- Punjab Text Books
- Sindh Text Books
- Balochistan Text Books
- KPK Text Books
- Federal Text Books
- SNC Text Books
- Chapterwise Notes
- Full Book Notes
- 9th Class Helping Books PDF
- 10th Class Helping Books PDF
- 11th Class Helping Books PDF
- 12th Class Helping Books PDF
- Class 9 Pairing Scheme 2024
- Class 10 Pairing Scheme 2024
- Class 11 Pairing Scheme 2024
- Class 12 Pairing Scheme 2024
- AIOU Matric Books
- AIOU F.A Books
- AIOU Matric Past Papers
- AIOU B.A Past Papers
- AIOU Solved Assignments
- Class 9 Chapterwise Tests
- Class 10 Chapterwise Tests
- Class 11 Chapterwise Tests
- Class 12 Chapterwise Tests
- Full & Half Book Tests
- 9th Class Guess Papers
- 10th Class Guess Papers
- 11th Class Guess Papers
- 12th Class Guess Papers
- 9th Class Result & Gazettes
- 10th Class Result & Gazettes
- 11th Class Result & Gazettes
- 12th Class Result & Gazettes
- O/A-Level Books
- IGCSE Books
- Cambridge Books
- Edexcel Books
- Oxford Books
- Language Books
- Live Chat for Students

## AIOU Code 201 Solved Assignment No.3 (Spring 2021)

AIOU Matric Assignments AIOU Studio 9 4.4K 9th Jun, 2021

## Loading please wait...

Download Allama Iqbal Open University Solved Assignments in PDF for Matric Spring 2021 Semester. Subject Title: Islamiat (Lazmi) Course Code: 0201 Solved Assignment No: 3 Spring 2021 and Onwards Format: PDF

Copyright Policy: This website has been created only for educational purpose. The data has been posted by general public as well. Our intention is not to infringe any copyright policy. If you are the copyright holder of any of the content uploaded on this site, and don't want it to be here. Instead of taking any other action, Please contact us . Your complaint would be honored, and the highlighted content will be removed instantly. Here we would say " Special Thanks " to all those copyright owners who allowed us to share their content and did not ask to take down their content.

## Related Books

## AIOU Code 200 Solved Assignment No.1 (Spring 2021)

Download Allama Iqbal Open University Solved Assignments in PDF for Matric Spring 2021 Semester. S...

## AIOU Code 200 Solved Assignment No.2 (Spring 2021)

## AIOU Code 200 Solved Assignment No.3 (Spring 2021)

## AIOU Code 200 Solved Assignment No.4 (Spring 2021)

## AIOU Code 201 Solved Assignment No.1 (Spring 2021)

## AIOU Code 201 Solved Assignment No.2 (Spring 2021)

- AIOU BA (Spring 2019)
- AIOU Matric (Spring 2019)
- AIOU Matric (Autumn 2018)
- AIOU Matric Assignments
- Ambitious Academy
- AMC Test Preparations
- B.COM Part 1 Notes
- B.COM Part 2 Notes
- AFC - CA (Old Scheme)
- CAF - CA (Old Scheme)
- CFAP - CA (Old Scheme)
- CAF - CA (New Scheme)
- Current Affairs
- English Essays
- Pakistan Affairs
- Islamic Studies
- General Science & Ability
- English Precis & Comp.
- Comparative Studies
- Accounting & Auditing
- Computer Science
- CSS Interview Guide
- English Essay
- English Precis & Comp
- CSS Results
- Date Sheets
- Civil Engineering Books
- Mechanical Engineering Books
- ETEA Past Papers
- General Knowledge Books
- 10th Guess Papers
- 9th Guess Papers
- 11th Guess Papers
- 12th Guess Papers
- ADP/BA/BSc Guess Papers
- HEC USAT Books
- 11th Helping Books
- 12th Helping Books
- 9th Helping Books
- 10th Helping Books
- Graduation Helping Books
- 4th Class Helping Books
- 9th Biology Notes (EM)
- 11th English Notes
- 9th Chemistry Notes (EM)
- 9th Physics Notes (EM)
- 9th Maths Notes (EM)
- 10th Physics Notes (EM)
- 10th Chemistry Notes (EM)
- 10th Biology Notes (EM)
- 10th Maths Notes (EM)
- 12th English Notes
- 9th English Notes
- 10th English Notes
- 11th Class Physics Notes
- 9th Tarjuma Quran Notes
- 11th Helping Notes
- 12th Helping Notes
- 9th Helping Notes
- 10th Helping Notes
- History Books
- Sahih Al Bukhari
- Sahih Muslim
- ISSB Preparations
- JST/PST/JEST/HST/ECT
- Law & Legal Books
- LAT Past Papers
- Lecturer / PPSC Books
- Entry Test Tips & Tricks
- MDCAT Past Papers
- Dogar Entry Test Books
- STEP by PGC
- KIPS Academy Books
- NUST Past Papers
- Redspot Books
- Nearpeer Books
- ECAT Past Papers
- Stars Academy
- KNACK Institute
- ERA Institute
- Grip Institute
- AlRehman Series
- Anees Hussain Books
- Salman ul Waheed Books
- Punjab College Books
- Scienta Vision Books
- Worksheets by SKN
- PMC Practice Tests
- NMDCAT Feedback MCQs
- Merit Lists
- NMDCAT Tests 2022
- Nearpeer Practice Books
- MDCAT Syllabus
- WAK ETB Series
- 11th Class MCQs
- 12th Class MCQs
- 9th Class MCQs
- 10th Class MCQs
- Class 12 NCERT Books
- NTS Preparations
- NUMS Entry Test Books
- Science Books
- Research Papers
- English Books
- Poetry Books
- Motivational Books
- PAF Test Books
- 9th Pairing Schemes
- 10th Pairing Schemes
- 11th Pairing Schemes
- 12th Pairing Schemes
- 12th Past Papers (ALP)
- 11th Past Papers (ALP)
- 9th Past Papers
- 10th Past Papers
- PPSC Past Papers
- 9th Class Results Gazette
- 10th Class Results Gazette
- 11th Class Results Gazette
- 12th Class Results Gazette
- Smart Syllabus (Punjab)
- 10th Smart Notes
- 9th Smart Notes
- 9th Test Papers
- 10th Test Papers
- 11th Test Papers
- 12th Test Papers
- Star Education Academy
- 10th Tests (8 Divisions)
- 9th Tests (8 Divisions)
- 9th Tests (F.B & H.B)
- 10th Tests (F.B & H.B)
- 11th Tests (F.B & H.B)
- 12th Tests (F.B & H.B)
- 11th Books (Balochistan)
- 12th Books (Balochistan)
- 10th Books (Balochistan)
- 9th Books (Balochistan)
- 8th Books (Balochistan)
- 7th Books (Balochistan)
- 6th Books (Balochistan)
- 5th Books (Balochistan)
- 4th Books (Balochistan)
- Class 3 Textbooks (BTBB)
- Class 2 Textbooks (BTBB)
- Class 1 Textbooks (BTBB)
- 11th Text Books (Federal)
- 12th Text Books (Federal)
- 9th Text Books (Federal)
- 10th Text Books (Federal)
- Class 2 Federal Textbooks
- Class 1 Textbooks (FBISE)
- Class 3 FBISE Textbooks
- Class 4 Textbooks (FBISE)
- 5th Class FBISE Textbooks
- Class 6 Federal Textbooks
- 11th Text Books (KPK)
- 12th Text Books (KPK)
- 9th Text Books (KPK)
- 10th Text Books (KPK)
- Class 1 Text Books (KPK)
- Class 2 Text Books (KPK)
- Class 3 Text Books (KPK)
- 4th Text Books (KPK)
- 5th Class KPK Text Books
- 6th Class KPK Text Books
- 7th Class KPK Text Books
- 8th Class KPK Text Books
- 5th Text Books
- 6th Text Books
- 10th Text Books
- 11th Text Books
- 12th Text Books
- 8th Text Books
- 7th Text Books
- 9th Text Books
- 4th Text Books
- Class 3 Text Books
- Class 2 Text Books
- Class 1 Text Books
- Kachi Text Books
- 9th - 10th (Combined)
- Class-4 Textbooks (Sindh)
- Class-1 Textbooks (Sindh)
- 11th Textbooks (Sindh)
- 12th Textbooks (Sindh)
- Class-3 Textbooks (Sindh)
- Class-2 Textbooks (Sindh)
- Class-5 Textbooks (Sindh)
- 6th Textbooks (Sindh)
- 7th Text Books (Sindh)
- 8th Text Books (Sindh)
- 9th Text Books (Sindh)
- 9th/10th (Combined Sindh)
- 10th Text Books (Sindh)
- Class 5 (SNC Books)
- 4th Class SNC Books
- Class 3 SNC Books
- Class 2 SNC Books
- Class 1 SNC Books
- Kachi SNC Books

## Report Issue

- Site Languages

Vast collection of Textbooks, Helping Books, Notes, Date Sheets, Pairing Schemes, Entry Test and other exams materials. The best platform for students and teachers to store books / notes online for easy sharing.

