What Are Endnotes, Why Are They Needed, and How Are They Used?

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An "endnote" is a reference, explanation, or comment placed at the end of an article, research paper, chapter, or book. Like footnotes  (which are used in this article), endnotes serve two main purposes in a research paper: (1) They acknowledge the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary; and (2) They provide explanatory comments that would interrupt the flow of the main  text .

Endnotes vs. Footnotes

"Your department may specify whether you should use footnotes or endnotes, especially for a thesis or dissertation.

If not, you should generally choose footnotes, which are easier to read. Endnotes force readers to flip to the back to check every citation. On the other hand, choose endnotes when your footnotes are so long or numerous that they take up too much space on the page, making your report unattractive and difficult to read. Also, endnotes better accommodate tables, quoted poetry, and other matter that requires special typography."

(Turabian, Kate L.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 7th ed., University of Chicago Press, 2007.)

"Readers of academic and scholarly books usually prefer footnotes to endnotes because the former allows them to skim the notes without losing their place in the text. Popular wisdom, however, says that nonscholarly readers are either reluctant or unwilling to purchase a nonfiction trade book whose feet are hemmed with ribbons of tiny type; thus most trade books place (the shop term is 'bury') the notes containing sources and references at the back of the book ."

(Einsohn, Amy. The Copyeditor's Handbook,  University of California Press, 2006.)

Endnote Conventions

"An author or title mentioned in the text need not be repeated in the footnote  citation , though it is often helpful to do so. In an endnote, however, the author (or at least the author's last name) and title should be repeated, since at least some readers may have forgotten whether the note number was 93 or 94 by the time they find it at the back of a work.

Such frustration can be prevented by the devices illustrated in the examples below."

34. This and the preceding four quotations are all from  Hamlet , act 1, sc. 4. 87. Barbara Wallraff,  Word Court  (New York: Harcourt, 2000), 34. Further citations to this work are given in the text.​

(​ The Chicago Manual of Style,  University of Chicago Press, 2003.)

Endnote Numbering

"Endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a chapter or article, with each new chapter or section starting over with endnote 1. The notes section at the back is then broken down by chapter or section, with the corresponding endnote numbers listed underneath.

Place endnote numbers within the text in superscript type (small typeset above the line). In the notes section, use the same number to identify the endnote with the number in the text."

(Robbins, Lara M.  Grammar, and Style at Your Fingertips,  Alpha, 2007.)

Sample Endnotes From Pennebaker's 'The Secret Life of Pronouns '

"Chapter 2: Ignoring the Content, Celebrating the Style 19. The drawing is from the Thematic Apperception Test by Henry A. Murray, Card 12F, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. 20. Throughout this book, I include quotations from people who have been in my studies or classes, from text on the Internet, or even from conversations or e-mails from friends or family members. In all cases, all identifying information has been removed or altered. 22. In this book, the terms style, function , and stealth words are used interchangeably. They have many other names as well —  junk words, particles , and closed-class words . Linguists tend to disagree about the precise definitions of each of these overlapping terms."

(Pennebaker, James W.  The Secret Life of Pronouns: What Our Words Say About Us,  Bloomsbury Press, 2011.)

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Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

Table of Contents: Books E-books Journal Articles (Print) Journal Articles (Online) Magazine Articles (Print) Magazine Articles (Online) Newspaper Articles Review Articles Websites For More Help

The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) .  Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style ; the seventh edition of Turabian is based on the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual . For types of resources not covered in this guide (e.g., government documents, manuscript collections, video recordings) and for further detail and examples, please consult the websites listed at the end of this guide, the handbook itself or a reference librarian .

Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source. Traditionally, disciplines in the humanities (art, history, music, religion, theology) require the use of bibliographic footnotes or endnotes in conjunction with a bibliography to cite sources used in research papers and dissertations. For the parenthetical reference (author-date) system (commonly used in the sciences and social sciences), please refer to the separate guide Turabian Parenthetical/Reference List Style . It is best to consult with your professor to determine the preferred citation style.

Indicate notes in the text of your paper by using consecutive superscript numbers (as demonstrated below). The actual note is indented and can occur either as a footnote at the bottom of the page or as an endnote at the end of the paper. To create notes, type the note number followed by a period on the same line as the note itself. This method should always be used for endnotes; it is the preferred method for footnotes. However, superscript numbers are acceptable for footnotes, and many word processing programs can generate footnotes with superscript numbers for you.

When citing books, the following are elements you may need to include in your bibliographic citation for your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author or editor; 2. Title; 3. Compiler, translator or editor (if an editor is listed in addition to an author); 4. Edition; 5. Name of series, including volume or number used; 6. Place of publication, publisher and date of publication; 7. Page numbers of citation (for footnote or endnote).

Books with One Author or Corporate Author

Author: Charles Hullmandel experimented with lithographic techniques throughout the early nineteenth century, patenting the "lithotint" process in 1840. 1

Editor: Human beings are the sources of "all international politics"; even though the holders of political power may change, this remains the same. 1

Corporate Author: Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem. 1

First footnote:

1 Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850 (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

1 Valerie M. Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy (Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997), 5.

1 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union , edited by Alexander Zouev (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999), 44.

Note the different treatment of an editor's name depending on whether the editor takes the place of an author (second example) or is listed in addition to the author (third example). 

Subsequent footnotes:

       Method A: Include the author or editor's last name, the title (or an abbreviated title) and the page number cited.

2 Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., Culture and Foreign Policy, 10.

2 UNICEF, Generation in Jeopardy, 48.

       Method B: Include only the author or editor's last name and the page number, leaving out the title.  

2 Twyman, 50.

2 Hudson, ed., 10.

2 UNICEF, 48.

Use Method A if you need to cite more than one reference by the same author.

