Historiography of World History
Educators increasingly work together to develop engaged learning experiences that center on projects rather than more traditional delivery formats. Students learn and engage with the materials instructors provide for content in diverse ways. In this project, future world history educators explore the potential of encouraging students to craft their own product for assessment which will both suit their strengths and interests as well as be a public facing product they can share in a professional portfolio.
One example of the project-based learning model in action is the “Cleveland Latin American Mission Team in Context” project from the Introduction to Historical Methods course at Cleveland State University. In this course, students engaged with world history from the local, national, and transnational level creating their own products (artwork, podcasts, visual essays, exhibits) around a common topic. See the range of projects at: https://csuhisppg.shelleyrose.org/exhibits/show/clam/context .
Historians often call this type of assignment an “ UnEssay ;” in my own digital humanities courses I describe this as an open product. Each learning group will design their own project-based learning lesson around the topic of migration in world history. Project-based learning guides students through the stages of creating a personally meaningful project to present to an audience beyond the classroom. This audience might be parents and family members, fellow students, or public audiences.
Review the resources in this unit on project based learning (PBL) and brainstorm ideas for your own PBL assignment. Go to the next chapter for detailed assignment instructions .
PBL Reading & Resources
- PBLWorks, “What is PBL?” Buck Institute for Education URL: https://www.pblworks.org/what-is-pbl
- Jenny Pieratt, “How to Create a Project Based Learning Lesson.” Cult of Pedagogy , February 16, 2020. URL: https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/project-based-learning-lesson/
- Heather Wolpert-Gawron, “What the Heck is Project-Based Learning?” Edutopia . January 26, 2015. URL: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/what-heck-project-based-learning-heather-wolpert-gawron
- Taylor Zepp, “Hidden Learning Loss: Project Based Learning as a Social Emotional Learning Solution,” Cleveland Teaching Collaborative, August 10, 2022. https://cleteaching.org/t_zepp/
- Shannon Conley-Kurjian, Erin Dargan and Stephani Itibrout, “Creating A PBL Unit.” Migration in Global Context , 2015.
- John Larmer and John R. Mergendoller, “Seven Essentials for PBL” Educational Leadership 68, no. 1 (September 2010): 34-37. URL: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/sept10/vol68/num01/Seven_Essentials_for_Project-Based_Learning.aspx
- Project-Based Learning Resources in Cleveland Teaching Collaborative Resource Referatory
- Podcasting in Class guide by Abby Mullen with examples, methods, and resources for student podcasts
Global Interconnections: Modern World History 1300-present by Shelley Rose is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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In This Section
- Classroom Materials: Digitized Primary Sources
- Classroom Materials: Rubrics and Syllabi
- Classroom Materials: Sample Assignments
- Classroom Materials: Teaching Modules
- Classroom Materials: History Skills
- Classroom Materials: Reflections on Teaching
- Classroom Materials: History Lessons and Background Materials
Sample assignment showcasing the importance of local/regional history in the early american survey course.
Brittany Adams focuses on incorporating more regional history into the early survey. She also emphasizes the importance of de-centering the British colonial narrative when teaching students who identify more with western US history, as do many of her students at UC Irvine.
Assignment: Social History of the Atlantic Slave Trade
Shannon Bontrager not only incorporated global contexts into his survey, but he also used non-traditional and digital pedagogical tools to engage his students.
Chinese Immigrants in America in the 19th Century: A Study Module
These materials, produced by Vincent A. Clark as a result of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, consist of an illustrated introduction, excerpts from four contemporaneous articles, an online quiz (not included in these materials), and an assignment for an e-mail discussion. The introduction describes not only the life of the immigrants in the United States but their economic and cultural background in China. The goal is to expand the students’ knowledge to include the China from which these immigrants came. Two of the articles oppose Chinese immigrants; two praise them. They are designed to let students see the varying perceptions of the immigrants, the arguments for and against Chinese immigration, and the complex class and ethnic dimensions of this controversy.
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Extra Credit Assignment
As part of her work in the Bridging Cultures program, Cheryll Cody designed a course assignment using the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. It requires students to answer a series of questions by looking at the database’s extensive collection of maps and charts.