## Useful links

- Android App
- Search Results
- Privacy Policy
- Terms & Condition
- Copyrights & Thanks
- Advertise With Us
- Account & Data Deletion

## Graduate.Pk

- Top Universities in Pakistan
- Top Universities in Lahore
- Top Universities in Karachi
- Top Universities in Islamabad
- Admission Guideline
- Find AIOU Tutor List
- Solved Assignments
- Admission Updates
- Fee Structures
- Explore All Institutes
- Entrance Exams
- Competitive Exams
- Assessment Tests
- Board Exams
- Explore All
- Master Courses
- Undergradute Courses
- M Phil Courses
- Ph.d Research
- Institute Reviews
- Recent Questions
- Ask a Question
- University Comparison
- News & Articles

## Free Download AIOU Solved Assignments 2021

If you are looking for Allama Iqbal Open University solved assignments for Spring Semester 2021 you are at the right place. Explore following the list of all solved and unsolved assignments for all the subject codes and classes.

You can get help from our solved assignments if you are facing any kind of trouble solving tough assignments of AIOU and does not have time to complete.

We have all solved assignments for

- Matric and Intermediate (FA / I.Com)
- BA & BA General
- Associate Degree Program
- Library and Information Sciences
- All Master Programs

## How to Submit AIOU Assignment in Aaghi LMS

Continue reading If you are confused or do not know how to submit Assignment in Allama Iqbal Open University.

- If you are a student of Matric, FA/ICom or BA/BCom you have to write the assignment in handwritten format and then send it via Post.
- If you are a student of BS, MA, MSc, BEd, MEd or Post Graduate Diploma you can either write your assignment by hand and send it via Post or you can type your assignment in MS Word and then upload it to Aaghi LMS Portal

## AIOU solved assignment code 1423

Ba compulsory english.

Assignment number 1 for compulsory English 2020 autumn semester for BA Classes

## AIOU solved assignment code 416

Ba islamiyat lazmi.

Islamiyat Lazmi (Compulsory) solved assignment for autumn semester 2020 for BA. Urdu Typed question and answers.

- 1 (current)

## Worried about Entrance Exam ?

If you need help

## Compare Universities

Before you take Admission

AIOU Bachelor (BA/B.Com) Autumn 2021 Solved Assignments

Assalam-O-Alaikum! At This Page, You Can Get Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad Bachelor Class (General Group / Mass Communication) / B.Com / BLIS Class Solved Assignments Of Autumn 2021. You Can Download Solved Assignments Of Autumn 2021 From The Available Link At Down Below.

AIOU Solved Assignment 2021 BA / B.Com

AIOU solved assignments 2021 spring semester of BA / B.Com level are available on our website Any student can download AIOU solved assignment 2021 of BA / B.Com level in PDF file format. Click on the concerned assignment for downloading .

## You may like these posts

Aiou solved assignment.

## Sidebar Posts

Social plugin, important link.

- fresh admission
- Tutor Information
- Cms account
- LMS account
- workshop information
- solved assignment spring 2023
- assignment last date 2023
- Government jobs

## Popular post

How to open cms portal aiou march 28, 2022, online tutor address aiou march 28, 2022, aiou continue student online admission march 27, 2022, aiou workshop schedule autumn 2022 december 19, 2022.

- admission 40
- Admissions Open For Semester Spring 2022 29
- aiou pdf compress online 1
- aiou solved assignment 3
- AIOU solved assignments autumn 2021 1
- AIOU Solved Assignments B.ED Autumn 2021 1
- AIOU Solved Assignments BS Autumn 2021 1
- aiou tutor 1
- solved assignment 11
- New Admission
- continue student admission
- assignment/workshop marks
- Roll No slip
- lms account

- Privacy Policy
- cookie policy
- terms and conditions

## Footer Copyright

Contact form.

- Original Books

## Solved Assignments

- Guess Paper

Welcome to our website. If you are a student of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and pursuing BS English program, then you have come to the right place. We offer solved assignments for Matric, FA, I.COM, BA, B.COM, Associate Degree, BS 4 Years, BS 2.5 Years, MA, MSC, MED, BED, ADE programs that you can download easily from our website. Apart from this, we also have helping books available for purchase that can assist you in preparing for your exams. To stay updated with our latest resources, we recommend that you subscribe to our AIOU Studio 9 – M. Daniyal Iqbal YouTube channel, where we regularly upload informative videos related to AIOU and its programs.

Video…

## 1,349 comments:

Sir fa ki upload kr dy

Sir yi 311 and 346 ki upload kar dy plz

yaar 203 2nd part be send kr dein

I com part 2 autumn k tutor kkb issue hon gy

311 ki assignments kb tk upload hn gi

376 ki 3ri aur 4thi assignment air plzzz

sir i.com urdu ki 2nd assingment plz

Sir 1422, 1431 k assignment bh upload kr dein please

Sir Assignment marks Kab Thk Show Ho gay F. A kay

321 ke 3rd assignment b upload kr sy sir g

Sir. Please following assignment req. 6476.6477.6486.6487.8608.8613.

345 ki assignment kb aye ge?

Enter your comment...sir tusi great ho sir 413 ayega tu upload kro ji

Asslam o alikum sir

Asalam o alaikum sir kindly upload M.Ed autumn 2019 assignments of these codes 0826, 0827, 0828, 0829, 6552 and 6553.

Please upload 412,455 code Assignment solved

I didn't get my books.

Koi ha Islamabad sa

Sir 209 home ecnomics matric ki assignment de dein please

Sir 431 ki assignments b update kr dain

Sir kindly 413 or 453 ki solve assignment plzzzzzzzzzz

اسلام و علیکم سر مهربانی فرماکرب ایم ایڈ کے اساءهنمنٹ اپلوڈ کروا9ءیں

Assalam-0-Alaikum! Sir B.Com ke 438 or 402 solved assignments upload kr dein.

Koi f. A ki 360 code ki urdu me assignment send kr dyv

AoA sir 321 ke last assignment kab to upload ho ge?

Sir plz code 360 ki urdu me send kr dain plz

Assalam o alaikum daniyal bhai mere pass assignment download NAI ho Raha hai ye Kia masla hai

Aoa.... 444 & 463 ki assignment KB tk uploade ho jaee gii

Bhae 1431 or 463 dono nhe hen kindly upload kr den

419 chahya or 413 ki second download nh ho rahe h

11424 ke assignment??

1424 ke assignment?

411 ke assignment?

B. Ed ki b assignments uploade kr dy

Sir 207 ki jo 2nd assignment hay usk 7 question ap ne dye hvye. 8 wala missing hay. Q k question paper ni milye mujy kindly 8 wala question tu bta dain 207 code ki 2nd assignment ka.

Ma urdu ki autumn 2019 ki kr den 5601 5602 5603 r 5604

Pakistani adab 1 ki assignment kb tak upload hu ge

pakistani adab assignment 2 upload kr den.

b.ed ki assignments upload kr dain plz

Thank you so much....

Sir 1423 code solved assignment chahiya

Assalam-0-Alaikum! Sir Principles Of ACCOUNTING (438) ke assignments update kr dein. Plz

Bed ki b upload kr de

B. Ed ki assignment upload kr du..

Dear sir when upload m.a special Education assignment

please sir MSC economic ki first assignments sloved mein lga dyen please

please sir MSC economic ky 1st semster ki autmn 2019 ki assignments lga dyen solved.

Plz upload 202 assignment no 3and 4.

sir b ed ki urdu me assaingment k sy submit hogi agr impllement hoa to

Sir b. Ed K 8601-8606 assignments update kr dain

Sir 394 ki kr do

Sir 360 code ki assignment urdu me chaiye

360. F. A ki assignment urdu me chaiye

423 ki 1st 2nd 3rd 4th assignment send kara

Sir please matric ki assignment no 1or2ki post Kar dain code 204 or247

Asalam o alaikum sir g M.ed k assignments kab upload hongy???

sir fa ki 305 ki assigment

It is very gud chanle plz sir 389 ke 4 assigmnts uploud kar dain zarorat han plz

389 ke 1 2 3 4 plzzz uploud kar dian

a.o.a i need assignments of b.ed autumn 2019 code 8627,8628,8629,8638 kindly send it on my id please

Sir matric k paper upload krdo plzzz

SIR BE.D KI UPLOAD KR DAIN

Asslam-o-Alaikum, plz need assignment of MSc(Pak Studies) Autumn, 2019 1. (0538) GENESIS OF PAKISTAN MOVEMENT 2. (4657) PAKISTANI LANGUAGES & LITERATURE-I 3. (4656) GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN-II 4. (4655) GEOGRAPHY OF PAKISTAN-I 5. (4658) PAKISTANI LANGUAGES & LITERATURE-II

Sir b. Ed ki assignment kb upload hugi

B.com 3rd smeser autom

Kindly B.e.d 1.5 Years Semester Autumn 2019 ki bhi upload kar dain its a humble request.code 8601/8602/8603/8604/8605/8606

B.A ki upload kr deyn

M a urdu 5609 ce 5612 tk mil sakti hn kya

Sir plazz 426or 429 ki assaigment up load kar day

MA ISLAMIAT ki 3rd semester ki assignments chahye

202ki 3 assignment chyi autum 2019ki

Aoa. Kindly bta dy. K tutor letter abi tk q ni aya

423 assignment upload krda plz

Sr b.a assigment question kitny pages mai likna chaye

5601~5604 plz

M.Sc pak study 3rd semester assignments upload karo code number :541,4663,4664,4665,4666

1108all assignments

Sir 9422 ke upload kr dian

assalam o alaikum bro codes 8627,8628,8629, aur 8638 ki B.Ed Autumn 2019 ki solved assignments jald upload kr den kindly..