1. Michael Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850  (London: Oxford University Press, 1970), 145-146.

Ibid., short for ibidem, means "in the same place."  Use ibid. if you cite the same page of the same work in succession without a different reference intervening.  If you need to cite a different page of the same work, include the page number.  For example:   2 Ibid., 50.

Bibliography:

Hudson, Valerie, N., ed. Culture and Foreign Policy . Boulder: L. Rienner Publishers, 1997.

Twyman, Michael. Lithography 1800-1850 . London: Oxford University Press, 1970.

UNICEF.  Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the             Former Soviet Union . Edited by Alexander Zouev. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Books with Two or More Authors or Editors

1 Russell Keat and John Urry, Social Theory as Science, 2d ed. (London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982), 196.

1 Toyoma Hitomi, "The Era of Dandy Beauties," in Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  eds. Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker ( Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007), 157.

For references with more than three authors, cite the first named author followed by "et al." Cite all the authors in the bibliography.

1 Leonard B. Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , ed. Berel Lang (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979), 56.

2 Keat and Urry, Social Theory as Science , 200.

2 Meyer, et al., The Concept of Style , 90.

Keat, Russell, and John Urry. Social Theory as Science , 2d. ed. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1982.

Hitomi, Toyoma. "The Era of Dandy Beauties." In Queer Voices from Japan: First-Person Narratives from Japan's Sexual Minorities,  edited by Mark J. McLelland, Katsuhiko Suganuma, and James Welker, 153-165.   Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Meyer, Leonard B., Kendall Walton, Albert Hofstadter, Svetlana Alpers, George Kubler, Richard Wolheim, Monroe Beardsley, Seymour Chatman, Ann Banfield, and Hayden White. The Concept of Style . Edited by Berel Lang.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1979.  

Electronic Books

Follow the guidelines for print books, above, but include the collection (if there is one), URL and the date you accessed the material.

1 John Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy (Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834), in The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

2 Rae, Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy .

Rae, John.  Statement of Some New Principles on the Subject of Political Economy. Boston: Hillard, Gray and Company, 1834. In The Making of the Modern World,   http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/MOME?af=RN&ae=U104874605&srchtp=a&ste=14  (accessed June 22, 2009).  

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

For periodical (magazine, journal, newspaper, etc.) articles, include some or all of the following elements in your first footnote or endnote and in your bibliography, in this order:

1. Author; 2. Article title; 3. Periodical title; 4. Volume or Issue number (or both); 5. Publication date; 6. Page numbers.

For online periodicals   , add: 7. URL and date of access; or 8. Database name, URL and date of access. (If available, include database publisher and city of publication.)

For an article available in more than one format (print, online, etc.), cite whichever version you used.

Journal Articles (Print)

1 Lawrence Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 52.

Here you are citing page 52.  In the bibliography (see below) you would include the full page range: 39-56.

If a journal has continuous pagination within a volume, you do not need to include the issue number:

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 520.

Subsequent footnotes :

2 Freedman, "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict," 49.   

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 545.

Freedman, Lawrence. "The Changing Roles of Military Conflict."   Survival 40, no. 4 (1998): 39-56.

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor."  American Journal of Philology 118 (1997): 517-554.  

Journal Articles (Online)

Cite as above, but include the URL and the date of access of the article.

On the Free Web

1 Molly Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Through a Subscription Database

1 John T. Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

1 Michael Moon, et al., "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 32, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Subsequent Footnotes:

2 Shea, "Hacking Nostalgia."

2 Kirby, "Aristotle on Metaphor," 527. 

2 Moon, "Queers in (Single-Family) Space," 34. 

Shea, Molly. "Hacking Nostalgia: Super Mario Clouds," Gnovis 9, no. 2 (Spring 2009), http://gnovisjournal.org/journal/hacking-nostalgia-super-mario-clouds  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Kirby, John T. "Aristotle on Metaphor," American Journal of Philology 118, no. 4 (Winter 1997): 524, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_journal_of_philology/v118/118.4.kirby.html  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Moon, Michael, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Benjamin Gianni, and Scott Weir. "Queers in (Single-Family) Space." Assemblage 24 (August 1994): 30-7, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3171189  (accessed June 25, 2009).

Magazine Articles (Print)

Monthly or Bimonthly

           1 Paul Goldberger, "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile," Architectural Digest, October 1996, 82.

1 Steven Levy and Brad Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," Newsweek , March 25, 2002, 45.

          2 Goldberger, "Machines for Living," 82.

          2 Levy and Stone, "Silicon Valley Reboots," 46.

Goldberger, Paul.  "Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile." Architectural Digest, October 1996.

Levy, Steven, and Brad Stone. "Silicon Valley Reboots." Newsweek , March 25, 2002.

Magazine Articles (Online)

Follow the guidelines for print magazine articles, adding the URL and date accessed.

1 Bill Wyman, "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble," Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

1 Sasha Frere-Jones, "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Wyman, Bill. "Tony Soprano's Female Trouble." Salon.com, May 19, 2001, http://www.salon.com/2001/05/19/sopranos_final/ (accessed February 13, 2017).

Frere-Jones, Sasha. "Hip-Hop President." New Yorker , November 24, 2008. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=35324426&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009).

Newspaper Articles

In most cases, you will cite newspaper articles only in notes, not in your bibliography. Follow the general pattern for citing magazine articles, although you may omit page numbers.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition.

        1 Eric Pianin, "Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End," Washington Post , February 13, 2002, final edition, in LexisNexis Academic (accessed June 27, 2009).

Note: In the example above, there was no stable URL for the article in LexisNexis, so the name of the database was given rather than a URL.

Review Articles

Follow the pattern below for review articles in any kind of periodical.

1 Alanna Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard," review of Basket Case, by Carl Hiassen, New York Times , February 3, 2002, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=105338185&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=5604&RQT=309&VName=PQD (accessed June 26, 2009).  

