationPolicy , indicating that it's a policy for configuring network interfaces on nodes.
  • name : The name of the policy, osp-enp1s0-worker-ocp4-worker1 , uniquely identifies it within the namespace.
  • The first three are VLAN interfaces (type:  vlan ) with the names  enp1s0.20 , enp1s0.21 , and enp1s0.22 . Each interface is configured with a static IPv4 address ( 172.17.0.10/24 ,  172.18.0.10/24 , 172.19.0.10/24 , respectively) and specifies that IPv6 is disabled. DHCP is also disabled for IPv4, and each interface is brought to the up state. They are all based on the parent interface  enp1s0 and have VLAN IDs 20, 21, and 22, respectively.
  • The fourth interface configuration applies to  enp1s0 itself, setting it as an Ethernet interface (type: ethernet ) with a static IPv4 address 172.22.0.10/24 , DHCP disabled, and IPv6 disabled. The interface is also set to the up state with an MTU of 1500.
  • nodeSelector : Specifies a node's criteria for the policy to be applied. In this case, it selects a node with the hostname ocp4-worker1.aio.example.com with a worker role.

This policy aims to configure multiple VLANs on a specific worker node's enp1s0 interface in an OpenShift or Kubernetes cluster, assigning static IPv4 addresses to each VLAN and the parent interface. It effectively segregates network traffic into different VLANs for purposes such as separating internal API traffic, storage traffic, and tenant traffic, while also configuring the parent interface for another network segment. The policy targets a specific node identified by its hostname and role, ensuring that these configurations are only applied to the intended node.

NetworkAttachDefinition (NAD) file

This YAML snippet defines a  NetworkAttachmentDefinition object, part of the Kubernetes Network Custom Resource Definition (CRD) framework enabled by the Multus CNI plugin. This CRD is used to create multiple network interfaces in a Kubernetes pod. We will configure a NAD resource for each isolated network to attach a service pod to the network:

Let’s look at it: 

  • apiVersion: k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1 : Specifies the API version for the CRD. The  k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1 indicates it's related to the CNI (Container Network Interface) plug-ins managed under the CNCF (Cloud Native Computing Foundation).
  • kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition : This tells Kubernetes that the defined resource is a  NetworkAttachmentDefinition , which Multus uses to understand how to attach secondary networks to pods.
  • name: ctlplane : The name of the NetworkAttachmentDefinition , which will be referenced by pods that want to use this network configuration.
  • namespace: openstack : Specifies the namespace where this NetworkAttachmentDefinition is created, indicating it's intended for use by pods running in the openstack namespace.
  • cniVersion : The version of the CNI specification to use.
  • name : A name for this specific network configuration.
  • type : Specifies the CNI plug-in to use, in this case, macvlan, which allows a Kubernetes pod to have a unique MAC address via a parent host interface.
  • master : The master interface on the host that the macvlan interface will be created on top of. Here, it's  ens224.4 , indicating a VLAN interface.
  • type : The type of IPAM plugin to use, here whereabouts, which supports assigning IP addresses across multiple host nodes, avoiding IP address conflicts.
  • range : The CIDR range from which IP addresses will be allocated.
  • range_start ,  range_end: Define the start and end of the IP allocation pool within the specified range.

NMState resources

As described earlier, we must define IP address pools and L2 advertisements for the NMstate Operator. We must create an IPAddressPool resource to specify the range of IP addresses MetalLB can assign to services. Let’s have a look at our  osp-ng-metal-lb-ip-address-pool . It contains several entries, one per IP address pool we define. Let’s just pick one to detail, the ctlplane one:

What do we have:

  • apiVersion: metallb.io/v1beta1 : Specifies the API version of MetalLB being used.
  • kind: IPAddressPool : Denotes the kind of Kubernetes resource. Here, IPAddressPool is a resource type provided by MetalLB for defining a pool of IP addresses.
  • namespace: metallb-system : Specifies the namespace where the resource is located. MetalLB's resources typically reside in a dedicated namespace, metallb-system , isolated from other workloads.
  • name: ctlplane : The name of the IPAddressPool resource. This name is used to identify the pool within the MetalLB configuration.
  • addresses : Lists the IP address ranges that MetalLB can allocate to LoadBalancer services.
  • - 172.22.0.80-172.22.0.90 : Defines a specific range of IP addresses (from 172.22.0.80 to 172.22.0.90 ) that MetalLB is allowed to assign. This range should be within the network subnet accessible by the cluster and not used by other devices or services to avoid IP conflicts.