Assalam o aliakum sir plz MSc administrative science ki ist semester autumn 2019 ki 1st solved assignments upload Kar dyn, codes : 5001,5002, 5003,5004,5005

Salam respected sir MSC Pakistan studies ka upload kare de 3rd semester ka

Sir blis ka result kal ah ra ha. Please assignment 422 2 assignment upload kerda autumn 2019 ki

MA URDU 5601,5602,5603,5604 upload kr dy solved assignment

M.Sc pak study 3rd semester assignment upload karo

Plz assgmt no 1 ka question 11 ka answer bta dyee plz

Agar aur ksi k pass ho toa plz ap log hee bta dye

6571,72,73,74 hou to upload kr do g

sir 305 ke assignment upload kar doo please

bs computer science ki assignments nahi han

MA Urdu 5601,5602,5603,5604

Bahi msc sociology 4686 4687,4688,4690 ke assignment mil jahy ge

Sir 301 ki 2nd assigmnt plz sexnd m

B.A 456 ki 2nd assignment me 1st assignment dedi hai ghalti se usko update KR dain

6604, 6603, 5632, 5631, 0965, 0964, MSc Mass Communication

Dear sir assignment send 3603'3604'3605'3606'3607'3608'3609'3610 M.ed assignment Special Education

Sir MA URDU k first semester ki assignment upload kr dein plz

Plz sir M.ed education ki assignment's Of autumn 2019 send me in PDF form!

322 assignment no 2 upload kr dain

AoA Sir continue students Admission Bhejain Sirf Challan pay Karna hai?

Challan jama karwana hai bas

great work sir bohat bohat sukria 9 studio

5601، 5602، 5603،5604 کی مکمل مشقیں بھی upload کردیں ۔شکریہ

Plz ma Urdu autmon semester ki upload Kar den 5601,5602,5603,5604 course code ki plzxx

Sir jo aiou ki tarf sa message ah tha is per tutor ka pata nai ha

sir 240 ka assignmnt upload jrdy plzzz

Sir please 429 ki assignments upload kar dein

MSC pak study assignment

sir kindly, M.sc Administrative science k course code 5004 ki solved assignment mail kr den

Thanks sir sooooo much for these assignments but kindly sir uplaod the assignment of code 6473 and 6488

Sir, please M.Sc P.S AssignmentS

429 assignment plzz

Sir BBA ki kr den upload

Sir jo. Abhi new admission ly ry hn 2020 fa (gernal grp) unk ly b yhi assignment hy fa ke? Plz tell me

Sir please upload assignments for MA SPECIAL EDUCATION CODES 3603 , 3604 ,3605 , 3606

Bs accounting ki tmam subject ki First solved assignment to upload kr dejeay

Assalamualikum...plz mjhy fa 0361 code kia assignment chahiay

A.O.A............ Sir Kindly Msc Pak Study ki upload kr dy ........ Thanks

I need Msc gender and women studies 4641 4642 4643 assignments plzzz help me out

M. A education 2020 second smster ki asgnments kb s upload kar dain

sir ma arbi ki assignment ha 4535/4536/4537/4538

4535/4536/4537/4538 m.a Arbi Ki Assignment To Send Kar Daaye

Please upload the assignments of BBA codes8401,8402,8403,5466,5467

Asalam u alekum Sir B.ed science ki assignment kb upload hogi

Sir mujhe 399 ki assignment Chahiye

Plz upload assingment of 0361

Sir thanks alot for help us by every thing

Thanks for everything

please upload Med 2nd sememster solved assignments

Mujhy203 221 248 ke assignment chaheay

ma islamaiat ke asigment uload kar dain code 4622 ,4621,4611

6401 kiii upload kr dein

Sir BA 408 ki upload ker dain

8402, 8401, 8403, 9407, 5466

Thank you so much for help For assigments

5659 upload krdan

PLEASE ADD M.A ISLAMIAT ASSIGNMENTS 4612

ALL ASSIGNMENTS THESIS LESSON PLAN K LIY JUST WHATSAPP (0336-1096048)

msc pak tudy assignment for autumn 2019

Sr msc pak study ke assignment upload kar day

Msc mass communication ki assignments b upload kr Dyan plz

Plz upload m.com 3rd smester assignments

Plz tell me how i can edit these assignmnts if i..

Aoa Sir, Course no. 402 economics ki solved assignment english may mil jaigi? If yes plz bta dain kahan milengi soft may

M.com k assignments upload ni ki hn ????

Sir plzzzz m a islamic 4613 4614 4615 4616 4617 4618 k asigment up load ker dy plzzz

6438.6449.6460.6455.6452.6457..ki assignment upload karen sir

Aoa plz upload 3607 3608 3609 3610

Plz 3607 3608 3609 3610

AOA sir....sir assignments open e ni ho rai plz koi mujy mail kr sqta h 6465 or 6401 ki solved assignments plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz

Mujy yeh assignment chiyay plz upload kar dain Book code 833 834 835 841 842 843

Plz upload msc socialogy assignment

A.o.A kindly mjy b.ed code 6438 ki solved assignment chahye if u send me that I'm really great full too u ...

ASSALAM O ALLAIKUM sr mai na puchna hai k bs mass Communication ki book 9374 (pak studie) ki assignment urdu mai bana sakty hai mujy mass Communication ki all books urdu ma ay hai sirf pak study k to kia ye mai urdu ma kr sakta hu plz sr bata dena zaroor

bai BLIS ki assignments mil saktii han kya

4688 k assignment bij dy sir msc sociology

Plz upload the assignment of m.ed Autumn program 2019

B.Ed 2.5years science education k second semester k assignment ni hyn yahaan??

Aoa, Bhai Kia Ap MA Islamiat ki Assignments Upload Kar saktay hain...2622,2625,2626,2627,2628,2629

A.o.A sir B.com code 456 assignment No 2 correct send kar dy plz kindly os ko dakh kar correct kar dy thanks

A.o.A sir B.com code 456 ki assignment 2 ko correct kar dy plz

very helpfull site #thanks Admin

Sir spring 2020 fa 364 387 312 ki plzzzzzzx

A.o.A sir ba ki assignment kesy download ho gi plz tel me

M.a islamiat ki bejh daein

Sir g 9352 ki assignment upload kr dy pls 1 or 2 aiou se book b ni ai or na h market my available hy abi pls sir g

6469 6479 6493 6494 Ye snd krdy assignment

Dear sir B.s. 9374 and 9352 upload karo thanks

Kindly 4621 Islamic studies upload kry

aoa...plz tell me when u will upload MA TEFL assignment code 5660.61,62

helo sir , MSC Administrative science ki assignmnets ki date extend hoi ha ya nhi

247 ki no1 ki asigmnt

1423 part 1 open nai ho rai Rehnumai farma den

MA islamiat ki Assignmnet mily gi kya ?

msc administrive science assignment 2 all books

Aoa... Sir baqi sb courses ke books available Han, M Ed ke books nae hyn, I need 622 code course plzzz

Dear sir please upload spring 2020 code 221 assignment no 2

Sir Autumn 2019 assignment submission date extend hui ya nahi?

msc Administrative Science ki assignment chiye

In course codes k pdf bejh do koi 6495 6493 6489 6469

Respected, mujhy 6481, 6482 codes ki assignments ki zrurt he. ap ny urdu ki koi b assignment tyar nhi ki. agr ap k pass data he to kindly wo send kr dyn. me 1 ya 2 din me pdf formate me type kr k apko send kr skta hon. ta ky ap Urdu subjects ki assignments ki services b dy skyn. contact: 0092-302-7077991

6441 ki assingment 2 upload kr deh.agr kisi kai pas ha to is no pr share kr deh.03431219250

Plz send both assignment of code 6505,6507whatsapp no 03404740846 regards

AOA sir plz 695 Med ki assignmnt snd kar dain.

aoa kindly Autum 2nd semester ki assgnment kb taak epload karay gay?

F.A 2nd samester 0312 0364 0387

Sir plz 9374ki second assignment b upload kr dein

Sir Spring 2020 i. Com 2nd semester ki assignment kb bnyge??