1 David Denby, "Killing Joke," review of No Country for Old Men , directed by Ethan and Joel Coen,  New Yorker, February 25, 2008, 72-73, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fah&AN=30033248&site=ehost-live (accessed June 26, 2009). 

Second footnote:

2 Nash, "Hit 'Em With a Lizard."

2 Denby, "Killing Joke."

In most cases, you will be citing something smaller than an entire website. If you are citing an article from a website, for example, follow the guidelines for articles above. You can usually refer to an entire website in running text without including it in your reference list, e.g.: "According to its website, the Financial Accounting Standards Board requires ...".

If you need to cite an entire website in your bibliography, include some or all of the following elements, in this order:

1. Author or editor of the website (if known) 2. Title of the website 3. URL 4. Date of access

Financial Accounting Standards Board .  http://www.fasb.org  (accessed April 29, 2009).

FOR MORE HELP

Following are links to sites that have additional information and further examples:

Turabian Quick Guide (University of Chicago Press)

Chicago Manual of Style Online

RefWorks Once you have created an account, go to Tools/Preview Output Style to see examples of Turabian style.

Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL) Excellent source for research, writing and citation tips.

Citing Sources Duke University's guide to citing sources. The site offers comparison citation tables with examples from APA , Chicago , MLA and Turabian for both print and electronic works.

How to Cite Electronic Sources From the Library of Congress. Provides MLA and Turabian examples of citing formats like films, photographs, maps and recorded sound that are accessed electronically.

Uncle Sam: Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications The examples in this excellent guide from the University of Memphis are based on the Chicago Manual of Style and Kate Turabian's Manual .

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Endnote Note citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the end of a research paper and arranged sequentially in relation to where the reference appears in the paper.

Footnote Note citing a particular source or making a brief explanatory comment placed at the bottom of a page corresponding to the item cited in the corresponding text above.

Fiske, Robert Hartwell. To the Point: A Dictionary of Concise Writing . New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2014.

Structure and Writing Style

Advantages of Using Endnotes

  • Endnotes are less distracting to the reader and allows the narrative to flow better.
  • Endnotes don't clutter up the page.
  • As a separate section of a research paper, endnotes allow the reader to read and contemplate all the notes at once.

Disadvantages of Using Endnotes

  • If you want to look at the text of a particular endnote, you have to flip to the end of the research paper to find the information.
  • Depending on how they are created [i.e., continuous numbering or numbers that start over for each chapter], you may have to remember the chapter number as well as the endnote number in order to find the correct one.
  • Endnotes may carry a negative connotation much like the proverbial "fine print" or hidden disclaimers in advertising. A reader may believe you are trying to hide something by burying it in a hard-to-find endnote.

Advantages of Using Footnotes

  • Readers interested in identifying the source or note can quickly glance down the page to find what they are looking for.
  • It allows the reader to immediately link the footnote to the subject of the text without having to take the time to find the note at the back of the paper.
  • Footnotes are automatically included when printing off specific pages.

Disadvantages of Using Footnotes

  • Footnotes can clutter up the page and, thus, negatively impact the overall look of the page.
  • If there are multiple columns, charts, or tables below only a small segment of text that includes a footnote, then you must decide where the footnotes should appear.
  • If the footnotes are lengthy, there's a risk they could dominate the page, although this issue is considered acceptable in legal scholarship.
  • Adding lengthy footnotes after the paper has been completed can alter the page where other sources are located [i.e., a long footnote can push text to the next page].
  • It is more difficult learning how to insert footnotes using your word processing program than simply adding endnotes at the end of your paper.

Things to keep in mind when considering using either endnotes or footnotes in your research paper :

1.    Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a research paper, except for those notes accompanying special material (e.g., figures, tables, charts, etc.). Numbering of footnotes are "superscript"--Arabic numbers typed slightly above the line of text. Do not include periods, parentheses, or slashes. They can follow all punctuation marks except dashes. In general, to avoid interrupting the continuity of the text, footnote numbers are placed at the end of the sentence, clause, or phrase containing the quoted or paraphrased material. 2.    Depending on the writing style used in your class, endnotes may take the place of a list of resources cited in your paper or they may represent non-bibliographic items, such as comments or observations, followed by a separate list of references to the sources you cited and arranged alphabetically by the author's last name. If you are unsure about how to use endnotes, consult with your professor. 3.    In general, the use of footnotes in most academic writing is now considered a bit outdated and has been replaced by endnotes, which are much easier to place in your paper, even with the advent of word processing programs. However, some disciplines, such as law and history, still predominantly utilize footnotes. Consult with your professor about which form to use and always remember that, whichever style of citation you choose, apply it consistently throughout your paper.

NOTE:   Always think critically about the information you place in a footnote or endnote. Ask yourself, is this supplementary or tangential information that would otherwise disrupt the narrative flow of the text or is this essential information that I should integrate into the main text? If you are not sure, it's better to work it into the text. Too many notes implies a disorganized paper.

Cermak, Bonni and Jennifer Troxell. A Guide to Footnotes and Endnotes for NASA History Authors . NASA History Program. History Division; Hale, Ali. Should You Use Footnotes or Endnotes? DailyWritingTips.com; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; Saller, Carol. “Endnotes or Footnotes? Some Considerations.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 58 (January 6, 2012): http://chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2012/01/06/endnotes-or-footnotes-some-considerations/.

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Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sample Papers

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Chicago Style Options

Chicago Manual of Style offers the option to use footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical in-text citations featuring an author / date format. Footnotes or endnotes allow for citation information to be easily accessible at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes also allow for supplemental explanatory text to be included in the paper at the place it is most relevant. The notes format is used primarily in the disciplines of the humanities (history, religion, philosophy, art, etc.). The author / date format is used primarily in the disciplines of the physical, natural and social sciences (biology, chemistry, sociology, etc.).

The author / date format is similar to MLA and APA citation styles. The following sample papers present all three formats.

