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arXiv is a free distribution service and an open-access archive for nearly 2.4 million scholarly articles in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics. Materials on this site are not peer-reviewed by arXiv.

arXiv is a free distribution service and an open-access archive for scholarly articles in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics, electrical engineering and systems science, and economics. Materials on this site are not peer-reviewed by arXiv.

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The top list of academic search engines

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1. Google Scholar

4. science.gov, 5. semantic scholar, 6. baidu scholar, get the most out of academic search engines, frequently asked questions about academic search engines, related articles.

Academic search engines have become the number one resource to turn to in order to find research papers and other scholarly sources. While classic academic databases like Web of Science and Scopus are locked behind paywalls, Google Scholar and others can be accessed free of charge. In order to help you get your research done fast, we have compiled the top list of free academic search engines.

Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only lets you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free but also often provides links to full-text PDF files.

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles
  • Abstracts: only a snippet of the abstract is available
  • Related articles: ✔
  • References: ✔
  • Cited by: ✔
  • Links to full text: ✔
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Vancouver, RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Google Scholar

BASE is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany. That is also where its name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

  • Coverage: approx. 136 million articles (contains duplicates)
  • Abstracts: ✔
  • Related articles: ✘
  • References: ✘
  • Cited by: ✘
  • Export formats: RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Bielefeld Academic Search Engine aka BASE

CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open-access research papers. For each search result, a link to the full-text PDF or full-text web page is provided.

  • Coverage: approx. 136 million articles
  • Links to full text: ✔ (all articles in CORE are open access)
  • Export formats: BibTeX

Search interface of the CORE academic search engine

Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need anymore to query all those resources separately!

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles and reports
  • Links to full text: ✔ (available for some databases)
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX (available for some databases)

Search interface of Science.gov

Semantic Scholar is the new kid on the block. Its mission is to provide more relevant and impactful search results using AI-powered algorithms that find hidden connections and links between research topics.

  • Coverage: approx. 40 million articles
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, BibTeX

Search interface of Semantic Scholar

Although Baidu Scholar's interface is in Chinese, its index contains research papers in English as well as Chinese.

  • Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 100 million articles
  • Abstracts: only snippets of the abstract are available
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Baidu Scholar

RefSeek searches more than one billion documents from academic and organizational websites. Its clean interface makes it especially easy to use for students and new researchers.

  • Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 1 billion documents
  • Abstracts: only snippets of the article are available
  • Export formats: not available

Search interface of RefSeek

Consider using a reference manager like Paperpile to save, organize, and cite your references. Paperpile integrates with Google Scholar and many popular databases, so you can save references and PDFs directly to your library using the Paperpile buttons:

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Google Scholar is an academic search engine, and it is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let's you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature developed at the Allen Institute for AI. Sematic Scholar was publicly released in 2015 and uses advances in natural language processing to provide summaries for scholarly papers.

BASE , as its name suggest is an academic search engine. It is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that's where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers. For each search result a link to the full text PDF or full text web page is provided.

Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need any more to query all those resources separately!

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21 Legit Research Databases for Free Journal Articles in 2022

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Written by  Scribendi

Has this ever happened to you? While looking for websites for research, you come across a research paper site that claims to connect academics to a peer-reviewed article database for free.

Intrigued, you search for keywords related to your topic, only to discover that you must pay a hefty subscription fee to access the service. After the umpteenth time being duped, you begin to wonder if there's even such a thing as free journal articles .

Subscription fees and paywalls are often the bane of students and academics, especially those at small institutions who don't provide access to many free article directories and repositories.

Whether you're working on an undergraduate paper, a PhD dissertation, or a medical research study, we want to help you find tools to locate and access the information you need to produce well-researched, compelling, and innovative work.

Below, we discuss why peer-reviewed articles are superior and list out the best free article databases to use in 2022.

Download Our Free Research Database Roundup PDF

Why peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are more authoritative.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Determining what sources are reliable can be challenging. Peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are the gold standard in academic research. Reputable academic journals have a rigorous peer-review process.

The peer review process provides accountability to the academic community, as well as to the content of the article. The peer review process involves qualified experts in a specific (often very specific) field performing a review of an article's methods and findings to determine things like quality and credibility.

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in peer-reviewed article databases and research databases, and if you know that a database of journals is reliable, that can offer reassurances about the reliability of a free article. Peer review is often double blind, meaning that the author removes all identifying information and, likewise, does not know the identity of the reviewers. This helps reviewers maintain objectivity and impartiality so as to judge an article based on its merit.

Where to Find Peer-Reviewed Articles

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in a variety of research databases. Below is a list of some of the major databases you can use to find peer-reviewed articles and other sources in disciplines spanning the humanities, sciences, and social sciences.

What Are Open Access Journals?

An open access (OA) journal is a journal whose content can be accessed without payment. This provides scholars, students, and researchers with free journal articles . OA journals use alternate methods of funding to cover publication costs so that articles can be published without having to pass those publication costs on to the reader.

Open Access Journals

Some of these funding models include standard funding methods like advertising, public funding, and author payment models, where the author pays a fee in order to publish in the journal. There are OA journals that have non-peer-reviewed academic content, as well as journals that focus on dissertations, theses, and papers from conferences, but the main focus of OA is peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.

The internet has certainly made it easier to access research articles and other scholarly publications without needing access to a university library, and OA takes another step in that direction by removing financial barriers to academic content.

Choosing Wisely

Features of legitimate oa journals.

 There are things to look out for when trying to decide if a free publication journal is legitimate:

Mission statement —The mission statement for an OA journal should be available on their website.

Publication history —Is the journal well established? How long has it been available?

Editorial board —Who are the members of the editorial board, and what are their credentials?

Indexing —Can the journal be found in a reliable database?

Peer review —What is the peer review process? Does the journal allow enough time in the process for a reliable assessment of quality?

Impact factor —What is the average number of times the journal is cited over a two-year period?

Features of Illegitimate OA Journals

There are predatory publications that take advantage of the OA format, and they are something to be wary of. Here are some things to look out for:

Contact information —Is contact information provided? Can it be verified?

Turnaround —If the journal makes dubious claims about the amount of time from submission to publication, it is likely unreliable.

Editorial board —Much like determining legitimacy, looking at the editorial board and their credentials can help determine illegitimacy.

Indexing —Can the journal be found in any scholarly databases?

Peer review —Is there a statement about the peer review process? Does it fit what you know about peer review?

How to Find Scholarly Articles

Identify keywords.

Keywords are included in an article by the author. Keywords are an excellent way to find content relevant to your research topic or area of interest. In academic searches, much like you would on a search engine, you can use keywords to navigate through what is available to find exactly what you're looking for.

Authors provide keywords that will help you easily find their article when researching a related topic, often including general terms to accommodate broader searches, as well as some more specific terms for those with a narrower scope. Keywords can be used individually or in combination to refine your scholarly article search.

Narrow Down Results

Sometimes, search results can be overwhelming, and searching for free articles on a journal database is no exception, but there are multiple ways to narrow down your results. A good place to start is discipline.

What category does your topic fall into (psychology, architecture, machine learning, etc.)? You can also narrow down your search with a year range if you're looking for articles that are more recent.

A Boolean search can be incredibly helpful. This entails including terms like AND between two keywords in your search if you need both keywords to be in your results (or, if you are looking to exclude certain keywords, to exclude these words from the results).

Consider Different Avenues

If you're not having luck using keywords in your search for free articles, you may still be able to find what you're looking for by changing your tactics. Casting a wider net sometimes yields positive results, so it may be helpful to try searching by subject if keywords aren't getting you anywhere.

You can search for a specific publisher to see if they have OA publications in the academic journal database. And, if you know more precisely what you're looking for, you can search for the title of the article or the author's name.

The Top 21 Free Online Journal and Research Databases

Navigating OA journals, research article databases, and academic websites trying to find high-quality sources for your research can really make your head spin. What constitutes a reliable database? What is a useful resource for your discipline and research topic? How can you find and access full-text, peer-reviewed articles?

Fortunately, we're here to help. Having covered some of the ins and outs of peer review, OA journals, and how to search for articles, we have compiled a list of the top 21 free online journals and the best research databases. This list of databases is a great resource to help you navigate the wide world of academic research.

These databases provide a variety of free sources, from abstracts and citations to full-text, peer-reviewed OA journals. With databases covering specific areas of research and interdisciplinary databases that provide a variety of material, these are some of our favorite free databases, and they're totally legit!

CORE is a multidisciplinary aggregator of OA research. CORE has the largest collection of OA articles available. It allows users to search more than 219 million OA articles. While most of these link to the full-text article on the original publisher's site, or to a PDF available for download, five million records are hosted directly on CORE.

CORE's mission statement is a simple and straightforward commitment to offering OA articles to anyone, anywhere in the world. They also host communities that are available for researchers to join and an ambassador community to enhance their services globally. In addition to a straightforward keyword search, CORE offers advanced search options to filter results by publication type, year, language, journal, repository, and author.

CORE's user interface is easy to use and navigate. Search results can be sorted based on relevance or recency, and you can search for relevant content directly from the results screen.

Collection: 219,537,133 OA articles

Other Services: Additional services are available from CORE, with extras that are geared toward researchers, repositories, and businesses. There are tools for accessing raw data, including an API that provides direct access to data, datasets that are available for download, and FastSync for syncing data content from the CORE database.

CORE has a recommender plug-in that suggests relevant OA content in the database while conducting a search and a discovery feature that helps you discover OA versions of paywalled articles. Other features include tools for managing content, such as a dashboard for managing repository output and the Repository Edition service to enhance discoverability.

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: Yes

Advanced Search Options: Language, author, journal, publisher, repository, DOI, year

2. ScienceOpen

Functioning as a research and publishing network, ScienceOpen offers OA to more than 74 million articles in all areas of science. Although you do need to register to view the full text of articles, registration is free. The advanced search function is highly detailed, allowing you to find exactly the research you're looking for.

The Berlin- and Boston-based company was founded in 2013 to "facilitate open and public communications between academics and to allow ideas to be judged on their merit, regardless of where they come from." Search results can be exported for easy integration with reference management systems.

You can also bookmark articles for later research. There are extensive networking options, including your Science Open profile, a forum for interacting with other researchers, the ability to track your usage and citations, and an interactive bibliography. Users have the ability to review articles and provide their knowledge and insight within the community.

Collection: 74,560,631

Other Services: None

Advanced Search Options:  Content type, source, author, journal, discipline

3. Directory of Open Access Journals

A multidisciplinary, community-curated directory, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) gives researchers access to high-quality peer-reviewed journals. It has archived more than two million articles from 17,193 journals, allowing you to either browse by subject or search by keyword.

The site was launched in 2003 with the aim of increasing the visibility of OA scholarly journals online. Content on the site covers subjects from science, to law, to fine arts, and everything in between. DOAJ has a commitment to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, OA scholarly research journals globally, regardless of discipline, geography or language."

Information about the journal is available with each search result. Abstracts are also available in a collapsible format directly from the search screen. The scholarly article website is somewhat simple, but it is easy to navigate. There are 16 principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing that clearly outline DOAJ policies and standards.

Collection: 6,817,242

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, journal, year

4. Education Resources Information Center

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the Institution of Education Sciences allows you to search by topic for material related to the field of education. Links lead to other sites, where you may have to purchase the information, but you can search for full-text articles only. You can also search only peer-reviewed sources.

The service primarily indexes journals, gray literature (such as technical reports, white papers, and government documents), and books. All sources of material on ERIC go through a formal review process prior to being indexed. ERIC's selection policy is available as a PDF on their website.

The ERIC website has an extensive FAQ section to address user questions. This includes categories like general questions, peer review, and ERIC content. There are also tips for advanced searches, as well as general guidance on the best way to search the database. ERIC is an excellent database for content specific to education.

Collection: 1,292,897

Advanced Search Options: Boolean

5. arXiv e-Print Archive

The arXiv e-Print Archive is run by Cornell University Library and curated by volunteer moderators, and it now offers OA to more than one million e-prints.

There are advisory committees for all eight subjects available on the database. With a stated commitment to an "emphasis on openness, collaboration, and scholarship," the arXiv e-Print Archive is an excellent STEM resource.