Sir fa ky krdyyy uplode 2nd samester books a gi haa

Fa spring 2020 ki kb tk upload ho gi

Sir bs english kay 1st semester kay assigment kay date ko extend kiya hay sir

## AIOU Course Code 8417-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

(Department of Business Administration)

Course: Statistical Inference (8417) Semester: Autumn, 2021

Level: BBA (4 Years)

ASSIGNMENT No. 1

- 1 Discuss the following: (20)
- One Sample Testing Statistics

The one sample t test compares the mean of your sample data to a known value. For example, you might want to know how your sample mean compares to the population mean. You should run a one sample t test when you don’t know the population standard deviation or you have a small sample size. For a full rundown on which test to use, see: T-score vs. Z-Score.

Assumptions of the test (your data should meet these requirements for the test to be valid):

Data is independent.

Data is collected randomly. For example, with simple random sampling.

The data is approximately normally distributed.

Example question: your company wants to improve sales. Past sales data indicate that the average sale was $100 per transaction. After training your sales force, recent sales data (taken from a sample of 25 salesmen) indicates an average sale of $130, with a standard deviation of $15. Did the training work? Test your hypothesis at a 5% alpha level.

Step 1: Write your null hypothesis statement (How to state a null hypothesis). The accepted hypothesis is that there is no difference in sales, so:

H0: μ = $100.

Step 2: Write your alternate hypothesis. This is the one you’re testing in the one sample t test. You think that there is a difference (that the mean sales increased), so:

H1: μ > $100.

Step 3: Identify the following pieces of information you’ll need to calculate the test statistic. The question should give you these items:

The sample mean(x̄). This is given in the question as $130.

The population mean(μ). Given as $100 (from past data).

The sample standard deviation(s) = $15.

Number of observations(n) = 25.

Step 4: Insert the items from above into the t score formula.

one sample t test

t = (130 – 100) / ((15 / √(25))

t = (30 / 3) = 10

This is your calculated t-value.

Step 5: Find the t-table value. You need two values to find this:

The alpha level: given as 5% in the question.

The degrees of freedom, which is the number of items in the sample (n) minus 1: 25 – 1 = 24.

Look up 24 degrees of freedom in the left column and 0.05 in the top row. The intersection is 1.711. This is your one-tailed critical t-value.

What this critical value means in a one tailed t test, is that we would expect most values to fall under 1.711. If our calculated t-value (from Step 4) falls within this range, the null hypothesis is likely true.

Step 5: Compare Step 4 to Step 5. The value from Step 4 does not fall into the range calculated in Step 5, so we can reject the null hypothesis. The value of 10 falls into the rejection region (the left tail).

In other words, it’s highly likely that the mean sale is greater. The one sample t test has told us that sales training was probably a success.

- Non-Probability Sampling

Non-probability sampling (sometimes nonprobability sampling) is a branch of sample selection that uses non-random ways to select a group of people to participate in research.

Unlike probability sampling and its methods, non-probability sampling doesn’t focus on accurately representing all members of a large population within a smaller sample group of participants. As a result, not all members of the population have an equal chance of participating in the study.

In fact, some research would deliver better results if non-probability sampling was used. For example, if you’re trying to access hard-to-reach social groups that aren’t usually visible, then a representative sample wouldn’t yield suitable candidates.

Instead, you may opt to select a sample based on your own reasons, including subjective judgment, sheer convenience, volunteers, or – in the above example – referrals from hidden members of society willing to speak out.

use non-probability sampling?

Non-probability sampling is typically used when access to a full population is limited or not needed, as well as in the following instances:

You may want to gain the views of only a niche or targeted set of people, based on their location or characteristics. To ensure that there is plenty of data about the views of these specific people, it would make sense to have a sample full of people meeting the criteria.

If there is a target market that you want to enter, it may be worthwhile doing a small pilot or exploratory research to see if new products and services are feasible to launch.

If money and time are limited, non-probability sampling allows you to find sample candidates without investing a lot of resources.

Where members are not represented traditionally in large populations or fly under the radar, like far-left and right-wing groups, it’s necessary to approach these subjects differently.

estimation, in statistics, any of numerous procedures used to calculate the value of some property of a population from observations of a sample drawn from the population. A point estimate, for example, is the single number most likely to express the value of the property. An interval estimate defines a range within which the value of the property can be expected (with a specified degree of confidence) to fall. The 18th-century English theologian and mathematician Thomas Bayes was instrumental in the development of Bayesian estimation to facilitate revision of estimates on the basis of further information. (See Bayes’s theorem.) In sequential estimation the experimenter evaluates the precision of the estimate during the sampling process, which is terminated as soon as the desired degree of precision has been achieved.

- Non-Parametric Tests

Non-parametric tests, as their name tells us, are statistical tests without parameters. For these types of tests you need not characterize your population’s distribution based on specific parameters. They are also referred to as distribution-free tests due to the fact that they are based n fewer assumptions (e.g. normal distribution). These tests are particularly used for testing hypothesis, whose data is usually non normal and resists transformation of any kind. Due to the lesser amount of assumptions needed, these tests are relatively easier to perform. They are also more robust. An added advantage is the reduction in the effect of outliers and variance heterogeneity on our results. This test can be used for ordinal and sometimes even for nominal data. However, nonparametric tests do have their own disadvantages as well. Firstly, the results that they provide may be less powerful compared to the results provided by the parametric tests. To overcome this problem it is preferred that a larger number of samples be taken if one is adopting this approach. Secondly, their results are usually more difficult to interpret than the results of parametric tests. This is because we usually assign ranks to samples in the case of non-parametric tests rather than using the original data. This further complicates the system and distorts our intuitive understanding of the data. Non-parametric tests are useful and important in many cases, but they may not provide us with the ideal results.

- 2 What is sampling? Explain different types of non-probability sampling techniques in detail with examples. (20)

When you conduct research about a group of people, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every person in that group. Instead, you select a sample. The sample is the group of individuals who will actually participate in the research.

To draw valid conclusions from your results, you have to carefully decide how you will select a sample that is representative of the group as a whole. There are two types of sampling methods:

Probability sampling involves random selection, allowing you to make strong statistical inferences about the whole group.

Non-probability sampling involves non-random selection based on convenience or other criteria, allowing you to easily collect data.

You should clearly explain how you selected your sample in the methodology section of your paper or thesis.

First, you need to understand the difference between a population and a sample, and identify the target population of your research.

The population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about.

The sample is the specific group of individuals that you will collect data from.

The population can be defined in terms of geographical location, age, income, and many other characteristics.

Population vs sampleIt can be very broad or quite narrow: maybe you want to make inferences about the whole adult population of your country; maybe your research focuses on customers of a certain company, patients with a specific health condition, or students in a single school.

It is important to carefully define your target population according to the purpose and practicalities of your project.

If the population is very large, demographically mixed, and geographically dispersed, it might be difficult to gain access to a representative sample.

Sampling frame

The sampling frame is the actual list of individuals that the sample will be drawn from. Ideally, it should include the entire target population (and nobody who is not part of that population).

You are doing research on working conditions at Company X. Your population is all 1000 employees of the company. Your sampling frame is the company’s HR database which lists the names and contact details of every employee.

Sample size

The number of individuals you should include in your sample depends on various factors, including the size and variability of the population and your research design. There are different sample size calculators and formulas depending on what you want to achieve with statistical analysis.

Probability sampling methods

Probability sampling means that every member of the population has a chance of being selected. It is mainly used in quantitative research. If you want to produce results that are representative of the whole population, probability sampling techniques are the most valid choice.

There are four main types of probability sample.

Probability sampling

- Simple random sampling

In a simple random sample, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Your sampling frame should include the whole population.

To conduct this type of sampling, you can use tools like random number generators or other techniques that are based entirely on chance.

You want to select a simple random sample of 100 employees of Company X. You assign a number to every employee in the company database from 1 to 1000, and use a random number generator to select 100 numbers.

- Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling, but it is usually slightly easier to conduct. Every member of the population is listed with a number, but instead of randomly generating numbers, individuals are chosen at regular intervals.

All employees of the company are listed in alphabetical order. From the first 10 numbers, you randomly select a starting point: number 6. From number 6 onwards, every 10th person on the list is selected (6, 16, 26, 36, and so on), and you end up with a sample of 100 people.

If you use this technique, it is important to make sure that there is no hidden pattern in the list that might skew the sample. For example, if the HR database groups employees by team, and team members are listed in order of seniority, there is a risk that your interval might skip over people in junior roles, resulting in a sample that is skewed towards senior employees.

- Stratified sampling

Stratified sampling involves dividing the population into subpopulations that may differ in important ways. It allows you draw more precise conclusions by ensuring that every subgroup is properly represented in the sample.

To use this sampling method, you divide the population into subgroups (called strata) based on the relevant characteristic (e.g. gender, age range, income bracket, job role).

Based on the overall proportions of the population, you calculate how many people should be sampled from each subgroup. Then you use random or systematic sampling to select a sample from each subgroup.

The company has 800 female employees and 200 male employees. You want to ensure that the sample reflects the gender balance of the company, so you sort the population into two strata based on gender. Then you use random sampling on each group, selecting 80 women and 20 men, which gives you a representative sample of 100 people.

- Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling also involves dividing the population into subgroups, but each subgroup should have similar characteristics to the whole sample. Instead of sampling individuals from each subgroup, you randomly select entire subgroups.