Footnotes / Endnotes sample papers

Footnotes, which are located at the bottom of each page, acknowledge which parts of the paper reference particular sources. Footnotes should match with a superscript number at the end of the sentence referencing the source. Footnotes should begin with 1 and continue numerically throughout the paper. Do not start the order over on each page.

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Author / Date sample paper

Author / date in-text citations are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

  • CMOS Author-Date Sample Paper

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Endnotes – Guide to How to Use Them Correctly

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Endnotes-01

Citing sources properly is required to give acknowledgement to the writers whose work influenced your own, to direct readers to the sources you used, and to demonstrate the scope of your research. Although endnotes are used less frequently in student or academic papers than in-text citations or footnotes, they are extremely prevalent in books, where they contribute to a cleaner page. This article provides a thorough guide to using endnotes correctly with examples.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

  • 1 Endnotes – In a Nutshell
  • 2 Definition: Endnotes
  • 3 Endnotes vs. footnotes
  • 4 How to use endnotes
  • 5 How to insert endnotes in Word

Endnotes – In a Nutshell

  • They may be used instead of a list of cited sources, depending on the writing style.
  • Even with the advent of word-processing software, these notes are considerably simpler to include in a document.
  • Unlike footnotes, they don’t take up much space on the page.

Definition: Endnotes

Endnotes are the notes that come at the end of the text in an academic paper. They are denoted in the text by numbers or, occasionally, other symbols.

They are employed:

  • for citations in particular styles
  • to add supplementary material that does not flow with the primary text

Endnotes-introduction

Endnotes vs. footnotes

Endnotes and footnotes are commonly mistaken. Footnotes are similarly used to offer citations or additional information; however, they appear at the bottom of each page rather than at the conclusion .

Footnotes or endnotes should typically be used consistently. Your instructor may advise you on the appropriate note format.

How to use endnotes

Endnote numbers are placed after the clause or sentence to which they pertain. Unless an em dash concludes the sentence, the number comes before the punctuation , after which it is displayed. There is no space following the number.

The general agreement now—though there are dissenting voices 1 —is that this experiment was too methodologically faulty to provide valid results. 2

Notes are consecutively numbered in the order that they occur in the text. Each endnote is assigned a unique number; do not reuse a number, even when citing the same source multiple times.

Endnotes in Chicago style

Using footnotes or endnotes for citations is standard practice in Chicago style bibliographies and notes. Either type of note may also provide additional information, such as more examples, commentary on the sources you quote, or a more in-depth analysis of concepts mentioned in the text.

Place Chicago endnotes after the clause or sentence to which they pertain. A citation note provides complete information on a source the first time it is cited, and simplified information for subsequent citations.

Endnotes-in-chicago-style

You should still provide a complete list of your sources in a bibliography following the notes unless you are writing a brief paper and have been instructed otherwise.

The notes page follows the bibliography and begins with the word “Notes” printed in bold and centered. The basic format of the notes is as follows:

  • A blank line should separate the notes, and the notes should be single-spaced.
  • Start each note with an indentation.
  • Place a period and a space after the note numbers, which should be written in regular text rather than a superscript.

Endnotes in APA style

Additional information can be included in endnotes or footnotes when writing in APA style . They are not used for citations; instead, use APA in-text citations .

When applicable, copyright attributions are included using APA endnotes. In addition, they can be used to build on the text’s themes or provide further instances. However, do so sparingly, as the APA advises against including redundant information.

Endnotes-in-apa-style

The notes are placed on a separate page following the reference list, with the heading “Footnotes” (APA does not use the phrase “endnotes”) bold and centered at the top.

The notes are formatted as indented, double-spaced paragraphs. Each note should begin with its number in superscript, followed by a space.

Endnotes in MLA style

Endnotes can be used instead of MLA in-text citations if you must include many references in a single paragraph.

MLA notes may also convey more information, including clarifications, further illustrations, or elaboration of concepts briefly discussed in the text.

Endnotes-in-MLA-Style

They should appear on a separate page before the Works Cited list and be titled “Notes” or “Endnotes.” Each endnote’s first line should be indented, and the number should be superscripted, followed by a space. They must use double spacing.

How to insert endnotes in Word

Many word processors, such as Microsoft Word, make it simple to insert notes automatically. Follow the steps below:

  • Click the point within the text where the note number should appear.
  • Click “Insert Endnote” after opening the “References” tab at the top.
  • Input text in the note that appears at the end of your manuscript.

However, if you use one of the above styles, you must alter the formatting to meet their criteria and include a heading for the notes page.

Ireland

What should I write in an endnote?

Footnotes and endnotes perform the same function. These are brief clarifications, additions, or copyright information. You can improve the reader’s experience by adding an endnote example outside the text.

How do I make the endnote numbers?

Don’t enter the numbers manually! The “Insert Citation” or “Insert Reference” function in your word processing software (such as MS Word) will add the note numbers and make room for the note automatically. This function’s name differs slightly between programs.

How is an endnote supposed to look?

A five-space indentation marks the first line of each endnote, and subsequent lines are flush to the left margin. Each endnote number should be preceded by a period and space, with the right note following the space.