The interface is not as user-friendly as some of the other databases available, and the website hosts a blog to provide news and updates, but it is otherwise a straightforward math and science resource. There are simple and advanced search options, and, in addition to conducting searches for specific topics and articles, users can browse content by subject. The arXiv e-Print Archive clearly states that they do not peer review the e-prints in the database.

Collection: 1,983,891

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles: No

Advanced Search Options:  Subject, date, title, author, abstract, DOI

6. Social Science Research Network

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a collection of papers from the social sciences community. It is a highly interdisciplinary platform used to search for scholarly articles related to 67 social science topics. SSRN has a variety of research networks for the various topics available through the free scholarly database.

The site offers more than 700,000 abstracts and more than 600,000 full-text papers. There is not yet a specific option to search for only full-text articles, but, because most of the papers on the site are free access, it's not often that you encounter a paywall. There is currently no option to search for only peer-reviewed articles.

You must become a member to use the services, but registration is free and enables you to interact with other scholars around the world. SSRN is "passionately committed to increasing inclusion, diversity and equity in scholarly research," and they encourage and discuss the use of inclusive language in scholarship whenever possible.

Collection: 1,058,739 abstracts; 915,452 articles

Advanced Search Options: Term, author, date, network

7. Public Library of Science

Public Library of Science (PLOS) is a big player in the world of OA science. Publishing 12 OA journals, the nonprofit organization is committed to facilitating openness in academic research. According to the site, "all PLOS content is at the highest possible level of OA, meaning that scientific articles are immediately and freely available to anyone, anywhere."

PLOS outlines four fundamental goals that guide the organization: break boundaries, empower researchers, redefine quality, and open science. All PLOS journals are peer-reviewed, and all 12 journals uphold rigorous ethical standards for research, publication, and scientific reporting.

PLOS does not offer advanced search options. Content is organized by topic into research communities that users can browse through, in addition to options to search for both articles and journals. The PLOS website also has resources for peer reviewers, including guidance on becoming a reviewer and on how to best participate in the peer review process.

Collection: 12 journals

Advanced Search Options: None

8. OpenDOAR

OpenDOAR, or the Directory of Open Access Repositories, is a comprehensive resource for finding free OA journals and articles. Using Google Custom Search, OpenDOAR combs through OA repositories around the world and returns relevant research in all disciplines.

The repositories it searches through are assessed and categorized by OpenDOAR staff to ensure they meet quality standards. Inclusion criteria for the database include requirements for OA content, global access, and categorically appropriate content, in addition to various other quality assurance measures. OpenDOAR has metadata, data, content, preservation, and submission policies for repositories, in addition to two OA policy statements regarding minimum and optimum recommendations.

This database allows users to browse and search repositories, which can then be selected, and articles and data can be accessed from the repository directly. As a repository database, much of the content on the site is geared toward the support of repositories and OA standards.

Collection: 5,768 repositories

Other Services: OpenDOAR offers a variety of additional services. Given the nature of the platform, services are primarily aimed at repositories and institutions, and there is a marked focus on OA in general. Sherpa services are OA archiving tools for authors and institutions.

They also offer various resources for OA support and compliance regarding standards and policies. The publication router matches publications and publishers with appropriate repositories.

There are also services and resources from JISC for repositories for cost management, discoverability, research impact, and interoperability, including ORCID consortium membership information. Additionally, a repository self-assessment tool is available for members.

Advanced Search Options:  Name, organization name, repository type, software name, content type, subject, country, region

9. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine

The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) is operated by the Bielefeld University Library in Germany, and it offers more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 sources. Sixty percent of its content is OA, and you can filter your search accordingly.

BASE has rigorous inclusion requirements for content providers regarding quality and relevance, and they maintain a list of content providers for the sake of transparency, which can be easily found on their website. BASE has a fairly elegant interface. Search results can be organized by author, title, or date.

From the search results, items can be selected and exported, added to favorites, emailed, and searched in Google Scholar. There are basic and advanced search features, with the advanced search offering numerous options for refining search criteria. There is also a feature on the website that saves recent searches without additional steps from the user.

Collection: 276,019,066 documents; 9,286 content providers

Advanced Search Options:  Author, subject, year, content provider, language, document type, access, terms of reuse

Research Databases

10. Digital Library of the Commons Repository

Run by Indiana University, the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) Repository is a multidisciplinary journal repository that allows users to access thousands of free and OA articles from around the world. You can browse by document type, date, author, title, and more or search for keywords relevant to your topic.

DCL also offers the Comprehensive Bibliography of the Commons, an image database, and a keyword thesaurus for enhanced search parameters. The repository includes books, book chapters, conference papers, journal articles, surveys, theses and dissertations, and working papers. DCL advanced search features drop-down menus of search types with built-in Boolean search options.

Searches can be sorted by relevance, title, date, or submission date in ascending or descending order. Abstracts are included in selected search results, with access to full texts available, and citations can be exported from the same page. Additionally, the image database search includes tips for better search results.

Collection: 10,784

Advanced Search Options:  Author, date, title, subject, sector, region, conference

11. CIA World Factbook

The CIA World Factbook is a little different from the other resources on this list in that it is not an online journal directory or repository. It is, however, a useful free online research database for academics in a variety of disciplines.

All the information is free to access, and it provides facts about every country in the world, which are organized by category and include information about history, geography, transportation, and much more. The World Factbook can be searched by country or region, and there is also information about the world’s oceans.

This site contains resources related to the CIA as an organization rather than being a scientific journal database specifically. The site has a user interface that is easy to navigate. The site also provides a section for updates regarding changes to what information is available and how it is organized, making it easier to interact with the information you are searching for.

Collection: 266 countries

12. Paperity

Paperity boasts its status as the "first multidisciplinary aggregator of OA journals and papers." Their focus is on helping you avoid paywalls while connecting you to authoritative research. In addition to providing readers with easy access to thousands of journals, Paperity seeks to help authors reach their audiences and help journals increase their exposure to boost readership.

Paperity has journal articles for every discipline, and the database offers more than a dozen advanced search options, including the length of the paper and the number of authors. There is even an option to include, exclude, or exclusively search gray papers.

Paperity is available for mobile, with both a mobile site and the Paperity Reader, an app that is available for both Android and Apple users. The database is also available on social media. You can interact with Paperity via Twitter and Facebook, and links to their social media are available on their homepage, including their Twitter feed.

Collection: 8,837,396

Advanced Search Options: Title, abstract, journal title, journal ISSN, publisher, year of publication, number of characters, number of authors, DOI, author, affiliation, language, country, region, continent, gray papers

13. dblp Computer Science Bibliography

The dblp Computer Science Bibliography is an online index of major computer science publications. dblp was founded in 1993, though until 2010 it was a university-specific database at the University of Trier in Germany. It is currently maintained by the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz Center for Informatics.

Although it provides access to both OA articles and those behind a paywall, you can limit your search to only OA articles. The site indexes more than three million publications, making it an invaluable resource in the world of computer science. dblp entries are color-coded based on the type of item.

dblp has an extensive FAQ section, so questions that might arise about topics like the database itself, navigating the website, or the data on dblp, in addition to several other topics, are likely to be answered. The website also hosts a blog and has a section devoted to website statistics.

Collection: 5,884,702

14. EconBiz

EconBiz is a great resource for economic and business studies. A service of the Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, it offers access to full texts online, with the option of searching for OA material only. Their literature search is performed across multiple international databases.

EconBiz has an incredibly useful research skills section, with resources such as Guided Walk, a service to help students and researchers navigate searches, evaluate sources, and correctly cite references; the Research Guide EconDesk, a help desk to answer specific questions and provide advice to aid in literature searches; and the Academic Career Kit for what they refer to as Early Career Researchers.

Other helpful resources include personal literature lists, a calendar of events for relevant calls for papers, conferences, and workshops, and an economics terminology thesaurus to help in finding keywords for searches. To stay up-to-date with EconBiz, you can sign up for their newsletter.

Collection: 1,075,219

Advanced Search Options:  Title, subject, author, institution, ISBN/ISSN, journal, publisher, language, OA only

15. BioMed Central

BioMed Central provides OA research from more than 300 peer-reviewed journals. While originally focused on resources related to the physical sciences, math, and engineering, BioMed Central has branched out to include journals that cover a broader range of disciplines, with the aim of providing a single platform that provides OA articles for a variety of research needs. You can browse these journals by subject or title, or you can search all articles for your required keyword.

BioMed Central has a commitment to peer-reviewed sources and to the peer review process itself, continually seeking to help and improve the peer review process. They're "committed to maintaining high standards through full and stringent peer review." They publish the journal Research Integrity and Peer Review , which publishes research on the subject.

Additionally, the website includes resources to assist and support editors as part of their commitment to providing high-quality, peer-reviewed OA articles.

Collection: 507,212

Other Services: BMC administers the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry. While initially designed for registering clinical trials, since its creation in 2000, the registry has broadened its scope to include other health studies as well.

The registry is recognized by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), and it meets the requirements established by the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

The study records included in the registry are all searchable and free to access. The ISRCTN registry "supports transparency in clinical research, helps reduce selective reporting of results and ensures an unbiased and complete evidence base."

Advanced Search Options:  Author, title, journal, list

A multidisciplinary search engine, JURN provides links to various scholarly websites, articles, and journals that are free to access or OA. Covering the fields of the arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine, JURN has indexed almost 5,000 repositories to help you find exactly what you're looking for.

Search features are enhanced by Google, but searches are filtered through their index of repositories. JURN seeks to reach a wide audience, with their search engine tailored to researchers from "university lecturers and students seeking a strong search tool for OA content" and "advanced and ambitious students, age 14-18" to "amateur historians and biographers" and "unemployed and retired lecturers."

That being said, JURN is very upfront about its limitations. They admit to not being a good resource for educational studies, social studies, or psychology, and conference archives are generally not included due to frequently unstable URLs.

Collection: 5,064 indexed journals

Other Services: JURN has a browser add-on called UserScript. This add-on allows users to integrate the JURN database directly into Google Search. When performing a search through Google, the add-on creates a link that sends the search directly to JURN CSE. JURN CSE is a search service that is hosted by Google.

Clicking the link from the Google Search bar will run your search through the JURN database from the Google homepage. There is also an interface for a DuckDuckGo search box; while this search engine has an emphasis on user privacy, for smaller sites that may be indexed by JURN, DuckDuckGo may not provide the same depth of results.

Advanced Search Options:  Google search modifiers

Dryad is a digital repository of curated, OA scientific research data. Launched in 2009, it is run by a not-for-profit membership organization, with a community of institutional and publisher members for whom their services have been designed. Members include institutions such as Stanford, UCLA, and Yale, as well as publishers like Oxford University Press and Wiley.

Dryad aims to "promote a world where research data is openly available, integrated with the scholarly literature, and routinely reused to create knowledge." It is free to access for the search and discovery of data. Their user experience is geared toward easy self-depositing, supports Creative Commons licensing, and provides DOIs for all their content.

Note that there is a publishing charge associated if you wish to publish your data in Dryad. When searching datasets, they are accompanied by author information and abstracts for the associated studies, and citation information is provided for easy attribution.

Collection: 44,458

Advanced Search Options: No

Run by the British Library, the E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) allows you to search over 500,000 doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines. All of the doctoral theses available on EThOS have been awarded by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.

Although some full texts are behind paywalls, you can limit your search to items available for immediate download, either directly through EThOS or through an institution's website. More than half of the records in the database provide access to full-text theses.

EThOS notes that they do not hold all records for all institutions, but they strive to index as many doctoral theses as possible, and the database is constantly expanding, with approximately 3,000 new records added and 2,000 new full-text theses available every month. The availability of full-text theses is dependent on multiple factors, including their availability in the institutional repository and the level of repository development.

Collection: 500,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Abstract, author's first name, author's last name, awarding body, current institution, EThOS ID, year, language, qualifications, research supervisor, sponsor/funder, keyword, title

PubMed is a research platform well-known in the fields of science and medicine. It was created and developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). It has been available since 1996 and offers access to "more than 33 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books."

