From cultural differences to cultural globalization: towards a new research agenda in cross-cultural management studies

Purpose This paper responds to calls for a new raison d’être in the field cross-cultural management (CCM) and culture-sensitive studies of international business (IB) more broadly. It argues that one way of addressing the crisis of confidence in the field is to develop a line of inquiry focussed on corporate-driven cultural globalization. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach informed by international political economy (IPE) and postcolonial theory and outlines a research agenda for future work on cultural globalization. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a desk-based analysis that draws on relevant research in the wider social sciences to insert cultural globalization into the CCM/IB field’s intellectual project. Findings The paper finds the field of CCM and culture-sensitive IB studies more broadly to be almost exclusively focussed on studying the impact of cultural differences. Surprisingly, little attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of corporate-driven cultural globalization. Research limitations/implications The paper redirects the field and presents a research agenda, calling for studies on the role of four related actors in cultural globalization: MNEs, global professional service firms, business schools and CCM/IB researchers themselves. Practical implications CCM/IB scholars may be able to reorient themselves towards the phenomenon of cultural globalization and, in so doing, also seize an opportunity to contribute to important debates about it in the wider social sciences. Originality/value The paper suggests possibilities for renewal by redirecting CCM/IB towards the study of cultural globalization and by encouraging the field to develop a postcolonial sensibility in future research on the phenomenon.

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Yin-yang dialectics and communitarianism in cross-cultural management research

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to comment on “Global implication of the indigenous epistemological system from the East: How to Apply yin-yang balancing to paradox management” by Li (2016). As a pioneer in developing indigenous Chinese management theories, Li has been focused on extracting essential principles of the Chinese yin-yang philosophy and applying them to organization and management phenomena within and outside China (Li, 1998, 2012, 2014a, b). In this paper (Li, 2016), Li sharpens his thinking on the unique attributes of the Chinese yin-yang balancing perspective so as to both distinguish it from and connect it to Western Aristotelian and Hegelian philosophies in regard to contradictions and paradoxes that are increasingly more prevalent in contemporary organizations. The author found Li’s paper thought provoking and highly relevant to cross-cultural management research. The author reflects on the yin and yang of the yin-yang perspective itself and discusses how it can be extended for theorizing about cross-cultural or inter-cultural management research. Design/methodology/approach Applying yin-yang dialectics on the East-West cultural differences, this commentary contends that the strengths and weaknesses of the cultural mindsets of the East and the West are relative and potentially complementary to each other, and seeks to balance and integrate Eastern and Western perspectives for theorizing and tackling cultural differences and conflicts in a globalized world. Findings On the basis of yin-yang dialectics on cultural differences, a communitarianism model is proposed for cross-cultural researchers to balance and integrate individualism and collectivism, a well-established East-West cultural difference. Originality/value The theoretical model of communitarianism builds upon but transcends either Eastern or Western cultural differences toward a viable global value system.

Thinking style across cultures: an interview with Richard Nisbett

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to gain some insights from a leading scholar of the cross-cultural cognitive social psychology field on how cultural differences are viewed, understood, and dealt with, and thus to contribute to enrich the way cultural differences are framed in cross-cultural management research. Design/methodology/approach The author conducts a formal, semi-structured interview with Richard Nisbett for a duration of 90 minutes. The author extracts the key message from the interview and re-structures the conversation in a meaningful manner. Findings From his cognitive social psychology lens, Richard Nisbett views that any cross-cultural contact between different thinking styles is advantageous because differences help address the limitations of one’s own thinking style. Research limitations/implications The insights from cross-cultural cognitive social psychology encourage cross-cultural management researchers to further investigate the positive consequences of cultural differences. Originality/value Richard Nisbett’s own journey from a young scientist who describes himself as an extreme universalist, to a mature intellectual who understands and appreciates different thinking style, is itself a concrete example of how differences can lead to the positive. The author summarizes three factors that are key to a positive outcome of cultural differences: curiosity and openness to cultural differences; habit of critical thinking; and intense interaction with culturally different others.

Overcoming cross-cultural differences in post-war Sri Lanka: the case of Jetwing in Jaffna

Purpose Cross-cultural differences must be taken into consideration for tourism development. The purpose of this study is to shed light on the importance of cross-cultural differences in a location which is emerging from a dark period after a prolonged war caused by ethnic differences. Design/methodology/approach While the existing tourism models deal with the impact of cross-cultural differences, it is difficult to apply them in certain situations, such as postwar Sri Lanka. The study therefore adopted an inductive, qualitative approach where information has been obtained from all stakeholders. Findings The conflict in Sri Lanka in the North and East has been interpreted differently by many individual stakeholder groups. This study reveals how economic development can bring communities together. The project elaborated in this study represents an investment of over US$6m. Given that the location of Jaffna was a focal point of the 26-year long civil war from 1983 to 2009, the risk of failure would have been extremely high. Originality/value The study ascertained qualitative perceptions from a cross-section of perspectives: the investor, local residents and employees. The project is shown to be a viable example of how to address socio cultural differences in the creation of a profitable venture.