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Sample Endnotes in MLA Style

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Turabian Style Guide: Sample Papers in Turabian

  • Turabian (& Chicago)
  • Sample Papers in Turabian
  • Research Paper Topics
  • Research Tools This link opens in a new window

Sample Turabian Papers

  • Turabian Style paper (Austin Peay State University) from Austin Peay State University, Academic Support Center
  • "Turabian Tutor" (Tennessee Temple University) Tennessee Temple University, Turabian-style paper
  • Intro to Chicago-Turabian Style (paper) (University of North Alabama) University of North Alabama, turabian-style paper
  • Sample Turabian Bibliography from Carpenter Library, UNF

Turabian formatting in Word

Turabian title page in Word

Simple Formatting Guidelines

  • Paper size - 8.5 inch x 11 inch
  • 1 inch on all four edges of the page
  • Typeface/Font size
  • Easily read; preferably serifed, ex. Times New Roman
  • 12-point is accepted size
  • Spacing/Indentation  
  • Double-space text with exceptions that are single-spaced:
  • Block quotations
  • Table elements, ex. titles and figure captions
  • Appendices' lists
  • Footnotes/endnotes are single-spaced but separated by a space between each item.
  • Items in a bibliography/reference list are single-spaced but each item is separated by a space.
  • Do not number the title page.
  • Start arabic numbers (at 1) on first page of paper that is not considered front matter (front matter = title page).
  • Place page numbers consistently in same location throughout paper: 
  • Options for page numbers include: centered in footer OR right-hand of footer OR centered in header OR right-hand of header
  •    Title Page elements
  • Center all elements
  • Use consistent typeface and font size
  • font size can increase slightly for title elements
  • preferred format is boldface for title
  • Employ Headline Capitalization with All Elements  (first letter of each noun/pronoun is capitalized) ( definition of Headline Style Capitalization)
  • Title is placed approx. 1/3 down the page. A subtitle follow the main title with a colon and starts on a new line.
  • Two-thirds down the page, your name, any title page information provided by your professor, and the date should be included.
  • Body of Paper (Text)
  • Includes 
  • Introduction
  • Quotations, including block quotations, should follow Turabian's standard formatting rules.
  • Text Formatting
  • Be consistent throughout body of paper with typeface, font size, and other formatting elements.
  • Make sure text is aligned left.
  • Do not add color in the text (hyperlinked text will automatically become blue; this is unavoidable).
  • Block quotations should be set apart by blank space above and below and, internally, should be single-spaced. 
  • Back Matter elements
  • Notes (endnotes section) ( http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/DocChicago_Notes_Formatting.html )
  • Bibliography OR References OR Works Cited (your choice as to heading)
  • Center page titles
  • Font size can increase slightly for title elements.
  • Preferred format is  boldface  for  title
  • Leave two blank spaces between heading and first endnote/work referenced.
  • Notes section
  • Use standard paragraph indentations for each endnote.
  • Single-space each endnote and separate each by a blank space.
  • Use standard-size numbers with periods to enumerate your endnote list.
  • Bibliography/References/Works Cited section
  • Use hanging indentations for works referenced (first line is not indented; second and remaining lines are indented standard tab of five spaces)
  • This section is typically arranged alphabetically by author, then alphabetically by title if you list multiple works by one author. 

All information comes from 

Turabian, Kate L.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations :  Chicago Style for Students & Researchers . 8th ed. Chicago:    University of Chicago Press, 2013. 

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How to use and write Footnotes and Endnotes in academic papers

Research papers and reports often include adjuncts such as charts and graphs, tables , diagrams, a hierarchy of headings, citations and references etc. Notes – whether footnotes or endnotes – are an important adjunct. They primarily serve the role of supplying additional information , which, if weaved into the main text, may reduce its ease of readability .

Footnotes vs. endnotes

  • Location : By definition, footnotes appear at the foot of a page on which appears the text they support. Endnotes are placed at the end of a paper, a chapter or a book.
  • Space : Footnotes, being located at the bottom of each individual page, are constrained by the amount of space available, whereas endnotes, located right at the end of the text, are afforded much more ample room.
  • Amount of information (and flow) : The above point (space) is a useful distinction that tells readers what to expect. Footnotes offer small bits of information that you can choose to take in without breaking stride. You could take a quick look and return to the main text on the same page. On the other hand, endnotes may sometimes contain sizeable amounts of information, but you do not have to interrupt your reading of the main text. You can choose to read them once you have reached the end of the document.

Footnotes: Examples

As discussed, footnotes comprise small bits of information short enough to take in at a glance. Here are a couple of examples to illustrate the function of footnotes.

  • A text may mention the name of an organisation and use a footnote to explain that the organisation had a different name in the past.
  • A text may mention a certain sum of money in Korean Won, and the corresponding footnotes will indicate the equivalent sum in US dollars. 

Endnotes: Examples

As discussed too, endnotes can comprise much longer parcels of information. Here too are a couple of examples to illustrate the use of endnotes.

  • While you may describe a certain method in your main text, you might use an endnote to outline in more detail some other tangential studies , perhaps from a slightly different field, which used that same method , the results they produced and why this may be of interest.
  • You might cite an important quotation within the main body of your text and then include in a related endnote the full paragraph or section from which that quotation was taken, thus enabling interested readers to explore the wider context and additional insights if they wish. 

Usage in academic papers and digital documents

As an author of an academic paper, you can choose between footnotes and endnotes depending on how much additional information you want to give. Be aware, however, that footnotes and endnotes, especially endnotes, are virtually never used in research papers in the physical and biological sciences . They may sometimes be used in the social sciences and are more commonly seen in the humanities .

In digital documents, the distinction between footnotes and endnotes and their placement is less important, because the additional information can be connected to the main text with hyperlinks .

Writing footnotes and endnotes

  • Superscripts and symbols : Within the main text, both footnotes and endnotes are typically signalled, or announced, using superscript numbers, although, for footnotes, other symbols such as a star or an asterisk (*), a dagger or obelisk (†), a double dagger or diesis (‡), a section mark (§), a pilcrow or blind p (¶), and so on are also employed, usually in that order. Do note that these symbols are never used with endnotes .
  • Numbers : With numbered footnotes, the sequence either begins afresh on each page or can be continued throughout within a paper, a chapter (e.g. if the book has chapters by different contributors) or a book. Endnotes are always numbered and the sequence is always continuous .
  • Heading for endnotes : Note that the heading for endnotes, when all of them are gathered at the end, is simply ‘Notes’ and not ‘Endnotes’.
  • Footnotes for tables : Table titles, column or row headings, or specific cells within a table can all carry footnotes. Those footnotes are explained at the foot of the table in question and not at the foot of a page on which the table appears.

