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Adoption in India - the Past,Present and the Future Trends

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International journal of health sciences

deependra pathak

The relationship of a child and parents is beyond the definition of love and piousness. This unreal bond has always been a constant source of origination of rights, liabilities and co- dependency of the former towards the latter and vice versa. The concept of adoption in India is prevalent since antiquity and the depth goes stronger in case of Hindu Law, it being the only major personal law that permits adoption even before its codification. For the following article, the authors attempted to go through how the practice of adoption has changed over the years, what are the myths associated with this concept, how Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956 has been able to setup equality between women and menin terms of their rights to adoption and how customs and practices are kept in harmony with the codified law. The authors have attempted to establish a link between the myths prevalent in our society on adoptions and simultaneously tried to outburst and explain them with the help of...

research paper on adoption in india

Social and Political Research Foundation

Sara Bardhan

Fenneke Reysoo

Sushri Sangita Puhan

This study is concerned with the ways that adoptive family lives are practiced in contemporary India from a social work perspective. It was written in a time of urgent and contentious policy change which emphasised radical new ways of thinking about the practice of adoptive family life as a legitimate version of kinship. Since 2000, adoption policy and practice in this multicultural, multilingual, and multi-religious country, has undergone considerable change. Governed by multiple laws – both religious and secular – the adoption trend has been re-modelled through the introduction of secular policy, with a focus on advancing in-country adoption. This study demonstrates how adoption policy and lived experience narratives intersect as adoption becomes consolidated as a legitimate form of family. It focuses on the day-to-day family practices that emerge in adoptive families, and the ways these are shaped by adoption discourse. Drawing on theories of family and kinship, the thesis illumi...

Dr.Debarati Halder,Ph.D

Adoption in India is synonymous with numerous laws and guidelines explaining safer and legal ways to relocate orphans, remanded, or deserted children to their new homes and families. But the issue of transnational or inter-country adoption still cries for attention in matters of both the parents (both biological and foster parents) and the child’s violation of rights. Unlike the regular in country adoption laws, very few laws or guidelines have been created to protect the interests of the children, their natural and adoptive parents. It was only after the Public Interest Litigation was filed by Mr. Laxmikant Pandey regarding inter-country adoption rules that the Supreme Court drafted certain guidelines to protect the interest of the children and the parties involved. This led to the formation of the Centre for Adoption. The resource authorities’ guidelines are the only available compact guidelines that are regulating the inter-country adoption in India. Questions concerning a safer environment for the adopted child when taken abroad, exploitation, dissertation, discrimination, inheritance rights,and safeguards against illegal trafficking still need to be looked at in depth. In spite of such noble efforts by the law makers as well as the courts, the picture is not very satisfactory. As a result the plight of foreign adoptive parents is also pitiful. Foreign parents are often victimized by unnecessary delays caused by long proceedings which cause unwanted harassment. Sometimes they even become innocent targets of national as well as international political situations. The authors analyse the laws regulating transnational adoption in India, find out the loopholes which encourage various human rights violations in the name of inter-country adoption and suggest some solutions to check the growing violation of human rights involved in this issue.

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The International Journal of Children's Rights

Judith Lind

Shruti Taneja Johansson

The point of departure of the present article is the child's right to preservation of her/his ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background in adoption, as stipulated in the CRC and the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption. The article seeks to analyse the various meanings attributed to preservation of the child's background in in- and intercountry adoption and in different national contexts. The main focus is on the seldom-studied perspective of one of the major sending countries in intercountry adoption: India. Five representatives of two non-governmental adoption agencies and one governmental agency in addition to six Indian adoptive parents have been interviewed about their views on the significance of the child's background in adoption. In our analysis, we show that preservation of a child's background is perceived to be in conflict with other interests of the child, such as gaining a position in her/his adoptive family equal to that of a biological child and being loved unconditionally. In contrast to the general portrayal of Indian adoption applicants as being selective regarding the child's religious background and skin colour, agency representatives as well as adoptive parents endeavoured to distinguish themselves from this portrayal by emphasizing the irrelevance of the child's background.