Do We See Eye-to-Eye? Implications of Cultural Differences for Cross-Cultural Management Research and Practice

Y international group (yig): surviving vietnam's anti-china riots in 2014.

Subject area This case describes a real-time crisis experienced by the co-founder (Mr Yang) of a multi-national Chinese company operating in Vietnam during the 2014 Vietnam riot. After the strike broke out, Mr Yang made several critical decisions to protect and save both his factory and employees. Study level/applicability This case is applicable to graduate-level management courses such as: Business ethics, Decision-making, Business Communication and Cross-Cultural Management. Students should have some knowledge in Decision-Making concepts (e.g. “bounded rationality”); in Cross-Cultural Management concepts (e.g. “culture norms”); and in Strategic management theory such as “institution-based view” (e.g. formal vs informal institutions). Case overview Part A of the case introduces the main character (Mr Yang) and his factory in Vietnam, the escalation of the strike and the course of the crisis. It also elaborates the important critical decisions Mr Yang made to save both his factory and employees. Part B of the case describes the rescue of Mr Yang and his Chinese employees, his actions after the crisis and strategic positioning in future business. Part C of the case introduces the aftermath of the riot and Mr Yang's reflection regarding the crisis. Expected learning outcomes The instructors may emphasize different learning objectives in different courses. Business Ethics: help the students learn to recognize, clarify, speak and act on their values when conflicts arise. Decision-Making: helps the students understand the logic of sense-making in crisis and the concept of bounded rationality. Business Communication: helps the students learn to raise issues in an effective manner and learn to deliver their own responses effectively. Cross-Cultural Management: helps the students identify and analyze the many ways in which managers can voice and implement their values in the face of critical moments in a different cultural environment. Supplementary materials Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email [email protected] to request teaching notes.

Moderation of Doing and Mastery orientations in relationships among justice, commitment, and trust

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how two individual value orientations – Doing (the tendency to commit to goals and hold a strong work ethic) and Mastery (an orientation toward seeking control over outside forces) – moderate: the relationship between organizational justice and affective organizational commitment, and the mediation role of organizational trust in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – The authors collected data from 706 employees working in 65 universities across China, South Korea, and Australia. Multi-group confirmatory factor analyses were employed to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of the measures. Hierarchical regressions were performed to test moderating effects of the two cultural value orientations. Findings – Results from the full sample showed that Doing and Mastery moderated the distributive justice-commitment relationship and the procedural justice-trust relationship. Comparisons between countries demonstrated limited cross-cultural differences. Practical implications – The present study adds to the understanding of the impact of individual and cultural differences on the relationship between justice and commitment, helping managers understand how employees’ reactions to justice are influenced by cultural value orientations. Originality/value – This study is a pioneer in empirically integrating the value orientation framework (e.g. Doing and Mastery orientations) and justice research in a cross-cultural context based in the Asia Pacific region. It also advances cross-cultural justice research through using a mediation-moderation combination.

Work design expectations of Japanese MNCs’ local managers in English-speaking and Far East cultural clusters – USA, Thailand and India

PurposeThe importance of work design to organizational engagement and firm performance is increasingly recognized in management scholarship. For international business, a majority of variation in work design based on national cultures is addressed through cross-cultural management scholarship. However, there is a paucity of qualitative research on the influences international business human resource managers face for work design in the intercultural environment of overseas subsidiaries. The purpose of this interpretivist study was to examine the lived experience of overseas subsidiaries’ local managers to surface a more nuanced understanding of their expectations and related implications for work.Design/methodology/approachEmpirical research was conducted through semistructured in-depth interviews with senior managers of subsidiaries of Japanese MNCs in USA, Thailand and India.FindingsThe findings of the study develop and extend on prior cross-cultural management scholarship on world cultural clusters revealing changed expectations of work in intercultural work environments as instantiated by Japanese MNCs.Social implicationsThrough engaging work design, international businesses can contribute to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 8 that pertains to decent work.Originality/valueThe study adds to extant understanding of the work design antecedent to engagement by broadening to intercultural environment impacts understanding facilitated by empirical lived experience data and suggesting a modification to extant theory. This study pioneers in taking world cultural clusters as the field for evaluating data.