While PubMed does not provide full-text articles directly, and many full-text articles may be behind paywalls or require subscriptions to access them, when articles are available from free sources, such as through PubMed Central (PMC), those links are provided with the citations and abstracts that PubMed does provide.

PMC, which was established in 2000 by the NLM, is a free full-text archive that includes more than 6,000,000 records. PubMed records link directly to corresponding PMC results. PMC content is provided by publishers and other content owners, digitization projects, and authors directly.

Collection: 33,000,000+

Advanced Search Options: Author's first name, author's last name, identifier, corporation, date completed, date created, date entered, date modified, date published, MeSH, book, conflict of interest statement, EC/RN number, editor, filter, grant number, page number, pharmacological action, volume, publication type, publisher, secondary source ID, text, title, abstract, transliterated title

20. Semantic Scholar

A unique and easy-to-use resource, Semantic Scholar defines itself not just as a research database but also as a "search and discovery tool." Semantic Scholar harnesses the power of artificial intelligence to efficiently sort through millions of science-related papers based on your search terms.

Through this singular application of machine learning, Semantic Scholar expands search results to include topic overviews based on your search terms, with the option to create an alert for or further explore the topic. It also provides links to related topics.

In addition, search results produce "TLDR" summaries in order to provide concise overviews of articles and enhance your research by helping you to navigate quickly and easily through the available literature to find the most relevant information. According to the site, although some articles are behind paywalls, "the data [they] have for those articles is limited," so you can expect to receive mostly full-text results.

Collection: 203,379,033

Other Services: Semantic Scholar supports multiple popular browsers. Content can be accessed through both mobile and desktop versions of Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, and Opera.

Additionally, Semantic Scholar provides browser extensions for both Chrome and Firefox, so AI-powered scholarly search results are never more than a click away. The mobile interface includes an option for Semantic Swipe, a new way of interacting with your research results.

There are also beta features that can be accessed as part of the Beta Program, which will provide you with features that are being actively developed and require user feedback for further improvement.

Advanced Search Options: Field of study, date range, publication type, author, journal, conference, PDF

Zenodo, powered by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was launched in 2013. Taking its name from Zenodotus, the first librarian of the ancient library of Alexandria, Zenodo is a tool "built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in open science." Zenodo accepts all research from every discipline in any file format.

However, Zenodo also curates uploads and promotes peer-reviewed material that is available through OA. A DOI is assigned to everything that is uploaded to Zenodo, making research easily findable and citable. You can sort by keyword, title, journal, and more and download OA documents directly from the site.

While there are closed access and restricted access items in the database, the vast majority of research is OA material. Search results can be filtered by access type, making it easy to view the free articles available in the database.

Collection: 2,220,000+

Advanced Search Options:  Access, file type, keywords

Check out our roundup of free research databases as a handy one-page PDF.

How to find peer-reviewed articles.

There are a lot of free scholarly articles available from various sources. The internet is a big place. So how do you go about finding peer-reviewed articles when conducting your research? It's important to make sure you are using reputable sources.

The first source of the article is the person or people who wrote it. Checking out the author can give you some initial insight into how much you can trust what you’re reading. Looking into the publication information of your sources can also indicate whether the article is reliable.

Aspects of the article, such as subject and audience, tone, and format, are other things you can look at when evaluating whether the article you're using is valid, reputable, peer-reviewed material. So, let's break that down into various components so you can assess your research to ensure that you're using quality articles and conducting solid research.

Check the Author

Peer-reviewed articles are written by experts or scholars with experience in the field or discipline they're writing about. The research in a peer-reviewed article has to pass a rigorous evaluation process, so it’s a foregone conclusion that the author(s) of a peer-reviewed article should have experience or training related to that research.

When evaluating an article, take a look at the author’s information. What credentials does the author have to indicate that their research has scholarly weight behind it? Finding out what type of degree the author has—and what that degree is in—can provide insight into what kind of authority the author is on the subject.

Something else that might lend credence to the author’s scholarly role is their professional affiliation. A look at what organization or institution they are affiliated with can tell you a lot about their experience or expertise. Where were they trained, and who is verifying their research?

Identify Subject and Audience

The ultimate goal of a study is to answer a question. Scholarly articles are also written for scholarly audiences, especially articles that have gone through the peer review process. This means that the author is trying to reach experts, researchers, academics, and students in the field or topic the research is based on.

Think about the question the author is trying to answer by conducting this research, why, and for whom. What is the subject of the article? What question has it set out to answer? What is the purpose of finding the information? Is the purpose of the article of importance to other scholars? Is it original content?

Research should also be approached analytically. Is the methodology sound? Is the author using an analytical approach to evaluate the data that they have obtained? Are the conclusions they've reached substantiated by their data and analysis? Answering these questions can reveal a lot about the article’s validity.

Format Matters

Reliable articles from peer-reviewed sources have certain format elements to be aware of. The first is an abstract. An abstract is a short summary or overview of the article. Does the article have an abstract? It's unlikely that you're reading a peer-reviewed article if it doesn’t. Peer-reviewed journals will also have a word count range. If an article seems far too short or incredibly long, that may be reason to doubt it.

Another feature of reliable articles is the sections the information is divided into. Peer-reviewed research articles will have clear, concise sections that appropriately organize the information. This might include a literature review, methodology, and results in the case of research articles and a conclusion.

One of the most important sections is the references or bibliography. This is where the researcher lists all the sources of their information. A peer-reviewed source will have a comprehensive reference section.

An article that has been written to reach an academic community will have an academic tone. The language that is used, and the way this language is used, is important to consider. If the article is riddled with grammatical errors, confusing syntax, and casual language, it almost definitely didn't make it through the peer review process.

Also consider the use of terminology. Every discipline is going to have standard terminology or jargon that can be used and understood by other academics in the discipline. The language in a peer-reviewed article is going to reflect that.

If the author is going out of their way to explain simple terms, or terms that are standard to the field or discipline, it's unlikely that the article has been peer reviewed, as this is something that the author would be asked to address during the review process.

Publication

The source of the article will be a very good indicator of the likelihood that it was peer reviewed. Where was the article published? Was it published alongside other academic articles in the same discipline? Is it a legitimate and reputable scholarly publication?

A trade publication or newspaper might be legitimate or reputable, but it is not a scholarly source, and it will not have been subject to the peer review process. Scholarly journals are the best resource for peer-reviewed articles, but it's important to remember that not all scholarly journals are peer reviewed.

It’s helpful to look at a scholarly source’s website, as peer-reviewed journals will have a clear indication of the peer review process. University libraries, institutional repositories, and reliable databases (and you now might have a list of some legit ones) can also help provide insight into whether an article comes from a peer-reviewed journal.

Free Online Journal

Common Research Mistakes to Avoid

Research is a lot of work. Even with high standards and good intentions, it’s easy to make mistakes. Perhaps you searched for access to scientific journals for free and found the perfect peer-reviewed sources, but you forgot to document everything, and your references are a mess. Or, you only searched for free online articles and missed out on a ground-breaking study that was behind a paywall.

Whether your research is for a degree or to get published or to satisfy your own inquisitive nature, or all of the above, you want all that work to produce quality results. You want your research to be thorough and accurate.

To have any hope of contributing to the literature on your research topic, your results need to be high quality. You might not be able to avoid every potential mistake, but here are some that are both common and easy to avoid.

Sticking to One Source

One of the hallmarks of good research is a healthy reference section. Using a variety of sources gives you a better answer to your question. Even if all of the literature is in agreement, looking at various aspects of the topic may provide you with an entirely different picture than you would have if you looked at your research question from only one angle.

Not Documenting Every Fact

As you conduct your research, do yourself a favor and write everything down. Everything you include in your paper or article that you got from another source is going to need to be added to your references and cited.

It's important, especially if your aim is to conduct ethical, high-quality research, that all of your research has proper attribution. If you don't document as you go, you could end up making a lot of work for yourself if the information you don’t write down is something that later, as you write your paper, you really need.

Using Outdated Materials

Academia is an ever-changing landscape. What was true in your academic discipline or area of research ten years ago may have since been disproven. If fifteen studies have come out since the article that you're using was published, it's more than a little likely that you're going to be basing your research on flawed or dated information.

If the information you're basing your research on isn’t as up-to-date as possible, your research won't be of quality or able to stand up to any amount of scrutiny. You don’t want all of your hard work to be for naught.

Relying Solely on Open Access Journals

OA is a great resource for conducting academic research. There are high-quality journal articles available through OA, and that can be very helpful for your research. But, just because you have access to free articles, that doesn't mean that there's nothing to be found behind a paywall.

Just as dismissing high-quality peer-reviewed articles because they are OA would be limiting, not exploring any paid content at all is equally short-sighted. If you're seeking to conduct thorough and comprehensive research, exploring all of your options for quality sources is going to be to your benefit.

Digging Too Deep or Not Deep Enough

Research is an art form, and it involves a delicate balance of information. If you conduct your research using only broad search terms, you won't be able to answer your research question well, or you'll find that your research provides information that is closely related to your topic but, ultimately, your findings are vague and unsubstantiated.

On the other hand, if you delve deeply into your research topic with specific searches and turn up too many sources, you might have a lot of information that is adjacent to your topic but without focus and perhaps not entirely relevant. It's important to answer your research question concisely but thoroughly.

Different Types of Scholarly Articles

Different types of scholarly articles have different purposes. An original research article, also called an empirical article, is the product of a study or an experiment. This type of article seeks to answer a question or fill a gap in the existing literature.

Research articles will have a methodology, results, and a discussion of the findings of the experiment or research and typically a conclusion.

Review articles overview the current literature and research and provide a summary of what the existing research indicates or has concluded. This type of study will have a section for the literature review, as well as a discussion of the findings of that review. Review articles will have a particularly extensive reference or bibliography section.

Theoretical articles draw on existing literature to create new theories or conclusions, or look at current theories from a different perspective, to contribute to the foundational knowledge of the field of study.

10 Tips for Navigating Journal Databases

Use the right academic journal database for your search, be that interdisciplinary or specific to your field. Or both!

If it’s an option, set the search results to return only peer-reviewed sources.

Start by using search terms that are relevant to your topic without being overly specific.

Try synonyms, especially if your keywords aren’t returning the desired results.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Even if you’ve found some good articles, try searching using different terms.

Explore the advanced search features of the database(s).

Learn to use Booleans (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or narrow your results.

Once you’ve gotten some good results from a more general search, try narrowing your search.

Read through abstracts when trying to find articles relevant to your research.

Keep track of your research and use citation tools. It’ll make life easier when it comes time to compile your references.

7 Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i get articles for free.

Free articles can be found through free online academic journals, OA databases, or other databases that include OA journals and articles. These resources allow you to access free papers online so you can conduct your research without getting stuck behind a paywall.

Academics don’t receive payment for the articles they contribute to journals. There are often, in fact, publication fees that scholars pay in order to publish. This is one of the funding structures that allows OA journals to provide free content so that you don’t have to pay fees or subscription costs to access journal articles.

2. How Do I Find Journal Articles?

Journal articles can be found in databases and institutional repositories that can be accessed at university libraries. However, online research databases that contain OA articles are the best resource for getting free access to journal articles that are available online.

Peer-reviewed journal articles are the best to use for academic research, and there are a number of databases where you can find peer-reviewed OA journal articles. Once you've found a useful article, you can look through the references for the articles the author used to conduct their research, and you can then search online databases for those articles, too.

3. How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in reputable scholarly peer-reviewed journals. High-quality journals and journal articles can be found online using academic search engines and free research databases. These resources are excellent for finding OA articles, including peer-reviewed articles.

OA articles are articles that can be accessed for free. While some scholarly search engines and databases include articles that aren't peer reviewed, there are also some that provide only peer-reviewed articles, and databases that include non-peer-reviewed articles often have advanced search features that enable you to select “peer review only.” The database will return results that are exclusively peer-reviewed content.

4. What Are Research Databases?

A research database is a list of journals, articles, datasets, and/or abstracts that allows you to easily search for scholarly and academic resources and conduct research online. There are databases that are interdisciplinary and cover a variety of topics.

For example, Paperity might be a great resource for a chemist as well as a linguist, and there are databases that are more specific to a certain field. So, while ERIC might be one of the best educational databases available for OA content, it's not going to be one of the best databases for finding research in the field of microbiology.