The US Becomes an Empire, Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries
As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions focuses on the expansion of the US as it becomes an imperial power and has students critically examine the US-Caribbean relationship, Hawaii and the Philippines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Discussion Questions on the Film Manifest Destiny
History and policy education program.
Oct. 2, 2015 - Modeled on the National History Center's Congressional Briefings by Historians program, the History and Policy Education Program aims to help students appreciate the importance of bringing historical perspectives to contemporary policy conversations. Designed to be adaptable to many courses and teaching styles, the Mock Policy Briefing initiative provides a guide for history educators to develop and host briefings about the historical dimensions of current policy questions. Read more about the background of the initiative in the October issue of Perspectives on History.
Paper Assignment: Encountering Commodities in the Atlantic and the Pacific Worlds
This sample assignment requires students to use primary and secondary sources to connect American history with the Atlantic and Pacific worlds and write a paper that focuses on the circulation of commodities, peoples, and ideas throughout those worlds. This paper assignment has three major parts: a list of sources for students to read and study along with guiding questions on each reading; a mapping exercise; and the five page paper.
Paper Assignment: Localizing Global Encounters, Case Study: New Netherland/New York (Suffolk County Community College)
This sample assignment requires students to use primary and secondary sources to connect American history with the Atlantic and Pacific worlds and write a paper that focuses on encounters between different groups of Europeans in New Netherland/New York. This paper assignment has three major parts: a list of sources for students to read and study along with guiding questions on each reading; a mapping exercise; and the five page paper.
Sample Assignments from Globalized US History Courses
As part of her work in the Bridging Cultures program, Amy Forss employed wide-ranging techniques such as PechaKucha presentations, oral history research, and greater study of maps to engage her students in their globalized US history courses. She even had her students find historical recipes and try them out.
Revolutions, Independence and New Nations: The Great Transformation
As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions helps students consider the implications of revolution in the Atlantic world.
Discussion Questions on the Film Black in Latin America
As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of readings and discussion questions helps students consider the complexities of the Transatlantic slave trade and the broader Atlantic world during the colonial era, particularly considering the film "Black in Latin America."
Films and Readings on the African Slave Trade and the Atlantic World
As part of his work in the Bridging Cultures program, Carlos Contreras provided some classroom assignments and activities that challenge students to think "Atlantically" and "Pacifically" as they think broadly about American history. This set of discussion questions helps students consider the complexities of the Transatlantic slave trade and the broader Atlantic world during the colonial era.
Africans in the Americas: Discussion Questions from Lepore, Benjamin, Articles, and Film
Video assignment based on isabel allende's daughter of fortune.
Oscar Cañedo crafted this creative assignment about the California Gold Rush and the experiences of people traveling from South America to get to California. He used a story from prominent Latin American novelist Isabel Allende as a backdrop for the assignment. Students craft their own characters based on Isabelle Allende's novel Daughter of Fortune and produce videos to explain why they wished to make the arduous journey to California
Plagiarism: Curricular Materials for History Instructors
History instructors can use this guide to teach students how to avoid plagiarism. It includes a discussion of how the American Historical Association defines plagiarism, tips on preventing and detecting plagiarism in student work, exercises to sharpen students’ understanding of plagiarism, a list of suggested readings for graduate students, an annotated bibliography, and a list of useful web sites.
ChronoZoom Memory and History Project Rubric
Discovering american social history on the web.
Dan Kallgren developed several sample assignments for use in his undergraduate survey course "United States History Since the Civil War," in the spring of 2000. Assignments can be used inidividually or in series, as each is accompanied by suggested reading and primary sources.
The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students read a section from "Out of Many; A History of the American People" by John Mack Faragher, et al., to contextualize primary source documents about the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. After analyzing the sources, the students write a short report.
The Anti-Saloon League
One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students analyze digital primary sources in order to contextualize and understand the motivation of the Anti-Saloon League members.
One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Using topographical maps from the University of New Hampshire, students explore how the landscape surrounding a 1950s New Hampshire city changed over time. Students are asked to consider how sociopolitical factors such as the Cold War might have affected the development of the United States.
World Civilizations: The Ancient Period to 500 CE
In David Smith's project, students use world history methods (Big Picture, Diffusion, Syncretism, Comparison, and Common Phenomena) to interpret secondary and primary materials. Primary material is handled through directed reading questions that focus on three classics: the Odyssey, the Ramayana and the Analects.