Saleem Marsoof

Adoption of Children in Islam and the Muslim Law of Sri Lanka – An Abstract This is a slightly modified version of an article previously published under the same title in [2008] Meezan pages 1 to 5. Meezan is an annual publication of the Law Students’ Muslim Majlis of the Sri Lanka Law College. Islam encourages charity, and also insists that those who have the means should care for orphans and other needy children in the same way as they would care for their own children. Islam recognizes the foster parent relationship, but does not sanction adoption tin the sense in which it is used in the Sri Lankan Adoption of Children Ordinance No. 24 of 1941. This Ordinance expressly provides that “upon an adoption order being made, the adopted child shall for all purposes whatsoever be deemed in law to be the child born in lawful wedlock of the adopter.” In a landmark decision Ghouse v Ghouse [1988] 1 SLR 25, the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka examined the implications of this provision in the context of intestate succession rights of an adopted child. This article examines in great detail, the sharia't concept of kafala (foster care) in the light of relevant statutory provisions and judicial decisions, and attempts to resolve apparent conflicts and contradictions in the legal fabric.


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Abstract: Recent research underscores the pivotal role of the Out-of-Distribution (OOD) feature representation field scale in determining the efficacy of models in OOD detection. Consequently, the adoption of model ensembles has emerged as a prominent strategy to augment this feature representation field, capitalizing on anticipated model diversity. However, our introduction of novel qualitative and quantitative model ensemble evaluation methods, specifically Loss Basin/Barrier Visualization and the Self-Coupling Index, reveals a critical drawback in existing ensemble methods. We find that these methods incorporate weights that are affine-transformable, exhibiting limited variability and thus failing to achieve the desired diversity in feature representation. To address this limitation, we elevate the dimensions of traditional model ensembles, incorporating various factors such as different weight initializations, data holdout, etc., into distinct supervision tasks. This innovative approach, termed Multi-Comprehension (MC) Ensemble, leverages diverse training tasks to generate distinct comprehensions of the data and labels, thereby extending the feature representation field. Our experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the MC Ensemble strategy in OOD detection compared to both the naive Deep Ensemble method and a standalone model of comparable size. This underscores the effectiveness of our proposed approach in enhancing the model's capability to detect instances outside its training distribution.

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Sansad TV: AIR’S Spotlight- Research, Development & Innovation to Accelerate Adoption of Green Hydrogen


Green Hydrogen:

  • Green Hydrogen is the  clean hydrogen generated by using renewable energy such as solar power and wind energy. The by-products are water and water vapor.
  • Green hydrogen is produced via the electrolysis of water. All you need to produce large amounts of hydrogen is water, a big electrolyzer, and large supplies of electricity.
  • If the electricity comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar or hydro, then the hydrogen is effectively green; the only carbon emissions in its production will occur from the generation infrastructure.

Significance of  Green Hydrogen :

  • Green hydrogen energy is vital for India to meet its Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) Targets and ensure regional and national energy security, access and availability.
  • Green Hydrogen can act as an energy storage option, which would be essential to meet intermittencies (of renewable energy) in the future.
  • In terms of mobility, for long distance mobilisations for either urban freight movement within cities and states or for passengers, Green Hydrogen can be used in railways, large ships, buses or trucks, etc.

  Applications of green hydrogen:

  • Green Chemicals like ammonia and methanol can directly be utilized in existing applications like fertilizers, mobility, power, chemicals, shipping etc.
  • Green Hydrogen blending up to 10% may be adopted in CGD networks to gain widespread acceptance.


  • It is a clean-burning molecule, which can decarbonize a range of sectors including iron and steel, chemicals, and transportation.
  • Renewable energy that cannot be stored or used by the grid can be channelled to produce hydrogen.