5. How Do I Find Scholarly Articles for Specific Fields?

There are interdisciplinary research databases that provide articles in a variety of fields, as well as research databases that provide articles that cater to specific disciplines. Additionally, a journal repository or index can be a helpful resource for finding articles in a specific field.

When searching an interdisciplinary database, there are frequently advanced search features that allow you to narrow the search results down so that they are specific to your field. Selecting “psychology” in the advanced search features will return psychology journal articles in your search results. You can also try databases that are specific to your field.

If you're searching for law journal articles, many law reviews are OA. If you don’t know of any databases specific to history, visiting a journal repository or index and searching “history academic journals” can return a list of journals specific to history and provide you with a place to begin your research.

6. Are Peer-Reviewed Articles Really More Legitimate?

The short answer is yes, peer-reviewed articles are more legitimate resources for academic research. The peer review process provides legitimacy, as it is a rigorous review of the content of an article that is performed by scholars and academics who are experts in their field of study. The review provides an evaluation of the quality and credibility of the article.

Non-peer-reviewed articles are not subject to a review process and do not undergo the same level of scrutiny. This means that non-peer-reviewed articles are unlikely, or at least not as likely, to meet the same standards that peer-reviewed articles do.

7. Are Free Article Directories Legitimate?

Yes! As with anything, some databases are going to be better for certain requirements than others. But, a scholarly article database being free is not a reason in itself to question its legitimacy.

Free scholarly article databases can provide access to abstracts, scholarly article websites, journal repositories, and high-quality peer-reviewed journal articles. The internet has a lot of information, and it's often challenging to figure out what information is reliable. 

Research databases and article directories are great resources to help you conduct your research. Our list of the best research paper websites is sure to provide you with sources that are totally legit.

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Research articles

Automated model building and protein identification in cryo-em maps.

  • Kiarash Jamali
  • Sjors H. W. Scheres

A Patterned Human Neural Tube Model Using Microfluidic Gradients

  • Yung Su Kim
  • Jianping Fu

Double-side 2-dimensional/3-dimensional heterojunctions for inverted perovskite solar cells

  • Drajad Satrio Utomo
  • Stefaan De Wolf

research paper in website

Progressive unanchoring of Antarctic ice shelves since 1973

Pinning-point changes over three epochs spanning the periods 1973–1989, 1989–2000 and 2000−2022 were measured, and by proxy the changes to ice-shelf thickness back to 1973–1989 were inferred.

  • Bertie W. J. Miles
  • Robert G. Bingham

research paper in website

Super-additive cooperation

Models show that human cooperation cannot evolve reliably under repeated interactions or under intergroup competitions, but combining the two mechanisms predicts a distinctive strategy, observed experimentally in Papua New Guinea, in which individuals exhibit cooperative reciprocity with ingroup partners and uncooperative reciprocity with outgroup partners.

  • Charles Efferson
  • Helen Bernhard

research paper in website

Targeted protein degradation via intramolecular bivalent glues

Studies using genetic screening, biophysical characterization and structural reconstitution elucidate the mechanism of action and enable rational design of a new class of functional compounds that glue target proteins to E3 ligases via intramolecularly bridging two domains to enhance intrinsic protein–protein interactions and promote target ubiquitination and degradation.

  • Oliver Hsia
  • Matthias Hinterndorfer
  • Alessio Ciulli

research paper in website

Fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect in multilayer graphene

Integer and fractional quantum anomalous Hall effects in a rhombohedral pentalayer graphene–hBN moiré superlattice are observed, providing an ideal platform for exploring charge fractionalization and (non-Abelian) anyonic braiding at zero magnetic field.

  • Zhengguang Lu
  • Tonghang Han

research paper in website

Mechanisms of action and resistance in histone methylation-targeted therapy

The mechanisms of action and resistance of valemetostat, an EZH1–EZH2 dual inhibitor, in patients with adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma who initially responded but later showed disease progression are explored.

  • Makoto Yamagishi
  • Kaoru Uchimaru

research paper in website

Monolithic silicon for high spatiotemporal translational photostimulation

A silicon-based electrode system is described that allows tunable spatiotemporal photostimulation of cardiac systems, with the optoelectronic capabilities of these devices being demonstrated in mouse, rat and pig heart models.

research paper in website

UFM1 E3 ligase promotes recycling of 60S ribosomal subunits from the ER

Structural and biochemical analyses reveal details of how UFM1 conjugation and deconjugation mediate ribosome recycling and quality control.

  • Paul A. DaRosa
  • Ivan Penchev
  • Ron R. Kopito

research paper in website

Evolutionary novelties underlie sound production in baleen whales

Studies of vocal production in baleen whales show that their larynx has evolved unique structures that enable their low-frequency vocalizations but limit their active communication range.

  • Coen P. H. Elemans
  • Weili Jiang
  • W. Tecumseh Fitch

research paper in website

Activation of Thoeris antiviral system via SIR2 effector filament assembly

A study reports that the Theoris anti-phage defence system is activated through helical filament assembly of the ThsA effector and details the activation mechanism.

  • Giedre Tamulaitiene
  • Dziugas Sabonis
  • Virginijus Siksnys

research paper in website

A 3D nanoscale optical disk memory with petabit capacity

Optical nanoscale disk memory with petabit-level capacity is developed by extending the recording architecture to three dimensions with hundreds of layers, and exabit-level storage can be achieved by stacking the disks into arrays.

research paper in website

Prevalence of persistent SARS-CoV-2 in a large community surveillance study

Using viral sequence data, individuals with persistent SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified, and had higher odds of self-reporting long COVID, in a large community surveillance study.

  • Mahan Ghafari
  • Matthew Hall
  • Katrina Lythgoe

research paper in website

Room temperature operation of germanium–silicon single-photon avalanche diode

A germanium–silicon single-photon avalanche diode operated at room temperature shows a noise-equivalent power improvement over the previous Ge-based single-photon avalanche diodes by 2–3.5 orders of magnitude.

  • Yen-Cheng Lu
  • Shu-Lu Chen

research paper in website

Twisted-layer boron nitride ceramic with high deformability and strength

A bulk ceramic composed of interlocked boron nitride nanoplates with a laminated structure of twist-stacked nanoslices is created using hot-pressing and spark plasma sintering, which exhibits large elastic and plastic deformability and high strength at room temperature.

  • Yongjun Tian

research paper in website

Synaptic wiring motifs in posterior parietal cortex support decision-making

Excitatory pyramidal neurons preferentially target inhibitory interneurons with the same selectivity and, in turn, inhibitory interneurons preferentially target pyramidal neurons with opposite selectivity, forming an opponent inhibition motif that supports decision-making.

  • Aaron T. Kuan
  • Giulio Bondanelli
  • Wei-Chung Allen Lee

research paper in website

Avoiding fusion plasma tearing instability with deep reinforcement learning

Artificial intelligence control is used to avoid the emergence of disruptive tearing instabilities in the magnetically confined fusion plasma in the DIII-D tokamak reactor.

  • SangKyeun Kim
  • Egemen Kolemen

research paper in website

Making cities mental health friendly for adolescents and young adults

A study examining how cities can foster well-being and positive mental health in young residents synthesizes opinions from researchers, practitioners, advocates and young people, highlighting factors that policymakers and urban planners should consider.

  • Pamela Y. Collins
  • Moitreyee Sinha

research paper in website

WNT signalling control by KDM5C during development affects cognition

The demethylase KDM5C, mutations in which often lead to intellectual disability, is identified as a crucial player in regulating the precise timing of neurodevelopment together with the WNT signalling pathway.

  • Violetta Karwacki-Neisius

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“Paywall? What’s that?”

Paperpanda searches the web for pdf s so you don’t have to, i’m here to help, you’ve probably run into this problem – you want to read a paper, but it’s locked behind a paywall. maybe you have access to it through your library or university, maybe it’s available to download for free through an open access portal, maybe the author uploaded a pdf to a website somewhere – but how are you going to find it paperpanda is here to help just click the tiny panda in your toolbar and the panda will run off and find the paper for you., access research papers in one click, save time accessing full-text pdf s with the free paperpanda browser plugin, stop clicking and start reading, stop navigating paywalls, search engines, and logins. paperpanda helps you get that full-text pdf faster.

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14 Websites to Download Research Paper for Free – 2024

Download Research Paper for Free

Dr. Somasundaram R

14 Websites to Download Research Paper for Free - 2024

Table of contents

2. z-library, 3. library genesis, 4. unpaywall, 5. gettheresearch.org, 6. directory of open access journals (doaj), 7. researcher, 8. science open, 10. internet archive scholar, 11. citationsy archives, 13. dimensions, 14. paperpanda – download research papers for free.

Collecting and reading relevant research articles to one’s research areas is important for PhD scholars. However, for any research scholar, downloading a research paper is one of the most difficult tasks. You must pay for access to high-quality research materials or subscribe to the journal or publication. In this article, ilovephd lists the top 14 websites to download free research papers, journals, books, datasets, patents, and conference proceedings downloads.

Download Research Paper for Free – 2024

14 best free websites to download research papers are listed below:

Sci-Hub is a website link with over 64.5 million academic papers and articles available for direct download. It bypasses publisher paywalls by allowing access through educational institution proxies.  To download papers Sci-Hub  stores papers in its repository, this storage is called Library Genesis (LibGen) or library genesis proxy 2024.

Scihub

Visit: Working Sci-Hub Proxy Links – 2024

Z-Library is a clone of Library Genesis, a shadow library project that allows users to share scholarly journal articles, academic texts, and general-interest books via file sharing (some of which are pirated). The majority of its books come from Library Genesis, however, some are posted directly to the site by individuals.

Individuals can also donate to the website’s repository to make literature more widely available. Z-library claims to have more than  10,139,382 Books  and  84,837,646 Articles  articles as of April 25, 2024.

It promises to be “the world’s largest e-book library” as well as “the world’s largest scientific papers repository,” according to the project’s page for academic publications (at booksc.org). Z-library also describes itself as a donation-based non-profit organization.

Z-Library

Visit: Z-Library – You can Download 70,000,000+ scientific articles for free

The Library Genesis aggregator is a community aiming at collecting and cataloging item descriptions for the most part of scientific, scientific, and technical directions, as well as file metadata. In addition to the descriptions, the aggregator contains only links to third-party resources hosted by users. All information posted on the website is collected from publicly available public Internet resources and is intended solely for informational purposes.

Library Genesis

Visit: libgen.li

Unpaywall harvests Open Access content from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and makes it easy to find, track, and use. It is integrated into thousands of library systems, search platforms, and other information products worldwide. In fact, if you’re involved in scholarly communication, there’s a good chance you’ve already used Unpaywall data.

Unpaywall is run by OurResearch, a nonprofit dedicated to making scholarships more accessible to everyone. Open is our passion. So it’s only natural our source code is open, too.

research paper in website

Visit: unpaywall.org

GetTheResearch.org is an  Artificial Intelligence(AI)  powered search engine for search and understand  scientific articles  for researchers and scientists. It was developed as a part of the  Unpaywall  project. Unpaywall is a database of 23,329,737 free scholarly Open Access(OA) articles from over 50,000 publishers and repositories, and make it easy to find, track, and use.

Gettheresearch.org ilovephd

Visit: Find and Understand 25 Million Peer-Reviewed Research Papers for Free

DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals) was launched in 2003 with 300 open-access journals. Today, this independent index contains almost 17 500 peer-reviewed, open-access journals covering all areas of science, technology, medicine, social sciences, arts, and humanities. Open-access journals from all countries and in all languages are accepted for indexing.

DOAJ is financially supported by many libraries, publishers, and other like-minded organizations. Supporting DOAJ demonstrates a firm commitment to open access and the infrastructure that supports it.

Directory of Open Access Journals

Visit: doaj.org

The researcher is a free journal-finding mobile application that helps you to read new journal papers every day that are relevant to your research. It is the most popular mobile application used by more than 3 million scientists and researchers to keep themselves updated with the latest academic literature.