JFK's Executive Orders and the New Frontier
One of Dan Kallgren's assignments. Students analyze executive orders from President Kennedy to draw out themes and place them in the context of Kennedy's agenda.
United States History from the Civil War to the Present Syllabus
Sue C. Patrick's syllabus for her United States History from the Civil War to the Present course, which includes assignments and links to digital primary sources.
United States History through the Civil War Syllabus
Sue C. Patrick's syllabus for a United States History through the Civil War course. The syllabus includes assignments and links to digital primary sources.
Sample Assignment: Charting Your Journey with ORBIS
Created by John Rosinbum as part of his Teaching with #DigHist series on AHA Today, This assignment asks students to craft a hypothetical journey using ORBIS, a digital humanities project at Stanford University that allows users to plot a route between sites in the Roman Empire and simulate the journey. After rationalizing the choices made when planning their trip, students use a comic strip or travel diary to recount the trials and tribulations of their journey. The assignment helps develop skills in writing narratives, real or imagined. In addition, it develops the historical skills of contextualization and causation by asking the students to ground their narratives in a place they have already learned about and then justify the steps in their journey. While designed for middle school students, the assignment and attached rubric could easily be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to entry-level undergraduate.
Sample Assignment: Comparing Spatial Depictions of the Roman World
Created by John Rosinbum as part of his Teaching with #DigHist series on AHA Today, this assignment requires students to analyze the depictions of the Roman world created in digital projects ORBIS and the Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilizations. Designed for high performing high school students and freshman/sophomore undergraduate students, the assignment pushes students to compare the two projects and gives them the opportunity to explore how purpose, argument and data shape a project.
Sample Assignment: Visualizing the Transatlantic Slave Trade with Voyages
Created by John Rosinbum as part of his Teaching with #DigHist series on AHA Today, this assignment offers students the opportunity to use their visual and/or technical skills to create a visualization of the transatlantic slave trade. Students will use the information provided by Voyages to create either a digital or an analog data visualization of the trade. In addition they will write a detailed guide explaining their process and defending their choices. This assignment asks them to think deeply about the process of visualizing history and personally involves them in the process of generating a better understanding of the past.
Sample Assignment: Tracking a Slave Ship with Voyages
Created by John Rosinbum as part of his Teaching with #DigHist series on AHA Today, asks students to investigate a specific slave vessel and contextualize its journeys within their broader knowledge of the trade and concurrent historical events/processes that might have affected it.
Teaching the Slave Trade with Voyages: The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database (AHA Today)
New perspectives on 19th-century america [assignment].
John Rosinbum uses American Panorama, a digital atlas created by the University of Richmond's Digital Scholarship Lab, to teach students about the economic, cultural, and territorial transformations that changed America during the 19th century. In this assignment, students must create their own visualization of changes in 19th-century America. Students must also develop a guide that defends their research choices in the creation of the visualization, explains how the visualization extends our current understanding of the period, and distinguishes their visualization from American Panorama.
Analyzing Visual Depictions of America's Expansion with American Panorama
John Rosinbum uses American Panorama, a digital atlas created by the University of Richmond's Digital Scholarship Lab, to teach students about the economic, cultural, and territorial transformations that changed America during the 19th century. In this sample assignment, he asks students to compare two maps from American Panorama dealing with the 19th century and explore how each map presents American expansion differently.
Creating Maps Using Carto [Assignment]
Lindsey Passenger Wieck (St. Mary's Univ.) explains how students in her history classroom use Carto to create maps. The exercise helps students become critical consumers of maps and media, while designing and implementing digital projects that communicate historical content. In this assignment, students explain the significance of maps they created using Carto.
Creating a Dataset [Assignment]
Lindsey Passenger Wieck (St. Mary's Univ.) explains how students in her history classroom use Carto to create maps. The exercise helps students become critical consumer of maps and media, while designing and implementing digital projects that communicate historical content. In this assignment, students develop and analyze a dataset and consider its potential for mapping.
Mapping the Early Modern World [Instructions)
Julia M Gossard (Utah State Univ.) uses the widely available Google Maps to assign a mapping project to her students. The assignment allows students to think carefully about the economic, political, religious, and ideological connections between Europe and the rest of the world in the early modern period.