As we are using MetalLB in Layer 2 mode, define an L2Advertisement resource. This tells MetalLB to advertise the IP addresses from your network's specified pool(s). 

Let’s have a look at our  osp-ng-metal-lb-l2-advertisement YAML file. It contains several entries, let’s just pick the one relevant to ctlplane :

Here's a succinct explanation of its contents:

  • apiVersion: metallb.io/v1beta1 : Specifies the version of the MetalLB API being used.
  • kind: L2Advertisement : Indicates the resource type, an L2Advertisement . This type controls how MetalLB advertises IP addresses to the local network.
  • name: ctlplane : The name of the L2Advertisement resource.
  • namespace: metallb-system : The namespace where the resource is deployed, typically MetalLB's dedicated namespace.
  • ipAddressPools : Lists the names of the IP address pools that MetalLB should advertise. In this case, it references the IPAddressPool ctlplane , which we defined earlier.
  • interfaces : Specifies which network interfaces MetalLB should use to advertise IP addresses. Here, it's configured to use the interface named  enp1s0 .

This file tells MetalLB to advertise IP addresses from the  ctlplane IP address pool over the  enp1s0 network interface, making these IP addresses reachable on the local network through standard L2 networking mechanisms (ARP for IPv4, NDP for IPv6).

Let’s regroup what we have seen so far before we keep deploying our OpenStack Control Plane. When deploying MetalLB, you first apply the MetalLB resource to install MetalLB itself. Then, you define one or more  IPAddressPool resources to specify the range of IPs MetalLB can manage. Finally, you use  L2Advertisement resources to control the advertisement of these IPs on your network in Layer 2 mode.

MetalLB and NAD ( NetworkAttachmentDefinition ) serve different purposes. MetalLB is used to expose Kubernetes services of type LoadBalancer externally, allowing them to be accessible from outside the Kubernetes cluster. It's particularly useful in bare-metal environments where you don't have a cloud provider to provision external load balancers automatically. 

NAD with Multus allows for attaching additional network interfaces to pods. This is useful in scenarios where pods need to communicate over different networks or require specific network configurations that the default Kubernetes network doesn't provide.

In essence, MetalLB simplifies external access to services, while Multus and NAD enhance pod networking capabilities within the cluster.

Data plane network configuration

The data plane network configuration file will configure the topology for each data plane network. Its YAML file contains a  NetConfig header and then various network sub-sections, each defining a network to expose to the data plane network. 

Here is an extract of this sample configuration file:

The YAML snippet defines a custom resource named  NetConfig under the API group network.openstack.org/v1beta1 . This is not a standard Kubernetes API group, which implies it's part of a specific operator that extends OpenShift functionality related to integrating OpenStack networking capabilities with Kubernetes.

Here's a breakdown of what this YAML does:

  • apiVersion: network.openstack.org/v1beta1 : Specifies the version of the API that the resource definition is compatible with. This is a custom resource definition (CRD) related to OpenStack networking under the v1beta1 version.
  • kind: NetConfig : This indicates the type of the resource. The resource is used to configure how networking should be set up within for OpenStack-managed resources within Kubernetes.
  • name: openstacknetconfig : The name of the NetConfig resource.
  • namespace: openstack : This resource is in the openstack namespace.
  • name: ctlPlane : Specifies the name of the network. It refers to a control plane network used for management and orchestration traffic in OpenStack.
  • dnsDomain: ctlplane.aio.example.com : Defines the DNS domain used for the network.
  • name: subnet1 : The name of the subnet.
  • From 172.22.0.100 to 172.22.0.120
  • From 172.22.0.150 to 172.22.0.200
  • cidr: 172.22.0.0/24 : Typically, the CIDR should match the network of the allocation ranges and the gateway.
  • gateway: 172.22.0.1 : Specifies the gateway for the subnet, which is the IP address used as the default route for traffic leaving the subnet.