As a scholar, try to familiarise yourself with the idea of notes and their related mechanics as early on in your writing process as possible. These details can seem numerous at first, but once you master them, you will be able to spontaneously incorporate them into your writing.

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How to Do Endnotes

Last Updated: March 23, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Megan Morgan, PhD . Megan Morgan is a Graduate Program Academic Advisor in the School of Public & International Affairs at the University of Georgia. She earned her PhD in English from the University of Georgia in 2015. There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 233,734 times.

Proper citation of sources is necessary to give credit to the authors whose work informed yours, to point readers to the sources you used, and to show the breadth of your research. Though endnotes are less commonly used in student or academic papers than in-line citations or footnotes, they are quite common in books, where they make for a cleaner page. The basics of endnotes are always the same – numbered notes within the text refer to numbered entries in a notes section at the end of the document – but there are minor differences depending on whether you use Chicago or MLA (Modern Language Association) style.

Inserting Endnotes

Step 1 Use endnotes to cite sources.

  • To avoid plagiarism, you must correctly attribute ideas and quotations, which is using someone else's ideas or material without acknowledgement (intentionally or unintentionally). If you are a student, plagiarism may result in disciplinary action. If you are an academic or professional, plagiarism will result in, at best, the rejection of your manuscript, and at worst disciplinary action. People have even their degrees revoked when plagiarism was discovered. [1] X Research source
  • To allow the reader to check your work. Proper citations allow readers to look up the quotes and ideas you used in context, to see if they agree with your interpretation. [2] X Research source
  • To allow interested readers to dig deeper. Endnotes allow readers interested in your topic to easily locate the sources that informed it so that they can read them as well.
  • To show that you have considered a variety of sources. Endnotes allow you to show the reader that you have considered all of the major arguments regarding your given topic, or if you have not, allows them to easily see which authors you have failed to consider.

Step 2 Keep track of your sources as you research your paper.

  • Page number
  • Author name, as well as the name of any editors or translators
  • Book name, place of publishing, name of publisher, and year of publishing if a book
  • Article name, periodical name, volume and series number, and date of publication

Step 3 Put endnotes at the end of your paper.

  • Pushing citations to the end of a paper or work helps to create clean, uncluttered pages. This is why endnotes are often preferred in books.
  • Having all the citations in one place allows the reader to digest them as a whole.
  • On the other hand, not having citations on the page means the reader will have to flip to the back of your manuscript each time they want to look something up, which can be frustrating.
  • Endnotes can give the impression that you are trying to hide your citations.

Step 4 Insert note numbers in the text to reference your endnotes.

  • Note numbers should follow punctuation. Never put a note number before a period, comma, or quotation mark.
  • Note numbers should be consecutive throughout an entire paper.
  • In a book, note numbers may restart with each chapter, in which case the endnotes should be divided by chapter.
  • Put the superscript number at the end of the clause or sentence in which you reference someone else's materials. [5] X Research source For example: "According to Hoskins and Garrett, IQ tests are often problematic, 1 but I argue that it is still possible to implement them usefully in school settings."

Step 5 Create a separate endnotes page.

  • Indent the first line of each endnote half an inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin. Additional lines within a single endnote should be flush with the left hand margin.
  • Use the appropriate citation form per your style guide.

Step 6 Pick a word processor that inserts notes and creates an automatic link to the endnotes page.

Using Chicago (Turabian) Style

Step 1 Use Chicago style mainly for history, but also sometimes for the literature and arts.

  • Chicago style uses endnotes (or footnotes) to cite sources, rather than providing inline citation. This is a key difference from MLA style, which uses inline citation.
  • In Chicago style, it is recommended to always write the author name and title, not just the author name, in subsequent citations after the first full one.
  • In Chicago style, a bibliography typically follows the endnotes. The bibliography lists all sources in alphabetical order by author’s last name. You should add entries to it every time you create a note. The format is slightly different from endnotes. See http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html for more information.

Step 2 Provide complete information the first time you cite a work.

  • Book (author) – Author’s First and Last Name, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
  • Book (editor) – Author’s First and Last Name, ed., Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
  • Journal Article – Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume (Year): page number(s).
  • Newspaper – Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Newspaper , date, page number(s).
  • For all source types, if there are two to three authors, list their names with commas between them. For more than three authors, write the first author's name, a comma, and “et al.” in place of any remaining authors.
  • For a complete list of source types and their appropriate formats, see http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html .

Step 3 Use only the author’s name, the title, and the page number for previously cited sources.

  • Author’s last name, Title, page number(s). (If the title is not fiction or poetry, you can use a shortened form of the title if it is longer than four words.)

Step 4 Write “ibid” if you are citing the same source in two or more consecutive endnotes.

  • 1 Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Love in the Time of Cholera , trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 27-28.
  • 2 Ibid., 45.

Step 5 Place the Notes page just before the Bibliography.

  • In some cases, your teacher may prefer you to single-space endnotes and leave a blank line between each entry. If you have questions, consult with your teacher. [12] X Research source

Using MLA Style

Step 1 Use MLA (Modern Language Association) style for work in the liberal arts and humanities.

  • MLA style does not recommend using endnotes to cite works. You should use inline citation in MLA style unless specifically told otherwise.
  • In most cases, you will still need to provide a Works Cited page in addition to your endnotes.

Step 2 Create a bibliographic endnote.

  • For example, "For further discussion of this phenomenon, see also King, 53; Norris, 175-185; and Kozinsky, 299-318."
  • For example, "Several other studies also reach similar conclusions. For examples, see also Brown and Spiers 24-50, Chapel 30-45, and Philips 50-57."

Step 3 Create an explanatory endnote.