The Historian's Toolbox: Source Evaluation [Worksheet]
Julia M Gossard (Utah State Univ.) uses the widely available Google Maps to assign a mapping project to her students. The assignment allows students to think carefully about the economic, political, religious, and ideological connections between Europe and the rest of the world in the early modern period. In this worksheet, Gossard asks her student to carefully evaluate the sources they use for their Google Map entries.
Visualizing the Past [Sample Assignment]
John Rosinbum looks at a spectrum of digital archives available on the web today and explores how teachers can use them in the classroom. In this sample assignment, students are asked to use data from a digital archive to visualize the past.
Operation War Diary Project [Sample Assignment]
In this assignment, Susan Corbesero (The Ellis School) discusses using the crowdsourcing project, Operation War Diary, to help students learn about the First World War. The project contains over one million digitized images of war diaries from British and Indian troops.
Teach Your Family
In this project, you will show your instructor—and your family or friends—what you’ve learned in class.
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Unit 6: World War I
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Origins of the First World War | 6.1
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Jamie Dimon believes U.S. debt is the ‘most predictable crisis’ in history—and experts say it could cost Americans their homes, spending power, and national security
In the late 19th century Alexander Hamilton wrote, “A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.” A nice idea in theory, but America’s governments since then haven’t quite stuck to the plan.
Instead, the U.S. economy is resting atop a public debt exceeding $34 trillion, with its debt-to-GDP ratio sitting at around 120%. Perhaps not the blessing the Founding Fathers had once envisioned .
Now, alarm bells are beginning to ring with increasing frequency and volume.
Jamie Dimon says Washington is facing a global market “rebellion” because of the tab it is racking up, while Bank of America CEO Brian Moynihan believes it’s time to stop admiring the problem and instead do something about it.
Elsewhere The Black Swan author Nassim Taleb says the economy is in a “death spiral,” while Fed Chairman Jerome Powell says it’s past time to have an “adult conversation” about fiscal responsibility.
And despite the issue being the “most predictable crisis we’ve ever had” according to former Speaker of the House Paul Ryan—a summary Dimon agrees with—it’s an item that isn’t yet top of the political agenda.
It’s also worth noting this isn’t the job of one party or the other to fix. This debt has been accumulated courtesy of spending by both Republicans and Democrats.
The list of presidents who added the most debt by percentage begins with FDR (Dem.), followed by Woodrow Wilson (Dem.), and Ronald Reagan (Rep.).
Whoever’s shoulders it falls on to address, it’s clear the public now wants action.
Last year Pew Research found that “reducing government debt” was a key concern for 57% of the 5,152 people surveyed—up from 45% just a year prior.
But do individuals—who currently have a sum of more than $100,000 dangling over their heads when debt is divided per capita—need to be so concerned about the issue?
How will it impact their purse strings, their living costs, and their savings plans?
How big is the threat?
It depends on who you ask.
If it’s the Peter G. Peterson Foundation you’re talking to, the issue is pretty sizable.
The New York–based nonpartisan organization dedicates itself to raising public awareness around fiscal challenges, with the increasing government debt being one of its top concerns.
The group believes debt could lead to reduced public spending, private investors losing faith in America’s economy, a shrinking window of prosperity for U.S. families thanks to worsening housing and job markets, and a threat to national security.
Laura Veldkamp, a professor of finance at Columbia University, has a less catastrophic view.
She encourages the public to use real-world comparisons to understand the context around the headline-grabbing figures.
Professor Veldkamp explained to Fortune: “If the U.S. were a household, we might measure its debt by the debt-to-income ratio. The debt is about 1.3 times the national income (GDP).
“The payment each year for federal debt interest is around 4% of the debt. This means the U.S. government needs to pay about 5.2% of GDP in interest expenses.
“Federal tax income is around 18% of GDP. So the debt payments are less than one-third of the income. If this were a household or firm, we wouldn’t call that highly indebted.”
The far more difficult issue is whether or not this debt is being accumulated responsibly and will result in a positive return in the future.
This is where JPMorgan boss Dimon gets concerned: In a slowing economy, can the government expect to see an uptick in output to offset the investment?