If it is practically possible, you might include every individual from each sampled cluster. If the clusters themselves are large, you can also sample individuals from within each cluster using one of the techniques above. This is called multistage sampling.

This method is good for dealing with large and dispersed populations, but there is more risk of error in the sample, as there could be substantial differences between clusters. It’s difficult to guarantee that the sampled clusters are really representative of the whole population.

The company has offices in 10 cities across the country (all with roughly the same number of employees in similar roles). You don’t have the capacity to travel to every office to collect your data, so you use random sampling to select 3 offices – these are your clusters.

What is your plagiarism score?

Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications.

Best plagiarism checker of 2021

Plagiarism report & percentage

Largest plagiarism database

Non-probability sampling methods

In a non-probability sample, individuals are selected based on non-random criteria, and not every individual has a chance of being included.

This type of sample is easier and cheaper to access, but it has a higher risk of sampling bias. That means the inferences you can make about the population are weaker than with probability samples, and your conclusions may be more limited. If you use a non-probability sample, you should still aim to make it as representative of the population as possible.

Non-probability sampling techniques are often used in exploratory and qualitative research. In these types of research, the aim is not to test a hypothesis about a broad population, but to develop an initial understanding of a small or under-researched population.

Non probability sampling

- Convenience sampling

A convenience sample simply includes the individuals who happen to be most accessible to the researcher.

This is an easy and inexpensive way to gather initial data, but there is no way to tell if the sample is representative of the population, so it can’t produce generalizable results.

You are researching opinions about student support services in your university, so after each of your classes, you ask your fellow students to complete a survey on the topic. This is a convenient way to gather data, but as you only surveyed students taking the same classes as you at the same level, the sample is not representative of all the students at your university.

- Voluntary response sampling

Similar to a convenience sample, a voluntary response sample is mainly based on ease of access. Instead of the researcher choosing participants and directly contacting them, people volunteer themselves (e.g. by responding to a public online survey).

Voluntary response samples are always at least somewhat biased, as some people will inherently be more likely to volunteer than others.

You send out the survey to all students at your university and a lot of students decide to complete it. This can certainly give you some insight into the topic, but the people who responded are more likely to be those who have strong opinions about the student support services, so you can’t be sure that their opinions are representative of all students.

- Purposive sampling

This type of sampling, also known as judgement sampling, involves the researcher using their expertise to select a sample that is most useful to the purposes of the research.

It is often used in qualitative research, where the researcher wants to gain detailed knowledge about a specific phenomenon rather than make statistical inferences, or where the population is very small and specific. An effective purposive sample must have clear criteria and rationale for inclusion.

You want to know more about the opinions and experiences of disabled students at your university, so you purposefully select a number of students with different support needs in order to gather a varied range of data on their experiences with student services.

- Snowball sampling

If the population is hard to access, snowball sampling can be used to recruit participants via other participants. The number of people you have access to “snowballs” as you get in contact with more people.

You are researching experiences of homelessness in your city. Since there is no list of all homeless people in the city, probability sampling isn’t possible. You meet one person who agrees to participate in the research, and she puts you in contact with other homeless people that she knows in the area.

- 3 The University of North Carolina is conducting a study on the average weight of the many bricks that make up the Universitys walkways. Workers are sent to dig up and weigh a sample of 421 bricks and the average brick weight of this sample was 14.2 lb. It is a well-known fact that the standard deviation of brick weight is 0.8 ln. (20)

Point Estimates: The sample mean Xis the best estimator of the population mean .It is unbiased, consistent, the most efficient estimator, and, as long as the sample is sufficiently large, its sampling distribution can be approximated by the normal distribution.If we know the sampling distribution of X, we can make statements about any estimate we may make from sampling information. Let’s look at a medical-supplies company thatproduces disposable hypodermic syringes. Each syringe is wrapped in a sterile package and then jumble-packed in a large corrugated carton. Jumble packing causes the cartons to contain differing numbers of syringes. Because the syringes are sold on a per unit basis, the company needs an estimate of the number of syringes per carton for billing purposes. We have taken a sample 35 cartons at random and recorded the number of syringes in each carton. The following table illustrates our results. We know that 357010235XXnsyringes.Thus, using the sample mean Xas our estimator, the point estimate of the population mean is 102 syringes per carton. The manufactured price of a disposable hypodermicsyringe is quite small (about 25 C), so both the buyer and seller would accept the use of this point estimate as the basis for billing and the manufacturer can save the time and expense of counting each syringe that goes into a cartoon.

Hence, 36.126.01S.So, sample variance and sample standard deviation are respectively 36.12 and 6.01.Point Estimate of the Population Variance and Standard Deviation:Suppose the management of the medical-supplies company wants to estimate the variance and/or standard deviation of the distribution of the number of packaged syringes per carton. The most frequently used estimator of the population standard deviationis the sample standard deviation s. We cancalculate the sample standard deviation as in Table 1 and discover that it is 6.01 syringes. If, instead of considering 1221Sxxnas our sample variance, we had considered 122Sxxn, the result would have some bias as an estimator of the population variance; specifically, it would tend to be too low. Using a divisor of n —1 gives us an unbiased estimator of cr2. Thus, we will use s2and s to estimate cr2and .Point Estimate of the PopulationProportion:The proportion of units that have a particular characteristic in a given population is symbolized p. If we know the proportion of units in a sample that have that same characteristic (symbolized p), we can use this pas an estimator of p. It can be shown that phas all the desirable properties we discussed earlier.Continuing our example of the manufacturer of medical supplies, we shall try to estimate the populatio

proportion from the sample proportion. Suppose management wishes to estimate the number of cartons that will arrive damaged, owing to poor handling in shipment after the cartons leave the factory. We can check a sample of 50 cartons from their shipping point to the arrival at their destination and then record the presence or absence of damage. If, in this case, we find that the proportion of damaged cartons in the sample is 0.08, we would say that p= 0.08 = sample proportion damaged.Because the sample proportion pisa convenient estimator of the population proportion p, we can estimate that the proportion of damaged cartons in the population will also be 0.08.Problems to be solved:1) A stadium authority is considering expanding its seating capacity and needs to know both the average number of people who attend events there and the variability in this number. The following are the attendances (in thousands) at nine randomly selected sporting events. Findpoint estimates of the mean and the variances of the population from which the sample was drawn.

8.814.021.37.912.520.616.314.113.02)

The Pizza distribution authority (PDA) has developed quite a business in some area by delivering pizza orderspromptly. PDA guarantees that its pizzas will be delivered in 30 minutes or less from the time the order was placed and if the delivery is late, the pizza is free. The time that it takes to deliver each pizza order that is on time is recorded in the Official Pizza Time Block (OPTB) and the delivery time for those pizzas that are delivered late is recorded as 30 minutes in the OPTB. 12 random entries from the OPTB are listed as 15.329.530.010.130.019.610.812.214.830.022.118.3(a) Find the mean for the sample(b) From what population was this sample drawn?(c) Can this sample be used to estimate the average time that it takes for PDA to deliver a pizza? Explain.3) Dr Ahmed, a meteorologist for local television station would like to report theaverage rainfall for today on this evening’s newscast. The following are the rainfall measurements (in inches) for today’s date for 16 randomly chosen past years. Determine the sample mean rainfall.0.470.270.130.540.000.080.750.060.001.050.340.260.170.420.500.864) The Standard Chartered Bank is trying to determine the number of tellers available during the lunch rush on Sundays. The bank has collected data on the number of people who entered the bank during the last 3 months on Sunday from 11 A.M.to 1 P.M.Using the data below, find point estimates of the mean and standard deviation of the population from which the sample was drawn.

Electric Pizza was considering national distribution of its regionally successful product and was compiling pro forma sales data. The average monthly sales figures (in thousands of dollars) from its 30 current distributors are listed. Treating them as (a) a sample and (b) a population, compute the standard deviation.7.35.84.58.55.24.12.83.86.53.4

- a) Find the standard error of the mean

The standard error of the mean is a method used to determine the differences between more than one sample of data. It measures the accuracy with which sample data represents a population using standard deviation. In statistics, the standard deviation is a measure of how spread out numbers are, and “mean” refers to the average of the numbers. Standard error functions are used to validate the accuracy of a sample of multiple samples by analyzing the deviations within the means. You can use the standard deviation of the mean to describe how precise the mean of the sample is versus the true mean of the population. As the size of the sample increases, the mean of the population is known with greater specificity. Likewise, the smaller the standard error, the more representative the sample will be of the overall population.

For example, if you measure the weight of a large sample of men, their weights could range from 125 to 300 pounds. However, if you look at the mean of the sample data, the samples will only vary by a few pounds. You can then use the standard error of the mean to determine how much the weight varies from the mean.

Standard error of the mean formula

The formula for the standard error of the mean is expressed as:

SE refers to the standard error of the sample

σ refers to sample deviation

n is the size of the sample.