  • For example, "Although it is less commonly known than her major works, singer-songwriter Wendy's 1980 album Cookies also deals with the idea of ecofriendly agriculture."
  • For example, "Johnson reiterated this point in a conference talk in 2013, although she worded it less forcefully there."

Step 4 Place the Notes page before the Works Cited.

  • Center the word Notes on the page. Do not use any formatting or quote marks. If you have only one endnote, use the word Note.
  • Double-space endnotes in MLA style.

Community Q&A

Jaydenkinz

  • Other style guides may also use endnotes, although APA Style, commonly used in social sciences, does not. [16] X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source If you are writing for a journal or publisher that has an in-house style guide, consult with them about endnote requirements. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

research paper with endnotes example

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Do Footnotes

  • ↑ https://edu.gcfglobal.org/en/useinformationcorrectly/avoiding-plagiarism/1/
  • ↑ http://web.grinnell.edu/Dean/Tutorial/EUS/IC.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.trentu.ca/academicskills/documentation-guide/chicago-style/footnotes-and-endnotes
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/c.php?g=293795&p=1956824
  • ↑ https://guides.lib.uw.edu/hsl/ama/intext
  • ↑ https://support.office.com/en-US/article/Add-footnotes-and-endnotes-BFF71B0C-3EC5-4C37-ABC1-7C8E7D6F2D78
  • ↑ https://support.office.com/en-US/article/Add-footnotes-and-endnotes-61F3FB1A-4717-414C-9A8F-015A5F3FF4CB
  • ↑ https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/dam/jcr:e7d5f449-dd5e-42c7-89dc-a264d75f4c23/Turabian-Tip-Sheet-11.pdf
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/chicago_manual_17th_edition/cmos_formatting_and_style_guide/chicago_manual_of_style_17th_edition.html
  • ↑ http://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/turabian-footnote-guide
  • ↑ http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/qanda/data/faq/topics/Documentation/faq0240.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_endnotes_and_footnotes.html
  • ↑ https://guides.library.brandeis.edu/citations/MLA
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa6_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/footnotes_and_endnotes.html

About This Article

Megan Morgan, PhD

To use endnotes in a paper, start by inserting a superscript number that corresponds with the source each time you reference it in your paper. Then, at the end of your paper, create a new page with the heading, “Notes.” List the sources, including the author’s first and last name, the title and date of the publication, and the page number for each one. Separate each element with a comma, then add a period after the page number. For two different ways to format your endnotes, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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research paper with endnotes example

The following examples show the fields required in EndNote Online for each reference type and an example in the ATU (Galway/Mayo) Harvard reference style.

Access date

MURPHY, P., 2021. 'Ireland’s sculptures: Where are the women?'.  The Irish Times . 21 April. Available from:  https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/art-and-design/visual-art/ireland-s-sculptures-where-are-the-women-1.4539459  [Viewed 25 May 2021].

Edit reference to add in 'URL' and 'Date accessed'.

Series title

Date recorded

Date accessed

Type of work

Year released

Distributor

Date released

Liveline,  2021 RTE Radio 1. 24 May 13:45. Available from:  https://www.rte.ie/radio/radioplayer/html5/#/radio1/21957668  [Viewed 25 May 2021].

Edit reference to delete title repeated after year of publication and add in 'URL' and 'Access date'.

Series Title

DOYLE, M., 2021. Communication through body language [Recorded lecture]. Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Available from: https://web.microsoftstream.com/video/12345 [Viewed 10 May 2021].

Institution

Place published

NATIONAL STANDARDS AUTHORITY OF IRELAND, 2015. IS EN ISO 14644-1: Cleanrooms and associated controlled environments. Classification of air cleanliness by particle concentration . Dublin: National Standards Authority of Ireland.

Name of Act

Statute number

ACAMPORA, H., 2017.  Interactions between seabirds and pollution in Irish waters.  Ph.D. Thesis, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. Available from:  https://research.thea.ie/handle/20.500.12065/2214  [viewed 19 April 2021].

Edit reference to add in 'URL' and 'Access date'.

TOLU_IBIXX, 2021.  Dublin TikTokers with Nigerian heritage do hilarious take on accent challenge  [TikTok]. 15 April. Available from:  https://www.tiktok.com/@tolu_ibixx?lang=en%22  [Viewed 5 May 2021].

Síle Seoige: Deireadh Tochta .  2021. TG4. 7 April: 20.00.

Edit reference to have name of programme appear once (as above).

‘Iarnród Enda’.  2021.  Ennis to Kilkee,  Series 1, episode 3. RTE 1, 19 April, 20.30.

Edit reference to have name of programme appear once (as above) and replace with name of episode, series number and episode number..

NOLAN, B., 2021.  Pretty pastel swirls grace the sky as #twilight subsumes the #sunset, lifting yellow, blue, cream, ochre, and violet hues off the artist’s palette, creating Mother Nature’s spring wardrobe, this evening at Barna  [Twitter]. 7 April. Available from:  https://twitter.com/GalwayWalks  [Viewed 6 May 2021].

Edit reference to ​​​​insert date before URL. 

ATU CHANNEL, 2021.  ATU Virtual Choir performs Bohemian Rhapsody  [Online video]. Available from:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7NXIv53jyQ  [Viewed 4 May 2021].

Edit reference to make title in italics. 