“Instead of focusing on the level of debt, we should be asking: What is the return on the investment?” professor Veldkamp added. “If the government is issuing debt to invest in high-return projects, then debt is good. If it is not, then the debt will be tough to pay off because of low future productivity.”
And in The Deficit Myth , Stephanie Kelton, professor of economics at Stony Brook University, points out that public debt in the past has made economies more equitable and prosperous, but that scary words like “deficit” quell societies into not pushing fiscal support far enough for it to truly pay off on a large scale.
While professor Kelton’s belief is a far cry from the doomsday opinions of some, she doesn’t advocate for limitless spending without cause or future societal payoff either, as investing in areas of the economy that are already working well merely results in inflation.
Could the housing market be impacted?
Housing, construction, cars, and any other interest-rate-sensitive sectors will be “disproportionately” impacted by an attempt to rebalance public debt, William G. Gale of the Brookings Institution told Fortune .
“Higher government debt will tend to raise interest rates,” the author of Fiscal Therapy: Curing America’s Addiction to Debt and Investing in the Future said.
“If government creates debt, it has to be financed somehow—taxes or money creation. If debt gets out of hand, money creation historically has been the (false) solution as it is easier to issue money than raise taxes but often more disastrous in the long term.”
Any rise in interest rates will shock younger generations coming up the housing ladder over the next few decades.
While many economists point out the controversial Fed rate hikes of the 2020s are merely normalizing the rates of many eras before, homeowners and prospective buyers have grown accustomed to a federal base rate of effectively less than 1%.
Beyond having negative psychological impacts, rising rates are also bad news for the already unattainable market.
According to the latest National Association of Realtors index, the median family income is $99,432 while the median amount needed to qualify to buy a home is $105,504.
Will public debt impact America’s national security?
This is a long-held fear from experts in the field.
More than a decade ago, when national debt sat at a measly $19 trillion, America’s former joint chiefs of staff chairman, Admiral Michael Mullen, said debt was the top threat to national security.
Fourteen years on, former Speaker Ryan told the Bipartisan Policy Center in January that before long the government will be spending more on servicing its debt than it is on investing in the Pentagon.
Dimon added, “This is about the security of the world. We need a stronger military, we need a stronger America. We need it now. So I put this as a risky thing for all of us.”
Couldn’t the government just keep spending?
If the government has racked up this level of debt and the economy is still surviving—after all, inflation is down, jobs are steady, consumers are in “decent shape” —some might question why politicians can’t keep spending seemingly without confidence.
There are a couple of issues with that.
The first is well-known: The government has a self-imposed debt ceiling which it cannot spend above, and it needs congressional approval to raise or extend it.
This is a fairly regular occurrence—it’s happened 78 separate times since 1960. However, negotiations reached the eleventh hour last summer when Republicans pushed hard for promises from President Biden’s government to rein in spending.
When the issue comes around again just after the 2024 election, a deal may be more difficult .
The other issue is that at some point, investors may no longer want to buy government debt if they fear the U.S. won’t be able to pay it back.
That’s a primary concern for Joao Gomes, senior vice dean of research and professor of finance at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School.
“The most important thing about debt to me for people to keep in mind is you need somebody to buy it,” Gomes told Fortune . “We used to be able to count on China, Japanese investors, the Fed to [buy the debt]. All those players are slowly going away and are actually now selling.”
America’s ability to pay its debts is a concern for the nations around the world that own a $7.6 trillion chunk of the funds .
The nations most exposed are Japan, which owned $1.1 trillion as of November 2023 , China ($782 billion), the U.K. ($716 billion), Luxembourg ($371 billion), and Canada ($321 billion).
“If at some moment these folks that have so far been happy to buy government debt from major economies decide, ‘You know what, I’m not too sure if this is a good investment anymore. I’m going to ask for a higher interest rate to be persuaded to hold this,’ then we could have a real accident on our hands,” Gomes said.
He added, “The moment the government in any country realizes that it cannot sell $1.7 trillion in [annual] debt anymore, you will have to impose major cuts on some programs. That opens a Pandora’s box of social unrest that I don’t think anybody wants to think about.”
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Title: yolo-world: real-time open-vocabulary object detection.