- b) What is the interval around the sample mean that will include the population mean 95.5 percent of the time?

noted in earlier modules a key goal in applied biostatistics is to make inferences about unknown population parameters based on sample statistics. There are two broad areas of statistical inference, estimation and hypothesis testing. Estimation is the process of determining a likely value for a population parameter (e.g., the true population mean or population proportion) based on a random sample. In practice, we select a sample from the target population and use sample statistics (e.g., the sample mean or sample proportion) as estimates of the unknown parameter. The sample should be representative of the population, with participants selected at random from the population. In generating estimates, it is also important to quantify the precision of estimates from different samples.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, the student will be able to:

Define point estimate, standard error, confidence level and margin of error

Compare and contrast standard error and margin of error

Compute and interpret confidence intervals for means and proportions

Differentiate independent and matched or paired samples

Compute confidence intervals for the difference in means and proportions in independent samples and for the mean difference in paired samples

Identify the appropriate confidence interval formula based on type of outcome variable and number of samples

busph_subbrand.gif

Parameter Estimation

There are a number of population parameters of potential interest when one is estimating health outcomes (or “endpoints”). Many of the outcomes we are interested in estimating are either continuous or dichotomous variables, although there are other types which are discussed in a later module. The parameters to be estimated depend not only on whether the endpoint is continuous or dichotomous, but also on the number of groups being studied. Moreover, when two groups are being compared, it is important to establish whether the groups are independent (e.g., men versus women) or dependent (i.e., matched or paired, such as a before and after comparison). The table below summarizes parameters that may be important to estimate in health-related studies.

Parameters Being Estimated

Continuous Variable

Dichotomous Variable

proportion or rate, e.g., prevalence, cumulative incidence, incidence rate

Two Independent Samples

difference in means

difference in proportions or rates, e.g., risk difference, rate difference, risk ratio, odds ratio, attributable proportion

Two Dependent, Matched Samples

mean difference

Confidence Intervals

There are two types of estimates for each population parameter: the point estimate and confidence interval (CI) estimate. For both continuous variables (e.g., population mean) and dichotomous variables (e.g., population proportion) one first computes the point estimate from a sample. Recall that sample means and sample proportions are unbiased estimates of the corresponding population parameters.

For both continuous and dichotomous variables, the confidence interval estimate (CI) is a range of likely values for the population parameter based on:

the point estimate, e.g., the sample mean

the investigator’s desired level of confidence (most commonly 95%, but any level between 0-100% can be selected)

and the sampling variability or the standard error of the point estimate.

Strictly speaking a 95% confidence interval means that if we were to take 100 different samples and compute a 95% confidence interval for each sample, then approximately 95 of the 100 confidence intervals will contain the true mean value (μ). In practice, however, we select one random sample and generate one confidence interval, which may or may not contain the true mean. The observed interval may over- or underestimate μ. Consequently, the 95% CI is the likely range of the true, unknown parameter. The confidence interval does not reflect the variability in the unknown parameter. Rather, it reflects the amount of random error in the sample and provides a range of values that are likely to include the unknown parameter. Another way of thinking about a confidence interval is that it is the range of likely values of the parameter (defined as the point estimate + margin of error) with a specified level of confidence (which is similar to a probability).

Suppose we want to generate a 95% confidence interval estimate for an unknown population mean. This means that there is a 95% probability that the confidence interval will contain the true population mean. Thus, P( [sample mean] – margin of error < μ < [sample mean] + margin of error) = 0.95.

The Central Limit Theorem introduced in the module on Probability stated that, for large samples, the distribution of the sample means is approximately normally distributed with a mean:

and a standard deviation (also called the standard error):

For the standard normal distribution, P(-1.96 < Z < 1.96) = 0.95, i.e., there is a 95% probability that a standard normal variable, Z, will fall between -1.96 and 1.96. The Central Limit Theorem states that for large samples:

By substituting the expression on the right side of the equation:

Using algebra, we can rework this inequality such that the mean (μ) is the middle term, as shown below.

theN and finally

This last expression, then, provides the 95% confidence interval for the population mean, and this can also be expressed as:

Thus, the margin of error is 1.96 times the standard error (the standard deviation of the point estimate from the sample), and 1.96 reflects the fact that a 95% confidence level was selected. So, the general form of a confidence interval is:

point estimate + Z SE (point estimate)

where Z is the value from the standard normal distribution for the selected confidence level (e.g., for a 95% confidence level, Z=1.96).

In practice, we often do not know the value of the population standard deviation (σ). However, if the sample size is large (n > 30), then the sample standard deviations can be used to estimate the population standard deviation.

Table – Z-Scores for Commonly Used Confidence Intervals

Desired Confidence Interval

Lightbulb icon signifying an important tip or concept

In the health-related publications a 95% confidence interval is most often used, but this is an arbitrary value, and other confidence levels can be selected. Note that for a given sample, the 99% confidence interval would be wider than the 95% confidence interval, because it allows one to be more confident that the unknown population parameter is contained within the interval.

- 4 Answer the following with logical arguments:

(20)

- Why must we be required to deal with uncertainty in our decision, even when using statistical techniques?

began to study statistics with the notion that statistics is the study of information (retrieval) and a part of information is uncertainty which is taken for granted in our random world. Probably, it is the other way around; information is a part of uncertainty. Could this be the difference between Bayesian and frequentist?

The statistician’s task is to articulate the scientist’s uncertainties in the language of probability, and then to compute with the numbers found: cited from The Philosophy of Statistics by Dennis V. Lindley (2000). The Statistician, 49(3), pp.293-337. The article is a very good read (no theorems and their proofs. It does not begin with “Assume that …”).

The author starts the article by posing Statistics is the study of uncertainty and the rest is very agreeable as the quotes given above and below.

Because you do not know how to measure the distance to our moon, it does not follow that you do not believe in the existence of a distance to it. Scientists have spent much effort on the accurate determination of length because they were convinced that the concept of distance made sense in terms of krypton light. Similarly, it seems reasonable to attempt the measurement of uncertainty.

significance level – the probability of some aspect of the data, given H is true

probability – your probability of H, given the data

Many people, especially in scientific matters, think that their statements are objective, expressed through the probability, and are alarmed by the intrusion of subjectivity. Their alarm can be alleviated by considering reality and how that reality is reflected in the probability calculus.

I have often seen the stupid question posed ‘what is an appropriate prior for the variance σ2 of a normal (data) density?’ It is stupid because σ is just a Greek letter.

The statistician’s role is to articulate the client’s preferences in the form of a utility function, just as it is to express their uncertainty through probability,

where clients can be replaced with astronomers.

Upon accepting that statistics is the study of uncertainty, we’d better think about what this uncertainty is. Depending on the description of uncertainty, or the probability, the uncertainty quantification would change. As the author mentioned, statisticians formulate the clients’ uncertainty transcription, which I think astronomers should take the responsibility of. Nevertheless, I become to have a notion that astronomers do not care the subtleness in uncertainties. Generally, the probability model of this uncertainty is built on the independent property and at some point is approximated to Gaussian distribution. Yet, there are changes in this tradition and frequently I observe from arXiv:astro-ph that astronomers are utilizing Bayesian modeling for observed phenomenon and reflecting non gaussian uncertainty.

I heard that the effort on visualizing uncertainty is under progress. Prior to codifying, I wish those astronomers to be careful on the meaning of the uncertainty and the choice of statistics, i.e., modeling the uncertainty.

- Is this possible that a false hypothesis will be accepted? How would you explain this?

A null hypothesis is either true or false. Unfortunately, we do not know which is the case, and we almost never will. It is important to realize that there is no probability that the null hypothesis is true or that it is false, because there is no element of chance. For example, if you are testing whether a potential mine has a greater gold concentration than that of a break-even mine, the null hypothesis that your potential mine has a gold concentration no greater than a break-even mine is either true or it is false; you just don’t know which. There is no probability associated with these two cases (in a frequentist sense) because the gold is already in the ground, and as a result there is no possibility for chance because everything is already set. All we have is our own uncertainty about the null hypothesis.

This lack of knowledge about the null hypothesis is why we need to perform a statistical test: we want to use our data to make an inference about the null hypothesis. Specifically, we need to decide if we are going to act as if the null hypothesis is true or act as if it is false. From our hypothesis test, we therefore choose either to accept or to reject the null hypothesis. If we accept the null hypothesis, we are stating that our data are consistent with the null hypothesis (recognizing that other hypotheses might also be consistent with the data). If we reject the null hypothesis, we are stating that our data are so unexpected that they are inconsistent with the null hypothesis.

Our decision will change our behavior. If we reject the null hypothesis, we will act as if the null hypothesis is false, even though we do not know if that is in fact false. If we accept the null hypothesis, we will act as if the null hypothesis is true, even though we have not demonstrated that it is in fact true. This is a critical point: regardless of the results of our statistical test, we will never know if the null hypothesis is true or false. In other words, we do not prove or disprove null hypotheses and we never will; we never show that null hypotheses are true or that they are false.

In short, we operate in a world where hypotheses are true or false, but we don’t know which. What we would like to do is perform statistical tests that allow us to make decisions (accept or reject), and we would like these to be correct decisions.

Significance and confidence

Keeping the probability of a type I error low is straightforward, because we choose our significance level (α). If we are especially concerned about making a type I error, we can set our significance level to be as small as we wish.