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IMAGES

  1. Using Endnotes in a Research Paper

    research paper with endnotes example

  2. Endnotes example. Footnotes and Endnotes. 2022-10-24

    research paper with endnotes example

  3. How to Use Endnotes: Tips, Examples, and How to Add Them in Word

    research paper with endnotes example

  4. What is an endnote in chicago style paper

    research paper with endnotes example

  5. What Are Endnotes?

    research paper with endnotes example

  6. Endnotes ~ Guide to How to Use Them Correctly

    research paper with endnotes example

VIDEO

  1. Desktop EndNote: using it for a systematic review

  2. How to write a research paper conclusion

  3. How to Cite in Word

  4. EndNote Tutorials : How To Read Literature

  5. Footnote and Endnote in MS Word in Tamil

  6. How to use EndNote: Adding References

COMMENTS

  1. What Are Endnotes?

    Revised on June 7, 2022. Endnotes are notes that appear at the end of your text in a piece of academic writing. They're indicated in the text with numbers (or occasionally other symbols). Endnotes are used: For citations in certain styles. To add extra information that doesn't fit smoothly into the main text.

  2. How to Use Endnotes: Tips, Examples, and How to Add Them in Word

    1. Place your cursor where you would like the superscript to appear. 2. Under the References tab, click Insert Endnote. This will make the superscript appear in the text, where you placed your cursor. 3. The corresponding number will automatically appear at the end of your text, where you can write your citation.

  3. Using Endnotes in a Research Paper

    Learn how to write endnotes using an endnotes example in MLA, APA, and Chicago style. Using Research Paper Endnotes Example. Endnotes and footnotes are created the same way in a research paper. The difference between endnotes and footnotes is placement: a footnote is at the bottom of the page; an endnote belongs at the end of a paper, book, or ...

  4. MLA Endnotes and Footnotes

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  5. What are Endnotes? A Practical Guide with Examples

    Endnotes are typically used when the note's content is too long or detailed to include in the main text or when the information interrupts the main text flow. Nevertheless, MLA in-text citations appear in parentheses, but you can use endnotes to avoid cluttering the text if you need a lot of citations in one place.

  6. What Are the Purpose of Endnotes and How to Use Them

    An "endnote" is a reference, explanation, or comment placed at the end of an article, research paper, chapter, or book. Like footnotes (which are used in this article), endnotes serve two main purposes in a research paper: (1) They acknowledge the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary; and (2) They provide explanatory comments that ...

  7. Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

    Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style. The examples in this guide are meant to introduce you to the basics of citing sources using Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (seventh edition) . Kate Turabian created her first "manual" in 1937 as a means of simplifying for students The Chicago Manual of Style; the ...

  8. Footnotes or Endnotes?

    Things to keep in mind when considering using either endnotes or footnotes in your research paper:. 1. Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout a research paper, except for those notes accompanying special material (e.g., figures, tables, charts, etc.). Numbering of footnotes are "superscript"--Arabic numbers typed slightly above the line of text.

  9. Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sample Papers

    Chicago Manual of Style offers the option to use footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical in-text citations featuring an author / date format. Footnotes or endnotes allow for citation information to be easily accessible at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). Notes also allow for supplemental explanatory text ...

  10. Endnotes ~ Guide to How to Use Them Correctly

    Citing sources properly is required to give acknowledgement to the writers whose work influenced your own, to direct readers to the sources you used, and to demonstrate the scope of your research. Although endnotes are used less frequently in student or academic papers than in-text citations or footnotes, they are extremely prevalent in books, where they contribute to a cleaner page.

  11. Sample Endnotes in MLA Style

    Looking at taboo in a modern society, Marvin Harris gives an interesting example of the application of cultural materialism to the Hindu taboo against eating beef. 7. Begin your Endnotes page by centering the title Endnotes or Notes 1″ (2.5 cm) or about 6 lines from the top of the page. Double-space your entries, indent each Endnote citation ...

  12. Footnotes and Endnotes

    APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the ...

  13. Turabian Style Guide: Sample Papers in Turabian

    Simple Formatting Guidelines. Margins. Paper size - 8.5 inch x 11 inch. 1 inch on all four edges of the page. Typeface/Font size. Easily read; preferably serifed, ex. Times New Roman. 12-point is accepted size. Spacing/Indentation.

  14. How to use footnotes and endnotes in research papers

    Footnotes vs. endnotes. Location: By definition, footnotes appear at the foot of a page on which appears the text they support. Endnotes are placed at the end of a paper, a chapter or a book. Space: Footnotes, being located at the bottom of each individual page, are constrained by the amount of space available, whereas endnotes, located right ...

  15. PDF SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER

    Papers that are written in Chicago Style should have a title page that presents the student's information. Included on this title page should be the title of the paper, the student's name, and the course information about the paper's class. The example title page of this example essay was modeled from Rampolla's pocket guide from page 146.

  16. 3 Ways to Do Endnotes

    Author's last name, Title, page number (s). (If the title is not fiction or poetry, you can use a shortened form of the title if it is longer than four words.) 4. Write "ibid" if you are citing the same source in two or more consecutive endnotes. In this case, there is no need to write even the author's name.

  17. CMOS NB Sample Paper

    CMOS NB Sample Paper. This resource contains the Notes and Bibliography (NB) sample paper for the Chicago Manual of Style 17 th edition. To download the sample paper, click this link.

  18. Endnotes In A Research Paper Examples

    Sample Endnotes in MLA Style If you indent your paragraphs. the entire essay is typed double-spaced. Title of essay centered. 1" (2. 5 cm) margin on all four sides. page number at upper right hand corner ½" (1. 25 cm) down from the top. Like footnotes (which are used in this article). endnotes serve two main purposes in a research paper ...

  19. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition

    For examples of how these citation styles work in research papers, consult our sample papers: Author-Date Sample Paper. NB Sample Paper. In addition to consulting The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition) for more information, students may also find it useful to consult Kate L. Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and ...

  20. LibGuides: EndNote Online: EndNote Reference Examples A-Z

    The following examples show the fields required in EndNote Online for each reference type and an example in the ATU (Galway/Mayo) Harvard reference style. ... Conference paper (Book) Book section: Author. Title. Year. Editor. Book Title ... 2021. 'Feature Cluster: Proceedings of the Thirtieth European Conference on Operational Research (EURO ...

  21. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.