From the  internalaip section, we also see we can define VLAN IDs and exclusion ranges:

  • excludeAddresses:  IP range that the data plane should not use (these are the IP addresses used by the OCP cluster compute nodes (check the NNCP section above). 
  • vlan:  VLAN ID used by the  internalapi network. The lack of this entry in the  ctlplane section denotes using a flat network.

OpenStack Control Plane deployment

Now that we have all of our networking defined, and provided we have our storage configured (the sample file we use relies on NFS, but we did not discuss it here), we can deploy the control plane.

The control plane deployment YAML defines the different OpenStack services that should be instantiated, and for each service its configuration. The file is quite long, so copying it here is difficult, but you can check a  sample file here .

Here is, from the above sample, the list of defined Services and Key Configurations (note that some services are disabled):

  • Utilizes MetalLB for LoadBalancer with an IP of 172.22.0.89.
  • Configured to use an external DNS server at 192.168.123.100.
  • Database instance named openstack , using a secret osp-secret .
  • Cinder API exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • NFS backend for Cinder Volumes with specific NFS configurations.
  • Storage backend set to use Cinder with specific Glance and Cinder configurations.
  • Glance API exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • Uses NFS for storage with a request of 10G.
  • Exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • Uses a database instance named openstack and a secret osp-secret .
  • Enabled with storage requests set for the database and cell instances.
  • Uses a secret osp-secret .
  • Deployed with a single replica.
  • Deployed with a single replica, using a secret osp-secret .
  • API and Metadata services exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • API exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • Configuration for northbound and southbound DBs, as well as the OVN Controller.
  • Exposed via MetalLB with specific IPs for RabbitMQ services.
  • API and Engine exposed via MetalLB with an IP of 172.17.0.80.
  • Disabled in this configuration.
  • Ceilometer enabled, with configurations for autoscaling and metric storage.

In summary, MetalLB is extensively used to expose various OpenStack services externally via LoadBalancer type services, with annotations specifying address pools and IPs. Storage utilizes both Cinder (block storage) and NFS, with specific service configurations detailed for different services. 

Each service utilizes a specific database instance and secrets for configuration and credentials management. Replicas and scaling define the number of replicas for certain services, indicating considerations for availability and scaling. And, finally, several services specify network attachments, indicating integration with specific network configurations for service communication.

We’ll complete the deployment process in the final part of this series: Red Hat OpenShift 101 for OpenStack admins: Data plane deployment 

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IMAGES

  1. What is static IP address?

    ip address allocation static

  2. How to Set Up a Static IP Address

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  3. Creating static IP addresses and custom domains for AWS IoT Core

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  4. IP Address 101: What Is Your Real Public IP address

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  5. How to Assign a Static IP Address in Windows

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  6. DHCP vs Static IP: Set Static IP or Enable DHCP in Windows 10

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VIDEO

  1. Advantages of static IP address: Why choose a fixed IP service?

  2. Understanding IP Address Allocation Types Static/Dynamic And DHCP Server Complete Operation (Part-2)

  3. IP Address Allocation

  4. Vagrantfile

  5. How to Assign a Static IP Address in Windows 10 and Windows 11

  6. Class-26 (IP Allocation)Static IP Manage and Bandwidth Blocking (Part-২)

COMMENTS

  1. How to Set Up a Static IP Address

    10 minutes. TOOLS. Windows 10 or 11. Step 1: Open the Command Prompt. Your first step should be to track down your computer's current IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway. Do this by ...

  2. Static IP vs. Dynamic IP: What Is the Difference?

    Dynamic IP addresses are allocated by your router and subject to change while static IP addresses are manually configured and never change. For most cases, dynamic IP addressing is perfectly adequate. A static IP address is useful, though, if you want to access your home network remotely. Dynamic IP addresses are set automatically, but liable ...