Abstract: The You Only Look Once (YOLO) series of detectors have established themselves as efficient and practical tools. However, their reliance on predefined and trained object categories limits their applicability in open scenarios. Addressing this limitation, we introduce YOLO-World, an innovative approach that enhances YOLO with open-vocabulary detection capabilities through vision-language modeling and pre-training on large-scale datasets. Specifically, we propose a new Re-parameterizable Vision-Language Path Aggregation Network (RepVL-PAN) and region-text contrastive loss to facilitate the interaction between visual and linguistic information. Our method excels in detecting a wide range of objects in a zero-shot manner with high efficiency. On the challenging LVIS dataset, YOLO-World achieves 35.4 AP with 52.0 FPS on V100, which outperforms many state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and speed. Furthermore, the fine-tuned YOLO-World achieves remarkable performance on several downstream tasks, including object detection and open-vocabulary instance segmentation.
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Optimism about the U.S. economy sends stocks to a new record
The S&P 500, a broad-based index of stocks, broke above 5,000 for the first time ever. Spencer Platt/Getty Images hide caption
The S&P 500, a broad-based index of stocks, broke above 5,000 for the first time ever.
Stocks are on a record-setting run.
For the first time in history, the S&P 500, the broad-based U.S. index of the largest and best-known companies in the world, is above 5,000.
The S&P 500 opened over the milestone mark at the opening bell on Friday. This comes a day after it touched the level for a brief moment before settling lower.
"Investors are feeling optimistic that we have sidestepped a recession," says Sam Stovall, the chief investment strategist at the financial research firm CFRA.
The latest economic data seem to indicate the Federal Reserve is getting close to executing a so-called "soft landing" for the U.S. economy. That's despite widespread fears of a recession last year, when the Fed raised interest rates aggressively to fight high inflation.
The S&P 500 is up more than 5% so far this year , on the heels of a strong year when the index gained 24%.
Many experts feared a recession. Instead, the economy has continued to soar
Lower interest rates will juice the economy further.
Even then, some professional investors downplay the significance of milestones.
"I think it's a psychological threshold," says Stovall, noting that Wall Street has a fondness for round numbers, and investors see these "millennial levels" as key milestones.
Investors believe policymakers are comfortable enough with the progress they've made and will soon start cutting interest rates.
That would juice the economy because it would make it less expensive for everyone — companies included — to borrow money, and investors would also feel more comfortable making riskier bets.
Beyond that, hundreds of companies have updated Wall Street in recent days on their financial performance, and many of them performed better in the final three months of 2023 than analysts expected.
According to Stephen Suttmeier, the chief equity technical strategist at Bank of America, the stock market rally has been strong, but narrow. The strength of a handful of companies have powered the major indices — the S&P 500 among them — higher.
Wall Street calls them 'the Magnificent 7': They're the reason why stocks are surging
The magnificent seven continues to outperform.
Last year, a group of stocks nicknamed "The Magnificent Seven" accounted for most of the broader market's gains, and most of those well-known companies — Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, Meta, Microsoft, Nvidia and Tesla — have continued to outperform.
Year to date, shares of Nvidia, which designs high-end microchips for most of the computers that power artificial intelligence, are up about 45%.
"It's a couple growth sectors, and that's it," says Suttmeier. "What's leading the market is still more growth-y, tech-y stocks."
And if you dig deeper, most of these companies are in the communication services and information technology sectors, which are beating the broader market.
So, where does the market go from here? It took 34 months — or slightly less than three years — for the S&P 500 to go from 4,000 to 5,000.
"If you look at the history, my guess is we spend some time above 5,000, probably spend some time below 5,000," Suttmeier says. "And I think we can actually move well beyond 5,000."
But he's of the belief, like many Wall strategists, that this rally needs to broaden to continue moving higher.
- magnificent seven
- Federal Reserve
- Bank of America
- Wall Street
The Agricultural Revolution
Was the Agricultural Revolution a huge mistake? Encourage your students to examine how the introduction of agriculture transformed every region of the world in this lesson set.
Three Agricultural Revolution Lesson Plans
Beginning about 12,000 years ago, human groups around the world independently and gradually started developing methods of domesticating plants and animals. Students will learn about why some humans started farming and some of the consequences for our world. Finally, they’ll develop an argument as they ask: Was farming a good idea? Or was it a terrible mistake?
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