If the null hypothesis is true, we have a 1-α probability that we will make the correct decision and accept it. We call that probability (1-α) our confidence level. Confidence and significance sum to one because rejecting and accepting a null hypothesis are the only possible choices when the null hypothesis is true. Therefore, when we decrease significance, we increase our confidence. Although you might think you would always want confidence to be as high as possible, doing so comes at a high cost: we make type II errors more likely.

Beta and power

Keeping the probability of a type II error small is more complicated.

When the null hypothesis is false, β is the probability that we will make the wrong choice and accept it (a type II error). Beta is nearly always unknown, since knowing it requires knowing whether the null hypothesis is true or not. Specifically, calculating beta requires knowing the true value of the parameter, that is, the true hypothesis underlying our data. If we knew that, we wouldn’t need statistics.

If the null hypothesis is false, there is a 1-β probability that we will make the right choice and reject it. The probability that we will make the right choice when the null hypothesis is false is called statistical power. Power reflects our ability to reject false null hypotheses and detect new phenomena in the world. We must try to maximize power. Power is controlled by four factors:

Power increases with the size of the effect that we are trying to detect. For example, it is easier to detect a large difference in means than a small one. We cannot control effect size, because it is determined by the problem we are studying. The remaining three factors, however, are entirely under our control.

Sample size (n) has a major effect on power. Increasing sample size increases power. We should always strive to have as large of a sample size as money and time allow, as this is the best way to increase power.

Some statistical tests have greater power than other tests. In general, parametric tests (ones that assume a particular distribution, often a normal distribution) have greater power than nonparametric tests (those that do not assume a particular distribution).

Our significance level affects β. Increasing alpha (significance) will increase our power, but it also increases the risk of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

- 5 Block Enterprises, a manufacturer of chips for computers, is in the process of deciding whether to replace its current semiautomatic assembly line with a fully automated assembly line. Block has gathered some preliminary test data about hourly chip production, which is summarized in the following table, and it would like to know whether it should upgrade its assembly line. State (and test at a = 0.02) appropriate hypotheses to help Block decide. (20)

x s n

Semiautomatic line 198 32 150

Automatic line 206 29 200

Initially, machine tool automation started with the development of numerical control in 1950s. In less than 50 years, it is amazing that today’s manufacturing plants are completely automated. However, establishment of these plants gave relatively a few varieties of product. At first we define what do we mean by a manufacturing plant? Here, we are considering a several categories of manufacturing cor productions for the various manufacturing plants. Manufacturing can be considered in three broad areas: (1) continuous process production,

mans production, and

(i) job-shop production

Among these three, mass production and job-shop pruduction can be categorized as

discrete-item production.

Continuous Process Production Such type of product flows continuously in the manufacturing system, eg petroleum cement, steel rolling, petrochemical and paper production etc.

Mass Production

continuous process production for discrete products. That’s why; mass

production has realized enormous benefits from automation and mechanization

Equipement used here are only applicable for small group of similar products. it includes the production of discrete unit at very high rate of speed, Discrete item production is used for goods such as automobiles, refrigerators, televisions. electronic component and so on. Mass production contains the character of

Job Shop Production

A manufacturing facility that produces a large number of different discrete items and requires different sequences among the production equipments is called job shop. Scheduling and routine problems are the essential features of job shop. As a result automation has at best been restricted to individual component of job shop. But there have been few attempts in the field of total automation.

Muans Enterprise, a manufacturer of RAM chips for computers, is in the process of deciding whether to replace its current semiautomated assembly line with a fully automated assembly line Block has gathered some preliminary test data about hourly chip production, which is summarized in the table below, and would like to know if it should upgrade its assembly line. State and test at 10%) appropriate hypothesis to help Muans decide. Employee Semiautomatic line Automatic line 198 32 150 206 29 200

## Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

- Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)
- University of the Punjab
- Scholarships in USA
- Scholarships in Canada
- Scholarships in Belgium
- Scholarships in Germany
- Scholarships in Russia
- Scholarships in Taiwan
- Scholarships without English Proficiency
- Online Courses
- Privacy Policy
- Terms of Services

## AIOU Solved Assignments MA, MSc & MEd 2021 • PDFs

Allama Iqbal Open University has a system of Assignments. One must have to send Assignments the Hand-Written assignments to the AIOU Tutor assigned to him/her.

You can download AIOU Solved Assignments for MA, MEd programs in PDF for semester Autumn and Spring from below.

- AIOU Solved Assignments of FA, ICom 2021
- AIOU Solved Assignments of BA, BCom 2021
- AIOU Solved Assignments of BS ODL 2021
- AIOU Solved Assignments of BEd 2021
- AIOU Solved Assignments of Associate Degree Program ADP 2021

Read Also: Check AIOU Tutor Address Online by Roll Number

Allama Iqbal Open University now providing the facility of PDF books in Soft Form for its students. If one has not received its books then he/she can download the AIOU books in PDF .

As we above mentioned that it is necessary to submit assignments because of AIOU count Assignments Marks in Final Result . Submission of Assignments is necessary and students do not have proper guides to solve the questions. That’s why they look for the pre-solved assignments of AIOU . Or, they contact in contact to get pre-hand-written assignments.

Let’s dive in the AIOU Solved Assignments Intermediate BEd PDF.

Follow us on our Facebook Page or Join our Facebook group for AIOU updates

Follow us on Twitter

## Upload your Assignments at LMS

AIOU provide facility to its students to upload their assignments online. Students from following areas can upload their assignments at AIOU Leaning Management System (Aghahi Portal),

## Download Free AIOU Solved Assignments MA MEd PDF

Deadline to submit m.a/m.ed assignments.

Download assignments as per your need and then easily avail it via opening your PDF file over Mobile/Pc whatever you like.

Read Also: Download FREE AIOU Solved Assignments in PDF

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How to check aiou ma/m.ed result online.

Check your AIOU BA result online by entering your Roll Number. Open this link to check your AIOU BA result online. AIOU has successfully announced BA results. Moreover, you can check the AIOU BA result of past years from 2002 to 2018 also by entering your Roll Number.

## How can I check my MA/M.Ed tutor online?

Well, it is pretty much easy to check AIOU tutor online. You just need your Roll Number to check your assigned tutor (Name, Address, Subjects, Contact Information) for B.Ed. Open this link

## If I have not received my AIOU Books?

Well, many students across Pakistan are facing this difficulty, you may track them if you have not received your AIOU Books still. You can easily check the status of your books deliver by tracking online at AIOU Official Website for Books . If there is a very short time to submit your Assignments then you may download your books in PDF here, All programs books are available in PDF.

## Ask your Question

You can easily ask your questions in the comments below. Our team will try their best to promptly help you and will answer your questions as soon as possible

## RELATED ARTICLES MORE FROM AUTHOR

Aiou previous result of all years | 2022 to 2021 history of result, aiou extends the last date of admissions (spring 2022), aiou admission 2022 apply online: semester spring & autumn, [2022] download aiou books pdf (all programs), download aiou roll no slips 2022 • all programs, 110 comments.

Assalama alikom! MA special education autumn 2021 ki solved assignment share kar dain. thanks!

Msc mass communication autumn 2021 1st smester ki assignment upload kr dn plz

AoA sir plz send me 5622 m.a Urdu 2nd assignment on 03346395591

## LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

- Privacy Policy
- Terms and Conditions

- Aiou Services
- __Admission
- __Degree Form
- _Book Dispatch
- _Aiou Contact Number
- _Date Sheet
- Aiou Past Papers
- Solved Assignments
- Aiou Help Desk

## Aiou Solved Assignments Fa Code 356 Food and Nutrition

aiou solved assignments 2021 fa code 356 food and nutrition read online download in pdf.

## Aiou Solved Assignments Spring 2021 FA

Aiou Introduction:

Aiou solved assignments FA Code 356 Allama Iqbal Open University Aiou was established in May 1974 and since then it has started regular operations all over Pakistan and today it has become the most popular and has become the first largest university in Asia with many boys and girls are enrolling and getting degrees in various subjects from them and enjoy life to join new jobs in various private and government companies based on the documents they receive from Allama Iqbal University.

About Website:

AiouBooks.com is the leading website for All enrolled aiou students Aiou books provide all types of the latest news about aiou results aiou date sheet, roll number slip, past papers, solved assignment, all classes aiou books in pdf, If you are an aiou student this website is best for you in every point of view of an Aiou. if you need any book past papers or any other material related to your study just text us via the website or contact us at the Facebook page we will provide you as soon as possible. We provide all types of AIOU study material from Matic to master without any cost all materials provide free of cost. If you want to stay up to date about the latest news subscribes to our newsletter via aioubook.com remember me in your prayers.

## Aiou Assignment Importance:

Aiou assignments are very important for students. In addition, you cannot get past your semester without submitting resolved assignments. Due to an issue, you do not submit a resolved assignment that you fail to announce. It doesn't matter if you take the exam or get 90% marks. Therefore, the assignment must be submitted.