  3. Static IP vs. dynamic IP addresses: What's the difference?

    Static IP addresses are typically used for servers, routers and switches. Dynamic IP addresses, however, are commonly used for workstations, phones and tablets. By. Damon Garn, Cogspinner Coaction. Published: 15 Oct 2021. It's imperative for sys admins to manage IP addressing properly, even in simple networks.

  4. Static vs Dynamic IP Addresses: Everything You Need to Know

    An Introduction to Static IP and Dynamic IP Addresses. As we mentioned before, every internet-enabled device has an IP address. It can be a unique numeric or alphanumeric string of characters, depending on which protocol you use. Most devices use IPv4 addresses, which look similar to this: 151.164.152.92.

  5. How to Assign a Static IP Address in Windows 10 or Windows 11

    Key Takeaways. To set a static IP address in Windows 10 or 11, open Settings -> Network & Internet and click Properties for your active network. Choose the "Edit" button next to IP assignment and change the type to Manual. Flip the IPv4 switch to "On", fill out your static IP details, and click Save. Sometimes, it's better to assign a PC its ...

  6. DHCP vs. static IP addressing

    DHCP and static IP allocation each offers its own set of advantages and disadvantages. For effective network address space allocation and management, it is important to choose an IP address allocation technique that fits your networking requirements. Here are 10 factors to keep in mind when deciding between static and DHCP IP allocation:

  7. Static and dynamic IP address configurations for DHCP

    In addition, static IP address settings are fairly time-consuming. Finally, IP address settings tend to be temporary, especially with the advent of portable devices like laptops, phones, and tablets. To save time and reduce the chances of a mistake, dynamic IP address allocation is preferable for these kinds of nodes.

  8. When to Use a Static IP Address

    When Static IP Addresses Are Used. Static IP addresses are necessary for devices that need constant access. For example, a static IP address is necessary if your computer is configured as a server, such as an FTP server or web server. If you want to ensure that people can always access your computer to download files, force the computer to use ...

  9. What Is a Static IP Address?

    A static IP address is an IP address that was manually configured for a device instead of one that was assigned by a DHCP server. It's called static because it doesn't change vs. a dynamic IP address, which does change. Routers, phones, tablets, desktops, laptops, and any other device that can use an IP address can be configured to have a ...

  10. What is a Static IP Address?

    A static IP address is a 32 bit number assigned to a computer as an address on the internet. This number is in the form of a dotted quad and is typically provided by an internet service provider (ISP). An IP address (internet protocol address) acts as a unique identifier for a device that connects to the internet. Computers use IP addresses to locate and talk to each other on the internet ...

  11. How to Set Static IP Addresses On Your Router

    Without DHCP, you would need to hop on a computer, log into your router's admin panel, and manually assign an available address to your friend's device, say 10.0.0.99. That address would be permanently assigned to your friend's iPad unless you went in later and manually released the address. With DHCP, however, life is so much easier.

  12. Understanding IP Address Assignment: A Complete Guide

    Static IP Address Assignment. Static IP address assignment involves manually configuring each device's IP address within the network. Unlike dynamic allocation, where addresses are assigned on-demand, static assignment requires administrators to assign a specific IP address to each device. One of the main advantages of static IP address ...

  13. IP address

    The smallest possible individual allocation is a subnet for 2 64 hosts, which is the square of the size of the entire IPv4 Internet. At these levels, actual address utilization ratios will be small on any IPv6 network segment. ... Persistent configuration is also known as using a static IP address. In contrast, when a computer's IP address is ...

  14. Difference between Static and Dynamic IP address

    While dynamic ip address change any time. 3. Static ip address is less secure. While in dynamic ip address, there is low amount of risk than static ip address's risk. 4. Static ip address is difficult to designate. While dynamic ip address is easy to designate. 5. The device designed by static ip address can be traced.

  15. Static and dynamic IP address configurations: DHCP deployment

    In my Static and dynamic IP address configurations for DHCP article, I discussed the pros and cons of static versus dynamic IP address allocation. Typically, sysadmins will manually configure servers and network devices (routers, switches, firewalls, etc.) with static IP address configurations.