Researcher

Visit: 10 Best Apps for Graduate Students 

ScienceOpen  is a discovery platform with interactive features for scholars to enhance their research in the open, make an impact, and receive credit for it. It provides context-building services for publishers, to bring researchers closer to the content than ever before. These advanced search and discovery functions, combined with post-publication peer review, recommendation, social sharing, and collection-building features make  ScienceOpen  the only research platform you’ll ever need.

research paper in website

Visit: scienceopen.com

OA.mg is a search engine for academic papers. Whether you are looking for a specific paper, or for research from a field, or all of an author’s works – OA.mg is the place to find it.

oa mg

Visit: oa.mg

Internet Archive Scholar (IAS) is a full-text search index that includes over 25 million research articles and other scholarly documents preserved in the Internet Archive. The collection spans from digitized copies of eighteenth-century journals through the latest Open Access conference proceedings and pre-prints crawled from the World Wide Web.

Internet-Archive-Scholar

Visit: Sci hub Alternative – Internet Archive Scholar

Citationsy was founded in 2017 after the reference manager Cenk was using at the time, RefMe, was shut down. It was immediately obvious that the reason people loved RefMe — a clean interface, speed, no ads, simplicity of use — did not apply to CiteThisForMe. It turned out to be easier than anticipated to get a rough prototype up.

citationsy

Visit: citationsy.com

CORE is the world’s largest aggregator of open-access research papers from repositories and journals. It is a not-for-profit service dedicated to the open-access mission. We serve the global network of repositories and journals by increasing the discoverability and reuse of open-access content.

It provides solutions for content management, discovery, and scalable machine access to research. Our services support a wide range of stakeholders, specifically researchers, the general public, academic institutions, developers, funders, and companies from a diverse range of sectors including but not limited to innovators, AI technology companies, digital library solutions, and pharma.

CORE

Visit: core.ac.uk

Dimensions cover millions of research publications connected by more than 1.6 billion citations, supporting grants, datasets, clinical trials, patents, and policy documents.

Dimensions is the most comprehensive research grants database that links grants to millions of resulting publications, clinical trials, and patents. It

provides up-to-the-minute online attention data via Altmetric, showing you how often publications and clinical trials are discussed around the world. 226m Altmetric mentions with 17m links to publications.

Dimensions include datasets from repositories such as Figshare, Dryad, Zenodo, Pangaea, and many more. It hosts millions of patents with links to other citing patents as well as to publications and supporting grants.

Dimensions

Visit: dimensions.ai

PaperPanda is a Chrome extension that uses some clever logic and the Panda’s detective skills to find you the research paper PDFs you need. Essentially, when you activate PaperPanda it finds the DOI of the paper from the current page, and then goes and searches for it. It starts by querying various Open Access repositories like OpenAccessButton, OaDoi, SemanticScholar, Core, ArXiV, and the Internet Archive. You can also set your university library’s domain in the settings (this feature is in the works and coming soon). PaperPanda will then automatically search for the paper through your library. You can also set a different custom domain in the settings.

Paperpanda

Visit: PaperPanda

I hope, this article will help you to know some of the best websites to download research papers and journals for free.

  • download paid books for free
  • download research papers for free
  • download research papers free
  • download scientific article for free
  • Free Datasets download
  • how to download research paper

Dr. Somasundaram R

10 Tips to Quickly Publish Research Article with ChatGPT

Significance of intellectual property rights in research, list of ugc care journals discontinued from jan 2024.

hi im zara,student of art. could you please tell me how i can download the paper and books about painting, sewing,sustainable fashion,graphic and so on. thank a lot

thanks for the informative reports.

warm regards

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  • Artificial intelligence

Gemma: Introducing new state-of-the-art open models

Feb 21, 2024

Gemma is built for responsible AI development from the same research and technology used to create Gemini models.

The word “Gemma” and a spark icon with blueprint styling appears in a blue gradient against a black background.

At Google, we believe in making AI helpful for everyone . We have a long history of contributing innovations to the open community, such as with Transformers , TensorFlow , BERT , T5 , JAX , AlphaFold , and AlphaCode . Today, we’re excited to introduce a new generation of open models from Google to assist developers and researchers in building AI responsibly.

Gemma open models

Gemma is a family of lightweight, state-of-the-art open models built from the same research and technology used to create the Gemini models. Developed by Google DeepMind and other teams across Google, Gemma is inspired by Gemini, and the name reflects the Latin gemma , meaning “precious stone.” Accompanying our model weights, we’re also releasing tools to support developer innovation, foster collaboration, and guide responsible use of Gemma models.

Gemma is available worldwide, starting today. Here are the key details to know:

  • We’re releasing model weights in two sizes: Gemma 2B and Gemma 7B . Each size is released with pre-trained and instruction-tuned variants.
  • A new Responsible Generative AI Toolkit provides guidance and essential tools for creating safer AI applications with Gemma.
  • We’re providing toolchains for inference and supervised fine-tuning (SFT) across all major frameworks: JAX, PyTorch, and TensorFlow through native Keras 3.0 .
  • Ready-to-use Colab and Kaggle notebooks , alongside integration with popular tools such as Hugging Face , MaxText , NVIDIA NeMo and TensorRT-LLM , make it easy to get started with Gemma.
  • Pre-trained and instruction-tuned Gemma models can run on your laptop, workstation, or Google Cloud with easy deployment on Vertex AI and Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE).
  • Optimization across multiple AI hardware platforms ensures industry-leading performance, including NVIDIA GPUs and Google Cloud TPUs .
  • Terms of use permit responsible commercial usage and distribution for all organizations, regardless of size.

State-of-the-art performance at size

Gemma models share technical and infrastructure components with Gemini , our largest and most capable AI model widely available today. This enables Gemma 2B and 7B to achieve best-in-class performance for their sizes compared to other open models. And Gemma models are capable of running directly on a developer laptop or desktop computer. Notably, Gemma surpasses significantly larger models on key benchmarks while adhering to our rigorous standards for safe and responsible outputs. See the technical report for details on performance, dataset composition, and modeling methodologies.

A chart showing Gemma performance on common benchmarks, compared to Llama-2 7B and 13B

Responsible by design

Gemma is designed with our AI Principles at the forefront. As part of making Gemma pre-trained models safe and reliable, we used automated techniques to filter out certain personal information and other sensitive data from training sets. Additionally, we used extensive fine-tuning and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) to align our instruction-tuned models with responsible behaviors. To understand and reduce the risk profile for Gemma models, we conducted robust evaluations including manual red-teaming, automated adversarial testing, and assessments of model capabilities for dangerous activities. These evaluations are outlined in our Model Card . 1

We’re also releasing a new Responsible Generative AI Toolkit together with Gemma to help developers and researchers prioritize building safe and responsible AI applications. The toolkit includes:

  • Safety classification: We provide a novel methodology for building robust safety classifiers with minimal examples.
  • Debugging: A model debugging tool helps you investigate Gemma's behavior and address potential issues.
  • Guidance: You can access best practices for model builders based on Google’s experience in developing and deploying large language models.

Optimized across frameworks, tools and hardware

You can fine-tune Gemma models on your own data to adapt to specific application needs, such as summarization or retrieval-augmented generation (RAG). Gemma supports a wide variety of tools and systems:

  • Multi-framework tools: Bring your favorite framework, with reference implementations for inference and fine-tuning across multi-framework Keras 3.0, native PyTorch, JAX, and Hugging Face Transformers.
  • Cross-device compatibility: Gemma models run across popular device types, including laptop, desktop, IoT, mobile and cloud, enabling broadly accessible AI capabilities.
  • Cutting-edge hardware platforms: We’ve partnered with NVIDIA to optimize Gemma for NVIDIA GPUs , from data center to the cloud to local RTX AI PCs, ensuring industry-leading performance and integration with cutting-edge technology.
  • Optimized for Google Cloud: Vertex AI provides a broad MLOps toolset with a range of tuning options and one-click deployment using built-in inference optimizations. Advanced customization is available with fully-managed Vertex AI tools or with self-managed GKE, including deployment to cost-efficient infrastructure across GPU, TPU, and CPU from either platform.

Free credits for research and development

Gemma is built for the open community of developers and researchers powering AI innovation. You can start working with Gemma today using free access in Kaggle, a free tier for Colab notebooks, and $300 in credits for first-time Google Cloud users. Researchers can also apply for Google Cloud credits of up to $500,000 to accelerate their projects.

Getting started

You can explore more about Gemma and access quickstart guides on ai.google.dev/gemma .

As we continue to expand the Gemma model family, we look forward to introducing new variants for diverse applications. Stay tuned for events and opportunities in the coming weeks to connect, learn and build with Gemma.

We’re excited to see what you create!

More Information

Google adheres to rigorous data filtering practices to ensure fair evaluation. Our models exclude benchmark data from training sets, ensuring the integrity of benchmark comparisons.

Related stories

Gemini models are coming to performance max, what is a long context window.

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How AI can strengthen digital security

Shield

Working together to address AI risks and opportunities at MSC

Our next-generation model: gemini 1.5.

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How we’re partnering with the industry, governments and civil society to advance AI

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Best Research Paper Writing Services: TOP 5 Cheap Custom Writing Help Websites Reviews

T he workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilities or extracurricular activities. Aside from the day-long lectures and seminars, each course comes with assignments, especially in the form of research work or paper writing. 

To cut down on this vast workload, students employ professional research assistants and writers to complete these tasks for them. However, advancements in technology have even made this service more easily accessible. With research paper writing websites, students can generate their assignments in a few days. Hence, five of the best research paper writing services online have been highlighted and discussed in detail below. Here is a list with the TOP 5 research paper writing websites:

  • PaperHelp - the best research paper writing service overall.
  • SpeedyPaper - #1 research paper writing website in the U.S.
  • GradeMiners - custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework.
  • PaperWriter - the cheapest research paper writing company in the world.
  • PaperCoach - the fastest research paper & proposal writing provider.

Research assignments are highly valuable to students. It is an avenue for them to learn something new that may not be discussed during the lecture. It could even be a good opportunity for students to improve their critical thinking and problem-solving skills, depending on the technicality of the research topic. Students can likewise deep dive into career experts or work closely with a mentor within or outside the educational system. However, students still do not take an interest in paper writing assignments. This attitude persists among them, even knowing that research and paper writing contribute anywhere between 20% and 80% of a course's grade.

A lot of reasons can be associated with students' poor interest in this aspect of their schooling. As mentioned in the introduction, the workload of colleges and universities forces students to give low consideration to such projects. In close relation to envy workloads, many students do not have the time, mental resources, or skillset for carrying out research or paper writing. According to Marco Learning, 40% of students could not write at a college level. Nevertheless, no student will settle for a low grade, even with terrible research and writing skills. Hence, the quest for a high grade will propel them to either contract the task to a physical professional or employ an online service. Some of the top-notch online services have been thoroughly dissected below.

5 Best Research Paper Writing Services Reviews

Each of the research paper writing services has its strengths. However, PaperHelp is the overall best research paper writing service. And that is why it is number one on this special list. A reviewer by the name of Betty showed her excitement about using this service by saying, "Very great support; they followed me through the whole process for a great essay! Thank you! Very excellent writer! The essay is very clear, and he finished before the deadline! For sure, I will release more orders."  PaperHelp is a writing platform for students with intuitive, customizable features. This platform was created to help students ease the burden of being overworked.

It is an easy-to-use service with only four phases of order placement. Firstly, clients have to choose the type of paper they want in the order form. The options available are academic writing, editing and proofreading, and calculations. Users will find essay writing services like rewriting, custom writing, programming homework help, etc. Students can also request term paper help, paper rating or grading, and several other services. Secondly, users are expected to provide details of their project, like the number of pages, line spacing, other text format, and deadline.

Extra files can also be uploaded where available. Then, they can proceed to input a valid email to generate secure login information. Finally, the process is completed by paying with a credit card or alternative payment system. Once the order has been set, users can follow their order in multiple ways. They can get updates through email, login to their control panel on a web or mobile app, or contact the support team. The support team can be reached via email, Facebook Messenger, phone, or in-app chat. If customers would like to get updates via SMS constantly, they can add the VIP Customer Service extra when they want to order.