## Aiou solved assignment FA spring 2021 pdf

AIOU announces the deadline for Assignments resolved at the beginning of the semester. Assignments are based on your course. You know what it means. some aiou books have 2 assignments some have 2. So you don't just have to worry about assigning responsibilities and presenting them

Conclusion:

I hope you like the Article Aiou Solved Assignment FA Code 356 Food and Nutrition Share it with your Uni friends and social media friends and family members as soon as possible.

## Aiou Solved Assignments Spring 2021 FA

Assignment No.1

Assignment No.2

Read More: Aiou Solved Assignments FA Code 355

Aiou Solved assignments FA Spring 2021

## You may like these posts

Post a comment, popular posts.

## Download AIOU All BOOKS Of All Codes BED Download in PDF

## Past Papers Aiou BA 1430 Business Mathematics & Statistics-II

## Aiou Past Paper 1429 Spring 2020 Download

- aiou admission 7
- AIOU All BOOKS 8
- AIOU Books 36
- aiou date sheet 6
- Aiou Degree Form 1
- Aiou F.A books 1
- Aiou Guess papers 21
- Aiou matric books 1
- Aiou Past Papers 1
- aiou prospects 3
- aiou solved assignments 50
- Solved Assignments 2

## Random Posts

- Help Desk
- [email protected]
- Screen Reader
- 051-111-112-468

## Assignments (QP)

S.S.C., H.S.S.C.,Arabic,NFE& Literacy certificate, French Online Courses

Bachelor, ATTC, ADC,ADB,BS,BBA,B.ed, Post Graduate Courses

Bachelor, ADC,ADB,BS,BBA,B.ed, Post Graduate Courses

Assignment Covering Form

S.S.C., H.S.S.C.,ATTC,NFE& Literacy certificate, French Online Courses

Bachelor, ADC,ADB,BS,BBA,B.ed,Post Graduate Courses

S.S.C., H.S.S.C.,NFE& Literacy certificate, French Online Courses

S.S.C., H.S.S.C., French Online Courses

Bachelor, BS/BBA, B.Ed.,ATTC,CT,PTC Courses

All Post Graduate Courses

Contact info Address : Sector H-8, Islamabad [email protected] 051 111 112 468 Helpdesk --> Quick Links About Us Jobs Tender Notices Downloads Research ORIC AIOU Library For Query Email Us [email protected] (Admission) [email protected] (Examination) [email protected] (Regional Services) [email protected] (Student Advisory) [email protected] (Treasurer)

The Allama Iqbal Open University was established in May, 1974, with the main objectives of providing educational opportunities to masses and to those who cannot leave their homes and jobs. During all these past years, the University has more than fulfilled this promise.

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

AIOU BS ODL Solved Assignments 2021. There is a wide-range program offered by Allama Iqbal Open University to its students. Students of BS ODL are also required to send Assignments to their Tutor every semester. All assignments will be checked by your tutor and the Obtained Marks will be counted counted in final exams.

AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS - AIOU EDU PK ASSIGNMENTS - ALL POSTGRADUATE ASSIGNMENTS - Assignments - Allama Iqbal Open University. Menu; Search for; Home; ... Solved Assignments Autumn 2021 فری حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس Download. No. AIOU Programs AUTUMN 2021; 1: Matric: Click To Download: 2: Intermediate (F.A/I.Com)

Solved Assignments Spring 2021. فری حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس Download. No. AIOU Programs SPRING 2021; 1: Matric: Click To Download: 2: Intermediate (F.A/I.Com) ... We have all types of AIOU solved assignments, 5 years solved/unsolved past papers, guess papers, helpings notes, and key books, etc. Guideline for thesis, reports, and ...

AIOU Code 252 Solved Assignment No.2 (Spring 2021) Vast collection of Textbooks, Helping Books, Notes, Past Papers, Pairing Schemes, Test Papers, O/A Level Books, Entry Test, CSS and other exams resources.

Allama Iqbal Open University. Allama Iqbal Open University has a system of Assignments. One must have to send Assignments the Hand-Written assignments to the AIOU Tutor assigned to him/her. Now you can download all updated AIOU Solved Assignments for BA, BCom in PDF for semester Spring and Autumn. AIOU Solved Assignments of FA, ICom 2021.

Download Allama Iqbal Open University Solved Assignments in PDF for Matric Spring 2021 Semester. Subject Title: Islamiat (Lazmi) Course Code: 0201. Solved Assignment No: 3. Spring 2021 and Onwards. Format: PDF. download (676) Download Taleem360 Android App. Tags: aiou solved assignments, AIOU Solved assignment Spring 2021, AIOU Assignments PDF ...

Master Academy provides an educational guideline to the students of AIOU. But this is not an official website of AIOU. We have all types of AIOU solved assignments, 5 years solved/unsolved past papers, guess papers, helpings notes, and key books, etc. Guideline for thesis, reports, and projects of AIOU and all other universities.

103. AIOU Solved Assignments FA, Icom (Intermediate) 2021 for Free. Allama Iqbal Open University has a system of Assignments. One must have to send Assignments the Hand-Written assignments to the AIOU Tutor assigned to him/her. All AIOU Solved Assignments are now updated for Intermediate (FA & ICom) for semester Spring and Autumn in PDF.

Free Download AIOU Solved Assignments 2021. If you are looking for Allama Iqbal Open University solved assignments for Spring Semester 2021 you are at the right place. Explore following the list of all solved and unsolved assignments for all the subject codes and classes. You can get help from our solved assignments if you are facing any kind ...

AIOU solved assignments 2021 spring semester of BA / B.Com level are available on our website Any student can download AIOU solved assignment 2021 of BA / B.Com level in PDF file format. Click on the concerned assignment for downloading.

Aiou matric semester autumn 2021 code 221 solved assignment. Skip to content. Home; Spring 2023 Solved Assignments. Matric (General Group, Dar-e-Nizami) ... Prev Previous AIOU Course Code 222 (1&2) Solved Assignments Autumn 2021. Next AIOU Course Code 220 (1&2) Assignment Autumn 2021 Next.

Solved Assignments. Welcome to our website. If you are a student of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and pursuing BS English program, then you have come to the right place. We offer solved assignments for Matric, FA, I.COM, BA, B.COM, Associate Degree, BS 4 Years, BS 2.5 Years, MA, MSC, MED, BED, ADE programs that you can download easily ...

you can get solved assignments of all subjects of all classes of Allama Iqbal Open UniversityAIOU Solved Assignments | How to download assignments in .pdf | ...

AIOU Course Code 8417-1-solved assignments,assignments solved,solved assignments of aiou,autumn 2021 assignment 1.

Aiou solved assignment 2021 Allama Iqbal Open University Aiou was established in May 1974, and since then, it has started regular operations all over Pakistan. Today, it has become the most popular. It has become the first largest university in Asia, with many boys and girls enrolling and getting degrees in various subjects and enjoying life to ...

AIOU Solved Assignments of BEd 2021; AIOU Solved Assignments of Associate Degree Program ADP 2021; Read Also: Check AIOU Tutor Address Online by Roll Number. Allama Iqbal Open University now providing the facility of PDF books in Soft Form for its students.

Published Mar 4, 2022. AIOU solved assignments of spring 2022 and autumn 2021 are available of Matric, FA, BA, BS (Old), Associate Degree, BSc, B.Ed, MA, MSc, and M.Ed levels. Any student can ...

Malikzaigham67 September 07, 2021. Aiou Solved Assignments BA Code 419 Education Download in PDF. Aiou Solved Assignments BA Spring 2021. Aiou Introduction: Aiou solved assignments 2021 Allama Iqbal Open University Aiou was established in May 1974 and since then it has started regular operations all over Pakistan today it has become the most ...

Master Academy provides an educational guideline to the students of AIOU. But this is not an official website of AIOU. We have all types of AIOU solved assignments, 5 years solved/unsolved past papers, guess papers, helpings notes, and key books, etc. Guideline for thesis, reports, and projects of AIOU and all other universities.

Aiou Solved Assignments Spring 2021 FA . Aiou Introduction: Aiou solved assignments FA Code 356 Allama Iqbal Open University Aiou was established in May 1974 and since then it has started regular operations all over Pakistan and today it has become the most popular and has become the first largest university in Asia with many boys and girls are enrolling and getting degrees in various subjects ...

The Allama Iqbal Open University was established in May, 1974, with the main objectives of providing educational opportunities to masses and to those who cannot leave their homes and jobs. During all these past years, the University has more than fulfilled this promise.

Waiting For Assignment. 9443. Education. View Assignments. 9506. Organizational Behavior. View Assignments. B.Ed - BS Solved Assignments Autumn 2021 - Allama Iqbal Open University.

Need help with your Aiou Code 207 Solved Assignment for Compulsory English-I? Watch this video for the solutions for Part 1 at the Matric. level for Spring 2...

View Assignments. 5653. Management of Serial Publications-I. View Assignments. 5654. Management of Serial Publications-II. View Assignments. Download All AIOU MLIS Solved Assignments of Autumn 2021 - Allama Iqbal Open University - aiou.edu.pk - AIOU Master Academy.