Policy Challenges:

  • One of the biggest challenges faced by the industry for using hydrogen commercially is the economic sustainability of extracting green or blue hydrogen.
  • The technology used in production and use of hydrogen like Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)and hydrogen fuel cell technology are at nascent stage and are expensive which in turn increases the cost of production of hydrogen.
  • Maintenance costs for fuel cells post-completion of a plant can be costly.
  • The commercial usage of hydrogen as a fuel and in industries requires mammoth investment in R&D of such technology and infrastructurefor production, storage, transportation and demand creation for hydrogen.

Measures needed:

  • At this juncture, with a calibrated approach, India can uniquely position itself to take advantage with increasing investment in R&D, capacity building, compatible legislation, and the opportunity for creation of demand among its vast population. Such initiatives can propel India to become the most favoured nation by exporting hydrogen to its neighbors and beyond.
  • Proactive industry collaboration with the government is key to creating a hydrogen economy in India.
  • This will help bring best-in-class hydrogen technology, equipment , and know-how to create a hydrogen supply chain in India — in many cases, these could be “Made in India”.
  • By prioritising national hydrogen demonstration projects, innovations to further reduce the cost of hydrogen will become prominent locally.
  • A robust policy framework akin to the one that guided the country’s solar revolution could lead to an increase in production and demand of this green fuel.
  • The Government of India should consider setting up a multi-agency mission to bring multiple ministries, private industry and academia together in a partnership to scale up the deployment of hydrogen across sectors and industries.
  • Having a clear mid-term and long-term target inspires confidence in the private sector to make their investments in a new energy source.
  • Tax benefits that solar and wind receive should be extended to all players in the green hydrogen ecosystem.
  • In the short term, the price of hydrogen generated through steam methane reformation should be capped.
  • Generating hydrogen from biomass should also be incentivised as it also has the potential to increase farmer incomes.
  • India should ramp up international collaborations for more effortless transfer of technology and resources related to hydrogen.
  • Low solar prices coupled with pragmatic policies can help India take a leadership position in driving the global hydrogen economy.


  • The immediate need here is to identify the key long-term goals and the step to achieve those goals.
  • The building up of policies, infrastructure and skills will help in wider acceptance, reducing perceived risks, enhancing confidence, increased investments, lowering costs.
  • Thus, the major challenges we need to finally meet is scaling up, cost reduction, increased adoption and  sustainable growth of hydrogen-based technologies.
  • The role that Government can play is towards creating a long-term policy framework which could build up confidence in private investment, create market demand with policy interventions, develop standards and regulations which should not hurdle the growth, provide enhanced R & D support.
  • Green hydrogen is one of the most promising fuels in the efforts to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Green hydrogen energy is vital for India to meet its Nationally Determined Contributions and ensure regional and national energy security, access and availability. Hydrogen can act as an energy storage option, which would be essential to meet intermittencies (of renewable energy) in the future.

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research paper on adoption in india

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Audiocodes (AUDC) Augments Microsoft Teams Adoption in India

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research paper on adoption in india

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  1. Adoption in India

    Adoption is the process that creates a parent-child relationship between persons not related by blood through a legal and social process. It is a process of becoming non biological parents 3 ...

  2. (PDF) Adoption Practices in India: Legalities and Challenges

    1 Shariat is a body of law based on Islamic theology, derived from the Holy Quran and the Hadith. Number 1,19,170. Rate per 1000 children 3. Number 1,86,972. Rate per 1000 children 5. T able 1 ...

  3. PDF Child Adoption in India Issues and Challenges

    CHILD ADOPTION IN INDIA ± ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 1M.V.KARTIK , 2MR. DHANASEKAR 1Student at Saveetha school of law, ... research journals working papers thesis and books of famous sociologist and e -sources are referred. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF INDIAN ADOPTION In India, adoption has been practiced for thousands of years. ...

  4. Revitalizing adoption laws: Indian Law Review: Vol 6 , No 2

    Revitalizing adoption laws. This paper is an analysis on the history of adoption in India and the machinery in place now. It also attempts to understand how far the adoption laws in India are in consonance with her international obligations. In particular, the paper will focus on how the LGBTQ+ community is unfairly affected by the system in place.