The platform owners pride themselves on offering professional service, keeping interactions friendly, and ensuring customers are happy. The platform has a privacy policy for end users. They adhere strictly to Personal Data Protection law and only employ users’ data for legal reasons. Hence, they have a safe and secure service. Clients on PaperHelp can freely withdraw or give their consent to the use of their personal data. When users have complaints about how personal data is collected and processed, they can file a complaint under the PDP law. The platform updates and tests its platform security consistently to make personal data theftproof.

Such an important research paper writing service would not be appealing to students if they did not find the price pocket-friendly. Their pricing is based on school levels. For instance, a high school paper costs $9 per page, an undergraduate essay costs $12 per page, a bachelor's writing costs $17 per page, and a professional essay costs $20 per page. In addition to this, users can select helpful extra services like VIP customer support, plagiarism reports, sources used, etc., all at prices below $15. Not only does PaperHelp have affordable prices, but it also gives users incentives that make it very appealing, especially for multiple orders. There are bonuses, referral discount codes, a 7% feedback discount, and increased discounts on increased orders.

SpeedyPaper

Making it to number two on this list is the leading research paper writing website in the U.S. SpeedyPaper has second-to-none ratings on rating sites like Sitejabber, Reviews.io, and ScamFighter with 5/5, 4.9/5, and 4.9/5 on each site, respectively. This online writing assistant helps students scale through projects ranging from college admission essays to postgraduate or doctoral theses. Even if they have written the research paper and need it edited or proofread, SpeedyPaper is their reliable solution. Other solutions available for them include getting correct answers to multi-choice questions and receiving explanations on school or business projects.

This platform is everyone's go-to service provider for transforming old papers into new ones with paraphrasing or rewriting. In addition, SpeedyPaper can be used as a source of inspiration for writing a research paper. They have over 20,000 free paper samples that you can go through. These free samples cut across all topics, including catalogs on education, law, finance, books, history, etc. Aside from connecting students with writing professionals, it has features that cater to student growth. For instance, this paper writing service comes with an impressive blog that gives students insight into being better writers and overall students.

Using SpeedyPaper is quite easy. End-users begin by filling out the order form with paper details and uploading additional files when available. Some of the details end users can set include paper types like research papers, reports, essays, dissertations, application letters, theses, and much more. Other key details about the paper types you can set are subject, title, reference type, and requirements. Then, they proceed to set the price they want to pay by adjusting the number of pages, academic level, and deadline of the research paper. Additionally, this ordering stage will allow users to set page formats, like line spacing.

To complete the ordering process, the customer chooses the kind of writer they want and additional features, like summary, abstract, plagiarism, Grammarly report, etc. This stage is when users enter their discount code if they have one. For new users, they have to proceed to create an account by entering their email, phone contact, and preferred password. They can opt to create an account directly with their Facebook, Google, or Apple account. However, return users only need to log in to their account with their email and password. Afterward, they submit their payment details to complete the ordering phase.

When the assigned writer is done, the customer will get an email to preview their submission. At this junction, the customer can either approve the submission or request a revision. These revisions are free, but you can make your research paper writing payment using credit card options such as MasterCard, Visa, American Express, or Discover. You can also pay using Bitcoin. The cost of ordering ranges from a 20-day deadline to a 6-hour deadline. For instance, high school prices range from $9 to $26. Similarly, undergraduate would cost between $11 and $32, while Masters varies from $14 to $39. PhD articles are available for prices between $19 and $52. Lastly, you can get admission orders for $34 and $99. These prices are limited to requests for just a page and writing the research paper from scratch.

GradeMiners

"Another great product! I received extra points on this assignment along with all the others. Thanks for helping me pass my class with an A+." These were the words of a satisfied HRM client of GradeMiners. The reviews speak for themselves: this platform offers professional custom paper writers to hire online for help with homework. Our number-three research paper writing service is quite unique for its broad paper-type options, such as lab reports, movie reviews, PowerPoint presentations, etc. But this platform is even more special because of its team of writers, proofreaders, editors, and managers.

A breakdown of this team shows that there is a surplus of 3,600 writers and 250 editors. Each of these experts has an MA or PhD qualification and over three years of experience. This statistic means this platform allows users to pick from a large pool of proven and excellent professionals. Furthermore, it has some impressive features, such as over 50 writing and editing services and more than 40 disciplines covered. Over the years, an excess of 45,000 papers have been completed by the professionals on this platform. Yet, GradeMiners have retained their 100% plagiarism-free status. Likewise, every customer request gets a swift response because of the 24/7 service available on the platform.

The process of ordering a research paper is similar to the previous platforms already considered. Customers are to pick the type of work they want to order. As mentioned already, GradeMiners has a very impressive list that is not common to many other platforms. After picking a type of paper, users can set the subject they want the paper to be written on. Setting the academic level to undergraduate, master's, or PhD is the next step. After which, page number, line spacing, deadline, and type of writer are customized to the client's taste. To complete this stage, the user has to include their email and phone number, enable or disable status updates via SMS, and agree to the Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

As part of its commitment to the agreed-upon T&C and Privacy Policy, GradeMiners process clients' payments using a secure system. They do not have access to users' credit card data. This data, along with other clients' data, remains confidential. By extension, using their service will not be known to anyone, especially third-party individuals or institutions. However, they would issue a refund to clients if something dissatisfying happened. For instance, if the customer has convincing evidence against the delivery, especially when a writer has not followed the given requirement, the client's money will be refunded. To avoid unnecessary cancellations, users can request unlimited revisions for up to two weeks after receiving their order.

The price on this platform starts at $11.64. This price is considered steep compared to those of previously considered platforms. Also, it comes with a longer deadline of 30 days. However, if customers want their research paper in 3 hours, they need to pay about $32.62. To soothe customer's experiences on the platform, every first-time user gets a generous 15% discount. On subsequent orders, return buyers will keep getting discounts of 5%. Aside from the research paper writing service on GradeMiners, it has a grammar online checker. With this feature, students can put together error-free writeups and upgrade their assignment language.

PaperWriter

Do you have a write my research paper request, but you do not want to pay too much? Then, this is an exceptional option for you. PaperWriter is the cheapest research paper-writing company in the world. The service owners crafted the platform to help students with affordable, qualitative, and trustworthy solutions. This concise research writing service is highly rated by its users and reviewers. It has high ratings on Sitejabber (4.8), Reviews (4.8), and ResellerRatings (4.9). Importantly, its services cut across writing from scratch, editing finished paper to ensure it is flawless and rewriting paper to fit a unique style or voice tone.

PaperWriter places high value on their customers’ time, experience, and data. Writers are very punctual on this platform, given the sensitivity of deadlines to their customers’ grades. Even in the shortest amount of time, writers on this platform are always on hand to help customers with their writing requests. The app interface is seamless, and users will have a good time navigating it. It is easy on the eyes and visually excellent. To show how valuable customer's personal data is, they do not share it with ad agencies or any other third parties. In addition, all payments are made through tested and trusted online commercial service stores.

To order on PaperWriter is very intuitive. Customers can start by filling out the requirements of the research paper in the order form. They will then be required to input assignment type, education level, deadline, page number, word count, and line spacing, among other details. Their paper requirement will be used to suggest the available writers. These writers have ratings and reviews clients can check before hiring them. To ensure that there is no miscommunication in the order requirement, customers are welcome to chat with writers before hiring them. Complete the process by depositing money first in the balance and only release it after receiving the order.

Students can get a college-level paper for as low as $10. Alongside the ridiculously low price on this platform, customers will get several premium services for free. Some of these services are originality reports, generated title pages, formatting, outline, and reference pages. As if these incentives are not enough, they have a mouthwatering discount structure. Their discount allows end-users to get bigger discounts as they place more orders. At the end of each order, customers are notified via email and SMS. Overall, students can trust writers on PaperWriter to submit a faultless order.

If you are trying to salvage a last-minute research assignment, use PaperCoach. It is the fastest research paper & proposal writing service provider. This research paper writing service is committed to providing high quality. They are aware of customer's demand for plagiarism-free papers, and they are determined to achieve that. Ensuring that the quality remains 100% in the nick of time is hard to achieve. However, that is what PaperCoach excels at. They apply a multi-level approach that includes monitoring the progress of writers to avoid any kind of lateness.

The experienced teams in PaperCoach have helped it maintain an unbroken result of quality and timeliness. Some of these teams are the quality assurance department, dispute department, writer department, customer service department, etc. With division of labor, the company can scale effectively and meet their customers’ needs. That is why Customers can select a good range of research papers, essay and dissertation writing services. They also keep non-disclosure of all users' personal data. After receiving an order, clients are entitled to three free revisions. If they are still not satisfied, they can change the writer by contacting the support department.

Follow these steps to order on PaperCoach. Fill out the order form and click on the "Order Now" icon. This form-filling stage also allows you to add comments to your paper requirement. You can include other information, including a description file, if one is available for the assignment. Proceed to place your order. Now, set the number of pages, academic level, and when you want the deadline to adjust the order price to fit your financial means. After that, you can patiently wait for your order to be delivered.

To use PaperCoach, you can set your school level to high school, undergraduate, master's, PhD, and admissions. High school prices range from $7.99 to $23, and undergraduates cost $10 to $29. For master's students, they can pay between $14 and $36, while PhDs will pay in the range of $19 and $49. Lastly, users can pay from $20 to $66. Each of these above-listed prices is for one page of research paper that will be written from scratch. PaperCoach offers some extra services such as plagiarism reports, progressive delivery, summary, etc.

What Is a Research Paper?

A research paper is an academic writing that allows students to offer their interpretation of an argument. It is also called an academic paper, defined as an informative piece of essay for sharing personal discovery about a subject. To arrive at a conclusion, the student subjects their argument to in-depth analysis and evaluation. Through this thorough evaluation and analysis, there may be new results or inventions. After which, the evaluator, in most cases a lecturer or examiner, questions the research paper to judge the student’s understanding of the subject. After being examined, this paper is published in academic journals.

Is Writing a Research Paper Easy?

There is no straight answer to this question. While some students are comfortable with researching a theory and documenting it, it is not so for many other students. However, a research paper is not so complicated that any student cannot learn to write it. Given that it is a task that takes critical thinking, time, and dedication, several students avoid it. Hence, in the eyes of an average student, this is a hard task or project. To get past the difficulty encountered in writing a research paper, the students need to pay attention to the instructions given by the lecturer and apply them one after the other.

Can I Write a Research Paper in a Day?

Yes, you can write a research paper in a day. While it might not be a mean feat, you can get it done by simply following instructions. Since libraries, encyclopaedias, and even labs are all available on your mobile phone, you have all the research material you need. Hence, collect data online regarding the topic you want to write a research paper on. Use the resources you have gathered to write an introduction, abstract, and conclusion. You have to also be careful of the popular formats of research paper writing you are working with. That way, you can insert the appropriate citation without having to waste more time on it.

How Much Does Research Paper Writing Cost?

Research paper writing costs about $9 to $15 per page for basic writing. The more experience the writer has, the higher the price they will charge for it. Research paper writing is highly priced compared to other writing because of the meticulousness and skill needed to get the project done. For instance, writing research papers requires sourcing materials, interpretation of data, citations, etc. If other requirements are included in the request to write a research paper, the price may go up significantly.  Hence, you could pay as much as $99 for a page of research paper.

What Are Some Popular Formats of Research Paper Writing?

Writing formats are very important for research papers. Below are pinpoint explanations of the most popular format types, especially for you to distinguish them.

  • # APA (American Psychological Association): APA is mostly used for science papers in fields such as physics, psychology, chemistry, etc. It requires a title page at the start and a citation page titled "References." Its in-text citation should include the author's name, publication date, and page number introduced by “p.”
  • # MLA (Modern Language Association): This is the most popular format among the humanities. This format does not need a footnote. It uses only in-text citations. Thereafter, references are listed in alphabetic order at the closing of the paper under the title "Works Cited."
  • # CMS/CMOS (Chicago Manual of Style): This format is common among publishers and academic paper writers in arts, history, philosophy, and religion. Chicago style uses a superscript number and footnote to indicate cited resources.
  • # Harvard: It is a simple research paper format and has a close similarity to the APA format. However, the Harvard format does not use commas to separate the author's name and year of publication. In addition, its citation page is tagged "Reference List."