  16. IP Address Lookup And Allocation Best Practices

    Best practices for IP address allocation include planning an IP address scheme, using subnetting, implementing Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, having a record, etc. Types of IP addresses include Consumer IP addresses, Private IP addresses, Public IP addresses, etc. Two types of website IP addresses include shared IP addresses and dedicated ...

  17. What is IPv4 Autoconfiguration and why it overwrites static IP

    The " Obtain an IP address automatically " option basically boiled down to attempting DHCP, and if that failed, using the Alternate Configuration tab (which was usually unconfigured, resulting in APIPA assigning an IPv4 (169.254.*) link-local address. The " Use the following address " option resulted in a static IP, not causing DHCP or Link ...

  18. Elastic IP addresses

    An Elastic IP address is a static IPv4 address designed for dynamic cloud computing. An Elastic IP address is allocated to your AWS account, and is yours until you release it. By using an Elastic IP address, you can mask the failure of an instance or software by rapidly remapping the address to another instance in your account.

  19. Public IP addresses in Azure

    Public IP address Standard Basic; Allocation method: Static: For IPv4: Dynamic or Static; For IPv6: Dynamic. Idle Timeout: Have an adjustable inbound originated flow idle timeout of 4-30 minutes, with a default of 4 minutes, and fixed outbound originated flow idle timeout of 4 minutes.

  20. How to Configure Static IP Address on Ubuntu 24.04 (Desktop)

    When you want a persistent IP address on your Ubuntu 24.04 desktop, then you must a configure a static IP address. Whenever we install Ubuntu then DHCP is enabled by default, and it will try to fetch the IP address from DHCP server if it is available over the network. In Ubuntu Desktop 24.04, there are two ways to configure static IP address:

  21. What is a Static Allocation?

    With computer memory, static allocation is a section set aside for an application when it is first loaded. This section of memory is used for one specific application at a time. It is made available again once that application is closed. 2. With a network or network device, static allocation or a static IP address assigns a fixed address.

  22. IP Subnet Calculator

    An IP address is comprised of a network number (routing prefix) and a rest field (host identifier). A rest field is an identifier that is specific to a given host or network interface. A routing prefix is often expressed using Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation for both IPv4 and IPv6. CIDR is a method used to create unique ...

  23. How to set Static private ip to NIC in Azure using terraform?

    I am creating a NIC in Azure using terraform script. by default it's allocate dynamic private ip to NIC. If i select private_ip_address_allocation = "Static" then i have to pass Static ip and it's very hard to manage all ips information. I have tried using like below - Terraform - provision static ip addresses on Azure

  24. Terraform

    Creating a NIC in Azure with a "dynamic" private ip means the IP is assigned upon creation of the interface and only freed upon deletion of the interface. This means it behaves exactly as "static" interfaces. The only difference is that a "static" interface has a user assigned (as in input parameter) IP, a "dynamic" interface is automatically ...

  25. What Is IP Subnetting? How to Subnet IP Network Addresses

    So, for example, a device that has a 192.168.10.100 IP address is a private IP address in the Class C space. 2. Calculate the number of bits in the subnet mask. An IP subnet mask is a 32-bit address that designates which portion of an IP address is the network address and which is part of the pool of individual endpoint addresses.

  26. GlobalProtect Support for DHCP-Based IP Address Assignments

    The GlobalProtect gateway then assigns the IP addresses as the tunnel IP for the endpoints that are remotely connected through the GlobalProtect app. If the DHCP server fails to respond to the gateway within the set communication timeout and retry times period, the gateway falls back to the private Static IP pool for the allocation of IP ...

  27. Prevent IP Conflicts: Essential Business Operations Tips

    For devices with static IP addresses, maintaining an updated inventory is critical. ... Additionally, consider segregating a range of IP addresses specifically for static allocation to avoid ...

  28. Red Hat OpenShift 101 for OpenStack admins: Configuration

    type: The type of IPAM plugin to use, here whereabouts, which supports assigning IP addresses across multiple host nodes, avoiding IP address conflicts. range: The CIDR range from which IP addresses will be allocated. range_start, range_end: Define the start and end of the IP allocation pool within the specified range. NMState resources