  5. PDF Adoption in India

    [ VOLUME 6 I ISSUE 2 I APRIL- JUNE 2019] E ISSN 2348 -1269, PRINT ISSN 2349-5138 720đť—‚ IJRAR- International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews Research Paper (center adoption resource agency) was formed in India in 1986. The role of CARA is to observe and regulate the adoption process which leads to an association of placement agencies (Adoption coordinating Agency)

  6. PDF The Critical Analysis of The Evolution of The Adoption Laws in India

    The research paper critically analyzes the evolution of adoption laws in India, with an insight to the Hindu, Muslim, and secular adoption laws. It explores the cultural and historical aspects of Hindu adoption which allowed for adoption of sons only but with the introduction of the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956, significant changes ...


    idea of adoption in relation to various personal laws has undergone a significant transformation. Current scenario in Indian adoption In India, till recently adoption as a legal concept was available only among the members of the Hindu community. Also, exception where personal laws permit such adoption for any section of 7the polity.

  8. PDF Perceptions of Indian Residents Towards Factors Influencing Adoption in

    The aim of the research study was to identify and examine Indian residents' perceptions towards the factors influencing adoption decisions in India through a mixed method approach. First, under the quantitative approach, the respondents were asked to rate factors that would influence adoption decisions in general on a scale of 1-10, ―1 ...

  9. Adoption Laws in India: Reviews and Recommendation Needed

    This paper promises to offer a comprehensive and exhaustive report on adoption law in India. Through this paper the researcher would like to draw the attention towards the drawbacks and the discrepancies that are present in this law. While doing so we will be dealing with the various statutes like Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956, the ...

  10. Adoption in India

    Adoption laws in India Adoption polices and social reformation could have evolved due to the fact that India during those times was ruled by the British. The first Children's Act was enacted in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies in 1920, giving the state the responsibility to look after destitute and neglected children (Bhargava, 2005).

  11. PDF Inter-country Adoption: Challenges And The Way Forward

    The present paper discusses the concept of inter country adoption in India. Every child has a right to love and be loved and to grow up in an atmosphere of love and affection and of moral and material security and this is possible only if the child is brought up in a family. ...

  12. PDF Adoption in India: A critical analysis

    The subject matter of this paper deals with comprehensive analysis of Adoption law in India. The practice of Adoption is been followed since many decades but the law for adoption came in the 19th century. There are various religions in India but there is no particular Adoption law governing the adoption of all religions.

  13. PDF International Journal of Law Management & Humanities

    Adoption is a sophisticated and vulnerable concept which was susceptible to the societal stigma that was attached to it therein. The focus of this paper is on a thorough examination of India's adoption laws and the need for a uniform civil code in the field of adoption. Keywords: Adoption, Children, Personal law, Religion. I. INTRODUCTION

  14. PDF Critical Analysis of Adoption Laws in India With Special Reference to

    VOL. 2 ISSUE 3 Journal of Legal Research and Juridical Sciences ISSN (O): 2583-0066 61 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ADOPTION LAWS IN INDIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SHABNAM HASHMI VS UOI AIR 2014 Khushi Agarwal* ABSTRACT India is a nation with a wide variety of religions. Each religion adheres to its own set of observances.

  15. PDF Intercountry Adoptions in India: an Overview

    (2012). Adoption in India - the Past,Present and the Future Trends. Journal of Psychosocial. Volume 7. 321-327. According to the authors of this article, adoption as a family construction has sparked international interest for the past three decades. India, one of the oldest countries on the Asian continent, has seen significant

  16. Inter-Country Adoption: A Legal Perspective by Sukanya Narain

    The object of the paper is to analyse the concept of Intercountry adoption as it is existing today. A comparison of the same under the legal framework of India, United States of America and United Kingdom has also been drawn. The way in which the present Indian adoption laws with reference to Intercountry adoptions can be made efficient within ...