Can I Really Hire Someone to Write My Research Paper Online?

Yes, you can pay someone to write your research paper for you online. The best way to do it is to pick the most reliable research writing service. In this article, five of those top-notch services have been discussed. They vary slightly in feature, interface, and application. However, they will get the job done for you without having to task yourself with the responsibility of writing the research paper yourself. Our top pick is PaperHelp. However, you can consider other alternatives, such as SpeedyPaper, GradeMiners, PaperWriter, and PaperCoach.

What Research Paper Writing Service Today is the Best?

The overall best research paper writing service today is PaperHelp. Not only is it highly ranked on popular rating sites, but it is also well appreciated by first-hand users. Talking about its features, PaperHelp is the trailblazer platform for students to customize their research paper writing service intuitively. This user-friendly interface of the app makes it easy for users to order. Furthermore, the platform offers customers the chance to get research paper writing services at affordable prices. To further sweeten the offers, there are discounts and bonuses up for grabs.

What Is the Cheapest Research Paper Writing Service Overall?

The most pocket-friendly research paper writing service available is PaperWriter. PaperWriter is a very concise solution for students who want to spend less and still maintain good grades. The platform has a cozy effect on the user and makes it worth more than it costs. In addition, $10 is a ridiculous price for all the extra benefits that its users have access to on the platform. Counterpart service providers offer the same extra bonuses or services for heftier prices than the base price customers will pay on PaperWriter. In addition, there are discounts for new and loyal customers.

Do Paper Writing Services Really Work?

Yes, paper writing services really work. They have helped me write research and essays on short notice. When a student does not possess the inquisitive, critical thinking, or writing skills to write their paper, paper writing services have been helpful. They have helped proofread and edit near-perfect projects. And for research paper writing projects that are far from required, these solutions have helped rewrite them. Additionally, more students can ease the burden of the education system and free up some time with paper writing services.

Can I Be Caught Using Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can get caught using essay writing services. While it is not illegal to use essay writing services, you do not want to get caught by your examiner, supervisor, or lecturer. One of the ways to ensure you make your essay writing service detection proof is by studying the submitted document. Since your examiner will be quizzing you to know how well you understand the subject, you can also get familiar with what is written inside. Another possible way to get caught is by using a service without a privacy policy or security terms. Such a service is likely to share your personal data with ad agencies and third parties.

Can You Trust Essay Writing Services?

Yes, you can trust essay writing services. The tons of reviews and feedback from customers show they can be trusted. That is why you have to examine the ratings and reviews well before you start using an essay writing service. Likewise, it is essential to be cautious before choosing a writing service. For instance, you want to choose one of the options discussed above before considering other options. Even if you do not pick any of these options, ensure the essay writing service you choose has a privacy and security policy agreement.

Ordering your research paper from any of the services discussed above is highly advantageous. Firstly, these platforms offer the best paper writing services. Hence, their premium service is a guarantee that you will be able to impress your lecturer or supervisor and get the best grade in the course. Even though good grades are the most important reason students would want to contact a professional writer, one cannot rule out exceptional students who would like to free up some time. Free time can be spent in several ways, which include but are not limited to extracurricular activities, recreation, makeup class or reading, religious activity, or an extra job/internship.

When a student is not freeing up some time, they may be trying to improve their writing. Hence, these services offer rewriting, editing, and proofreading. That way, they can still get a good grade without good enough writing skills. Furthermore, many of the best research paper writing services discussed help students become better all-round. In other words, students can be more studious, better writers, and improve their research and critical thinking skills with the aid of these tools. Lastly, the low rate of these services also means that students can get the most results for the least amount of money.

The workload in colleges and universities is so enormous that students only have time for some of their responsibilitie

NASA Logo

Webb Finds Evidence for Neutron Star at Heart of Young Supernova Remnant

A three-panel image of a supernova remnant. The left panel is labeled “NIRCam” while the two right panels are labeled “MIRI M R S Argon two” (at top) and “NIRSpec I F U Argon six” (at bottom). At left, a mottled light pinkish-orange oval whose inner edge resembles a string of pearls. Within the oval is a dense blue-green cloud, shaped like a keyhole. Three stars with six-point diffraction patterns surround the oval. Above and below these structures, are very faint orange rings, which form a figure eight pattern. The center of the supernova remnant is surrounded by a white box with lines leading to the upper and lower right of the image, where two stacked panels show a bright orange ring with an orange dot in the middle. The upper panel is fuzzier and more blobby, while the bottom panel has more clearly defined edges around the ring and central dot.

NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope has found the best evidence yet for emission from a neutron star at the site of a recently observed supernova. The supernova, known as SN 1987A, was a core-collapse supernova, meaning the compacted remains at its core formed either a neutron star or a black hole. Evidence for such a compact object has long been sought, and while indirect evidence for the presence of a neutron star has previously been found, this is the first time that the effects of high-energy emission from the probable young neutron star have been detected.

Supernovae – the explosive final death throes of some massive stars – blast out within hours, and the brightness of the explosion peaks within a few months. The remains of the exploding star will continue to evolve at a rapid rate over the following decades, offering a rare opportunity for astronomers to study a key astronomical process in real time.

Supernova 1987A

The supernova SN 1987A occurred 160,000 light-years from Earth in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was first observed on Earth in February 1987, and its brightness peaked in May of that year. It was the first supernova that could be seen with the naked eye since Kepler's Supernova was observed in 1604.

About two hours prior to the first visible-light observation of SN 1987A, three observatories around the world detected a burst of neutrinos lasting only a few seconds. The two different types of observations were linked to the same supernova event, and provided important evidence to inform the theory of how core-collapse supernovae take place. This theory included the expectation that this type of supernova would form a neutron star or a black hole. Astronomers have searched for evidence for one or the other of these compact objects at the center of the expanding remnant material ever since.

Indirect evidence for the presence of a neutron star at the center of the remnant has been found in the past few years, and observations of much older supernova remnants –such as the Crab Nebula – confirm that neutron stars are found in many supernova remnants. However, no direct evidence of a neutron star in the aftermath of SN 1987A (or any other such recent supernova explosion) had been observed, until now.

Image: Supernova 1987A

Claes Fransson of Stockholm University, and the lead author on this study, explained: “From theoretical models of SN 1987A, the 10-second burst of neutrinos observed just before the supernova implied that a neutron star or black hole was formed in the explosion. But we have not observed any compelling signature of such a newborn object from any supernova explosion. With this observatory, we have now found direct evidence for emission triggered by the newborn compact object, most likely a neutron star.”

Webb’s Observations of SN 1987A

Webb began science observations in July 2022, and the Webb observations behind this work were taken on July 16, making the SN 1987A remnant one of the first objects observed by Webb. The team used the Medium Resolution Spectrograph (MRS) mode of Webb’s MIRI (Mid-Infrared Instrument), which members of the same team helped to develop. The MRS is a type of instrument known as an Integral Field Unit (IFU).

IFUs are able to image an object and take a spectrum of it at the same time. An IFU forms a spectrum at each pixel, allowing observers to see spectroscopic differences across the object. Analysis of the Doppler shift of each spectrum also permits the evaluation of the velocity at each position.

Spectral analysis of the results showed a strong signal due to ionized argon from the center of the ejected material that surrounds the original site of SN 1987A. Subsequent observations using Webb’s NIRSpec (Near-Infrared Spectrograph) IFU at shorter wavelengths found even more heavily ionized chemical elements, particularly five times ionized argon (meaning argon atoms that have lost five of their 18 electrons). Such ions require highly energetic photons to form, and those photons have to come from somewhere.

“To create these ions that we observed in the ejecta, it was clear that there had to be a source of high-energy radiation in the center of the SN 1987A remnant,” Fransson said. “ In the paper we discuss different possibilities, finding that only a few scenarios are likely, and all of these involve a newly born neutron star.”

More observations are planned this year, with Webb and ground-based telescopes. The research team hopes ongoing study will provide more clarity about exactly what is happening in the heart of the SN 1987A remnant. These observations will hopefully stimulate the development of more detailed models, ultimately enabling astronomers to better understand not just SN 1987A, but all core-collapse supernovae.

These findings were published in the journal Science.

The James Webb Space Telescope is the world’s premier space science observatory. Webb is solving mysteries in our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Right click the images in this article to open a larger version in a new tab/window.

Download full resolution images for this article from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Read the research results in Science.

Media Contacts

Rob Gutro - [email protected] NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center , Greenbelt, Md.

Christine Pulliam - [email protected] Space Telescope Science Institute , Baltimore, Md.

Related Information

Star LifeCycle

More Webb News - https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/latestnews/

More Webb Images - https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/multimedia/images/

Webb Mission Page - https://science.nasa.gov/mission/webb/

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  • Astrophysics
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National Archives Logo

Records Related to Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena (UAPs) at the National Archives

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has established an ‘‘Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena Records Collection," per sections 1841–1843 of the 2024 National Defense Authorization Act (Public Law 118-31) .  

Please explore the links below to find out more about records related to unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAPs)/unidentified flying objects (UFOs) in NARA’s holdings. All links to items in the National Archives Catalog are downloadable and can be republished with attribution to the National Archives and Records Administration.

research paper in website

Still Pictures and Photographs UAP Related Records

RG 255: Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  • Items from the series “Photographs Relating to Agency Activities, Facilities and Personnel, 1960–1991” (National Archives Identifier: 5956182 , Local Identifier: 255-GS)

RG 342: Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations, 1900–2003

  • Items include 342-AF-63708AC, 342-AF-163969AC, 342-AF-34920AC, 342-AF-34923 AC, 342-AF-34919AC, 342-AF-163969AC, and 342-AF-34919AC.  A finding aid for these items is available in the Still Picture Research Room.
  • Items from the series “Black and White and Color Photographs of U.S. Air Force Activities, Facilities, and Personnel, Domestic and Foreign” (National Archives Identifier: 542326 , Local Identifier: 342-B)

RG 341: Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

  • “Project “BLUE BOOK”, 1954–1966.” (National Archives Identifier: 542184 , Local Identifier: 341-PBB)

Moving Images and Sound UAP Related Records

RG 111: Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer

  • MAJ. GEN. JOHN A. SAMFORD'S STATEMENT ON "FLYING SAUCERS", PENTAGON, WASHINGTON, D.C (National Archives Identifier: 25738 , Local Identifier: 111-LC-30875)

RG 255: Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1903–2006

  • Walter Cronkite and Gordon Cooper on UFOs (National Archives Identifier: 86027191 , Local Identifier: 255-PAOa-807-AAE).
  • An Executive Summary of the Greatest Secret of the 20th Century (National Archives Identifier: 5833930 , Local Identifier: 255-GOLDIN-233).  

RG 263: Records of the Central Intelligence Agency, 1894–2002

  • Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956 (National Archives Identifier: 617148 , Local Identifier: 263-95). This film is edited, with sound. 
  • Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956 (National Archives Identifier: 5954651 and 617916 , Local Identifier: 263-124). 

RG 306: Records of the U.S. Information Agency, 1900–2003

  • Doctor Edward Condon, University of Colorado Physicist Studying Unidentified Flying Objects (National Archives Identifier: 127614 , Local Identifier: 306-EN-S-T-2808). 
  • Alderman Interview with Doctor Page on Unidentified Flying Objects (National Archives Identifier: 130003 , Local Identifier: 306-EN-W-T-8990)
  • Foreign Press Center Briefing with B. Maccabee, L. Koss, J. Shandera, and B. Hopkins (National Archives Identifier: 56103 , Local Identifier: 306-FP-17)

RG 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

  • The Case of the Flying Saucer (National Archives Identifier: 2386432 , Local Identifier: 330a.85)
  • Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Sighting (National Archives Identifier: 614788 , Local Identifier: 330-DVIC-653)

RG 341: Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff) 

  • “Project Blue Book Motion Picture Films, 1950-1966” (National Archives Identifier: 61934 , Local Identifier: 341-PBB)
  • “Sound Recordings Relating to Project Blue Book Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Investigations, 1953-1967” (National Archives Identifier: 1142703 , Local Identifier: 341-PBBa)
  • “Moving Images Relating to “The Roswell Reports” Source Data Research Files, 1946-1996” (National Archives Identifier: 566658 , Local Identifier: 341-ROSWELL)
  • “Sound Recordings Relating to “The Roswell Reports”, 1991-1996” (National Archives Identifier: 566843 , Local Identifier: 341-ROSWELLa)

RG 342: Records of U.S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations

  • DFD Avrocar I Progress Report, February 1, 1958 – May 1959 (National Archives Identifier: 68170 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-29668).
  • Disc Flight Development, Avrocar I Progress Report, May 2, 1959–April 12, 1960 (National Archives Identifier: 68175 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-29673). 
  • Avrocar Continuation Test Program and Terrain Test Program, June 1, 1960–June 14, 1961 (National Archives Identifier: 68405 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-31135). 
  • Friend, Foe, or Fantasy, 1966 (National Archives Identifier: 69861 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-41040). 
  • UFO Interview, 1966 (National Archives Identifier: 70511 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-42990).
  • USAF UFO sightings, California, 1952–1975 (National Archives Identifier: 72035 , Local Identifier: 342-USAF-49377).