  17. A Study on the Adoption of Electric Vehicles in India: The Mediating

    EVs have shallow adoption in India, and most people lack the experience of handling EVs. Although the initial price to buy an EV may be higher; the cost of running and maintenance is relatively low. ... He has published more than 30 research papers in journals of repute. He has authored a book titled Retail Franchising published by Tata McGraw ...

  18. PDF Adoption Laws in India: Challenging Existing law

    The subject matter of this paper deals with comprehensive analysis of adoption law in India and how the adoption law around the world do not have much impact on India's adoption law. Practice of adoption is been followed since many decades but the law for adoption came in the 19th Century. There are various religions in India but there is no ...

  19. PDF India'S Lgbtq+ Community: the Right of Adoption

    This research paper looks to examine the state of adoption rights of LGBTQIA+ couples, dealing with the stigma around ... Adoption in India is governed majorly by two legislations: (i) The Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956; and (ii) The Juvenile Justice Act, 2015. These are the two legislations which regulate adoption of children

  20. Blockchain, adoption, and financial inclusion in India: Research

    Against this backdrop, this paper develops a research agenda that raises questions that, if answered, will inform our understanding of how blockchain-based financial inclusion initiatives can be successful in rural India. ... Although research on adoption in India is a growing body of research (e.g., Tarafdar & Vaidya, 2006; Venkatesh & Sykes ...

  21. Full article: Examining the factors influencing fintech adoption

    The main impetus of the research is to inquire into the fintech adoption behaviour of India's GenY population. The focus of this research paper is to enlarge the scope of the planned behaviour theory by including other exogenous variables, information quality (IQ), and readiness to pay for privileges.

  22. Adoption of EV: Landscape of EV and opportunities for India

    What are the important user attributes for EV adoption and which are key gaps for adoption in India that leads to research opportunities? This paper helps to explore the answers to the above questions and details the downsides of the current EV technologies. This study focuses on the Indian market, as in India the EV sales growth has tripled in ...

  23. Adoption and Challenges Underlying OTT Platform in India during

    Ebert J. F., Huibers L., Christensen B., & Christensen M. B. (2018). Paper- or web-based questionnaire invitations as a method for data collection: Cross-sectional comparative study of differences in response rate, completeness of data, and financial cost. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(1), e8353.

  24. Whitepaper: E-Trucks Market in India

    India's long-term goal is to achieve net zero by 2070, and to achieve the target, it becomes imperative to electrify road freight, especially diesel trucks, which are a major contributor to the overall GHG emissions. The whitepaper aims to promote zero-emission truck adoption in India, hence ensuring a sustainable future.

  25. Out-of-Distribution Detection via Deep Multi-Comprehension Ensemble

    Recent research underscores the pivotal role of the Out-of-Distribution (OOD) feature representation field scale in determining the efficacy of models in OOD detection. Consequently, the adoption of model ensembles has emerged as a prominent strategy to augment this feature representation field, capitalizing on anticipated model diversity. However, our introduction of novel qualitative and ...

  26. Sansad TV: AIR'S Spotlight- Research, Development ...

    Green Hydrogen: Green Hydrogen is the clean hydrogen generated by using renewable energysuch as solar power and wind energy. The by-products are water and water vapor. Green hydrogen is produced via the electrolysis of water. All you need to produce large amounts of hydrogen is water, a big electrolyzer, and large supplies of electricity. … Continue reading "Sansad TV: AIR'S Spotlight ...

  27. What hinders the green supply chain management adoption in the Indian

    Aluminium, being a lightweight, corrosion-resistant, and recyclable material, offers a wide range of applications starting from transportation to construction, to electronics and consumer goods production. The ever-growing emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants from the aluminium processing and manufacturing industries necessitates focused attention. While the adoption of green ...

  28. Audiocodes (AUDC) Augments Microsoft Teams Adoption in India

    Audiocodes (AUDC) Augments Microsoft Teams Adoption in India. Zacks Equity Research March 27, 2024 NOK Quick Quote NOK AUDC Quick Quote AUDC ANET Quick Quote ANET HEAR Quick Quote HEAR. Better ...