RG 517: Records of the U.S. Agency for Global Media

  • UFO Sighting Over Alaska, January 13, 1987 (National Archives Identifier: 262327376,   Local Identifier: 517-VOAa-87-306.)
  • Science World 1030, 2002 (National Archives Identifier: 77179268 , Local Identifier: 517-BBG-50046)

Donated Collections:

  • Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs): Fact or Fiction, November 1974 (National Archives Identifier: 2838871 , Local Identifier: 200.1572)
  • Paramount News [Mar. 7] (1951) Vol. 10. No. 52 (National Archives Identifier: 99581 ,  Local Identifier: PARA-PN-10.52)
  • Paramount News [July 30] (1952) Vol. 11, No. 100 (National Archives Identifier: 99731 , Local Identifier: PARA-PN-11.100)
  • Universal Newsreel Volume 22, Release 276, August 22, 1949 (National Archives Identifier: 234273290 , Local Identifier: UN-UN-22-276)
  • Universal Newsreel Volume 25, Release 586, August 11, 1952 (National Archives Identifier: 234273597 , Local Identifier: UN-UN-25-586)

Textual Records and Microfilm UAP Related Records

RG 64: Records of the National Archives and Records Administration  

  • Project Blue Book: UFO Sightings  (National Archives Identifier: 40027753 )

RG 181: Records of Navy Installations Command, Navy Regions, Naval Districts, and Shore Establishments

  • Collection of A8-2 Information, 1959 (National Archives Identifier: 291645977 )

RG 237: Records of The Federal Aviation Administration

  • Information Releases Relating to Unidentified Flying Object, 1986 (FAA—Japan Airlines Flight 1628) (National Archives Identifier: 733667 )
  • Gemini VII Air-to-Ground Transcript Volume I (National Archives Identifier: 5011500 )
  • Records of Investigations of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) Relating to the Office of Special Investigations, 1948–1968 (National Archives Identifier: 45484701 )
  • Project Blue Book Administrative Files, 1947–1969 (National Archives Identifier: 595175 )
  • Copies of the Case Files of the 4602D Air Intelligence Service Squadron on Sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), 1954–1956 (National Archives Identifier: 23857158 )
  • Case Files of the 4602 D Intelligence Service Squadron on Sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) (National Archives Identifier: 23857157 )
  • Roswell Report Source Files, 1987–1996 (National Archives Identifier: 17618564 )
  • Air Intelligence Reports, 1948–1953 (National Archives Identifier: 23857122 )
  • Project Blue Book Artifacts, 1952–1969 (National Archives Identifier: 23857160 )
  • Sanitized Version of Project Blue Book Case Files on Sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1947–1969 (National Archives Identifier: 597821 )
  • Case files on Sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), 1953-1960 (National Archives Identifier: 23857159 )
  • Project Blue Book Case Files on Sightings of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), June 1947–December 1969 (National Archives Identifier: 595466 )
  • Miscellaneous Case Files On Sightings Of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs), 1953–1960 (National Archives Identifier: 23857159 )

RG 342: Records of the U. S. Air Force Commands, Activities, and Organizations  

  • AFR 80-17/OCAMA-TAFB Sup Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO) (National Archives Identifier: 37294296 )
  • Obsolete During 1969: 4600 Air Base Wing Supplement 1 to Air Force Regulation 80-17, Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO), 10 January 1967; Superseded, 15 April 1969 (National Archives Identifier: 68875395 )
  • REL-2-4-1 UFOs 1965 (National Archives Identifier: 311003081 )
  • File 5: 2, Community Relations, 1970 (National Archives Identifier: 47323287 )
  • 471.6 Guided Missiles, 1 January 1952 (National Archives Identifier: 333334712 )
  • 471.6 Guided Missiles, 1 July 1952 (National Archives Identifier: 333334717 )

National Archives Blog Posts and Articles

  • Project BLUE BOOK - Unidentified Flying Objects (Updated 2020)
  • National Archives News: Public Interest in UFOs Persists 50 Years After Project Blue Book Termination (2019)
  • Featured Document Display: 50 Years Ago: Government Stops Investigating UFOs (2019)
  • Pieces of History: Saucers Over Washington: the History of Project Blue Book (2019)
  • Pieces of History: INVASION! (of privacy) (2018)
  • Pieces of History: UFOs: Natural Explanations (2018)
  • Pieces of History: UFOs: Man-Made, Made Up, and Unknown (2018)
  • National Archives News: Do Records Show Proof of UFOs? (2018)
  • The Unwritten Record: The Roswell Reports: What crashed in the desert? (2014)
  • The Unwritten Record: Avrocar: The U.S. Military’s Flying Saucer (2014)
  • The NDC Blog: What on Earth Is It? (2014)
  • Pieces of History: Flying Saucers, Popular Mechanics, and the National Archives (2013)
  • The Unwritten Record: Project Blue Book: Home Movies in UFO Reports (2013)
  • The Unwritten Record: Project Blue Book: Spotting UFOs in the Film Record (2013)
  • [VIDEO]: UFO Project Blue Book at National Archives Museum

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RECOMMENDED READS

  • I-JEPA: The first AI model based on Yann LeCun’s vision for more human-like AI
  • Celebrating 10 years of FAIR: A decade of advancing the state-of-the-art through open research
  • Turing Award presented to Yann LeCun, Geoffrey Hinton, and Yoshua Bengio
  • Today, we’re publicly releasing the Video Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture (V-JEPA) model, a crucial step in advancing machine intelligence with a more grounded understanding of the world.
  • This early example of a physical world model excels at detecting and understanding highly detailed interactions between objects.
  • In the spirit of responsible open science, we’re releasing this model under a Creative Commons NonCommercial license for researchers to further explore.

As humans, much of what we learn about the world around us—particularly in our early stages of life—is gleaned through observation. Take Newton’s third law of motion: Even an infant (or a cat) can intuit, after knocking several items off a table and observing the results, that what goes up must come down. You don’t need hours of instruction or to read thousands of books to arrive at that result. Your internal world model—a contextual understanding based on a mental model of the world—predicts these consequences for you, and it’s highly efficient.

“V-JEPA is a step toward a more grounded understanding of the world so machines can achieve more generalized reasoning and planning,” says Meta’s VP & Chief AI Scientist Yann LeCun, who proposed the original Joint Embedding Predictive Architectures (JEPA) in 2022. “Our goal is to build advanced machine intelligence that can learn more like humans do, forming internal models of the world around them to learn, adapt, and forge plans efficiently in the service of completing complex tasks.”

Video JEPA in focus

V-JEPA is a non-generative model that learns by predicting missing or masked parts of a video in an abstract representation space. This is similar to how our Image Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture (I-JEPA) compares abstract representations of images (rather than comparing the pixels themselves). Unlike generative approaches that try to fill in every missing pixel, V-JEPA has the flexibility to discard unpredictable information, which leads to improved training and sample efficiency by a factor between 1.5x and 6x.

Because it takes a self-supervised learning approach, V-JEPA is pre-trained entirely with unlabeled data. Labels are only used to adapt the model to a particular task after pre-training. This type of architecture proves more efficient than previous models, both in terms of the number of labeled examples needed and the total amount of effort put into learning even the unlabeled data. With V-JEPA, we’ve seen efficiency boosts on both of these fronts.

With V-JEPA, we mask out a large portion of a video so the model is only shown a little bit of the context. We then ask the predictor to fill in the blanks of what’s missing—not in terms of the actual pixels, but rather as a more abstract description in this representation space.

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Masking methodology

V-JEPA wasn’t trained to understand one specific type of action. Instead it used self-supervised training on a range of videos and learned a number of things about how the world works. The team also carefully considered the masking strategy—if you don’t block out large regions of the video and instead randomly sample patches here and there, it makes the task too easy and your model doesn’t learn anything particularly complicated about the world.

It’s also important to note that, in most videos, things evolve somewhat slowly over time. If you mask a portion of the video but only for a specific instant in time and the model can see what came immediately before and/or immediately after, it also makes things too easy and the model almost certainly won’t learn anything interesting. As such, the team used an approach where it masked portions of the video in both space and time, which forces the model to learn and develop an understanding of the scene.

Efficient predictions

Making these predictions in the abstract representation space is important because it allows the model to focus on the higher-level conceptual information of what the video contains without worrying about the kind of details that are most often unimportant for downstream tasks. After all, if a video shows a tree, you’re likely not concerned about the minute movements of each individual leaf.

One of the reasons why we’re excited about this direction is that V-JEPA is the first model for video that’s good at “frozen evaluations,” which means we do all of our self-supervised pre-training on the encoder and the predictor, and then we don’t touch those parts of the model anymore. When we want to adapt them to learn a new skill, we just train a small lightweight specialized layer or a small network on top of that, which is very efficient and quick.

research paper in website

Previous work had to do full fine-tuning, which means that after pre-training your model, when you want the model to get really good at fine-grained action recognition while you’re adapting your model to take on that task, you have to update the parameters or the weights in all of your model. And then that model overall becomes specialized at doing that one task and it’s not going to be good for anything else anymore. If you want to teach the model a different task, you have to use different data, and you have to specialize the entire model for this other task. With V-JEPA, as we’ve demonstrated in this work, we can pre-train the model once without any labeled data, fix that, and then reuse those same parts of the model for several different tasks, like action classification, recognition of fine-grained object interactions, and activity localization.

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Avenues for future research...

While the “V” in V-JEPA stands for “video,” it only accounts for the visual content of videos thus far. A more multimodal approach is an obvious next step, so we’re thinking carefully about incorporating audio along with the visuals.

As a proof of concept, the current V-JEPA model excels at fine-grained object interactions and distinguishing detailed object-to-object interactions that happen over time. For example, if the model needs to be able to distinguish between someone putting down a pen, picking up a pen, and pretending to put down a pen but not actually doing it, V-JEPA is quite good compared to previous methods for that high-grade action recognition task. However, those things work on relatively short time scales. If you show V-JEPA a video clip of a few seconds, maybe up to 10 seconds, it’s great for that. So another important step for us is thinking about planning and the model’s ability to make predictions over a longer time horizon.

...and the path toward AMI

To date, our work with V-JEPA has been primarily about perception—understanding the contents of various video streams in order to obtain some context about the world immediately surrounding us. The predictor in this Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture serves as an early physical world model: You don’t have to see everything that’s happening in the frame, and it can tell you conceptually what’s happening there. As a next step, we want to show how we can use this kind of a predictor or world model for planning or sequential decision-making.

We know that it’s possible to train JEPA models on video data without requiring strong supervision and that they can watch videos in the way an infant might—just observing the world passively, learning a lot of interesting things about how to understand the context of those videos in such a way that, with a small amount of labeled data, you can quickly acquire a new task and ability to recognize different actions.

V-JEPA is a research model, and we’re exploring a number of future applications. For example, we expect that the context V-JEPA provides could be useful for our embodied AI work as well as our work to build a contextual AI assistant for future AR glasses. We firmly believe in the value of responsible open science, and that’s why we’re releasing the V-JEPA model under the CC BY-NC license so other researchers can extend this work.

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