Postulation of India-Japan Vedic-Buddhist cross-cultural management cluster: conceptualizing a spiritual philosophy-based explanation for emerging theory

Purpose Though there is emerging research that induces a postulation for a Vedic–Buddhist (V–B) cultural cluster, good theory development requires not only generalizability but also strong explanation. This paper aims to address the explanation gap to strengthen emerging theory development. Design/methodology/approach Religion-derived spiritual philosophy travel is traced from historical origins in India to contemporary Japanese management practice and its underpinning values. Findings The enhanced explanation developed in this paper finds a clear trace of spiritual values with roots in India surfacing in contemporary Japanese management as identified in extant cross-cultural management (CCM) literature. Research limitations/implications This paper offers important explanation to strengthen emerging theory on the novel idea of a V–B CCM cluster. Practical implications The strengthening of explanation for emerging theory adds to the case for modification of the traditional CCM meta-narrative that has positioned India and Japan in separate cultural clusters. Social implications Strengthening the postulation of a V–B cultural cluster potentially lubricates foreign investment from Japan to India contributing to achievement of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal no. 17 that pertains to international partnerships. Additionally, the findings raise questions for public policymakers who in modern times occlude religion from the public sphere. Originality/value This paper offers novel explanatory perspectives for emerging CCM theory, potentially expanding the spiritual philosophy avenue of management research.

The convergence of value (quality) recognition approaches

PurposeThis paper aims to answer the following question: do the customer behaviors in evaluating a product's quality converge in terms of low‐ and high‐context culture? The paper is designed to examine how customers in different cultural contexts recognize the quality of a product according to three quality recognition approaches; these are exchange, sign, and experience approaches.Design/methodology/approachIn order to verify whether the worldwide quality recognition methods were converging or diverging, almost 300 exchange students in South Korea were surveyed. The survey examined how the 20s perceive quality of a laptop, analyzing each approach individually in order to observe whether the quality recognition methods were converging. Especially, when examining the experience approach, the value was segregated into two parts: extrinsic and intrinsic value.FindingsIt is found that only the experience approach is converging, which indicates that even within different degrees of cultural context, there are still cultural differences in quality recognition approaches.Research limitations/implicationsLimitations such as limited product uses, dividing the nations simply into two groups which are Western and Eastern are evident in the study. More elaborative future studies are suggested including, dividing nations in terms of cultural context and using more products.Originality/valueThis paper shows that the value recognition approaches are heterogeneous across cultures, and therefore more cultural‐based knowledge is required in cross‐cultural management.

Book Review: Cross-Cultural Management: Volume I—The Theory of Culture, Volume II—Managing Cultural Differences

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Critical Perspectives on International Business

ISSN : 1742-2043

Article publication date: 15 June 2020

Issue publication date: 12 August 2021

This paper responds to calls for a new raison d’être in the field cross-cultural management (CCM) and culture-sensitive studies of international business (IB) more broadly. It argues that one way of addressing the crisis of confidence in the field is to develop a line of inquiry focussed on corporate-driven cultural globalization. This paper also proposes a theoretical approach informed by international political economy (IPE) and postcolonial theory and outlines a research agenda for future work on cultural globalization.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a desk-based analysis that draws on relevant research in the wider social sciences to insert cultural globalization into the CCM/IB field’s intellectual project.

The paper finds the field of CCM and culture-sensitive IB studies more broadly to be almost exclusively focussed on studying the impact of cultural differences. Surprisingly, little attention has been devoted to the phenomenon of corporate-driven cultural globalization.

Research limitations/implications

The paper redirects the field and presents a research agenda, calling for studies on the role of four related actors in cultural globalization: MNEs, global professional service firms, business schools and CCM/IB researchers themselves.

Practical implications

CCM/IB scholars may be able to reorient themselves towards the phenomenon of cultural globalization and, in so doing, also seize an opportunity to contribute to important debates about it in the wider social sciences.

Originality/value

The paper suggests possibilities for renewal by redirecting CCM/IB towards the study of cultural globalization and by encouraging the field to develop a postcolonial sensibility in future research on the phenomenon.

  • Cross-cultural management
  • Imperialism
  • Multinational enterprises
  • Postcolonialism
  • Cultural globalization
  • Globalization
  • Multinationals

Boussebaa, M. (2021), "From cultural differences to cultural globalization: towards a new research agenda in cross-cultural management studies", Critical Perspectives on International Business , Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 381-398. https://doi.org/10.1108/cpoib-01-2020-0003

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Research: How Cultural Differences Can Impact Global Teams

  • Vasyl Taras,
  • Dan Caprar,
  • Alfredo Jiménez,
  • Fabian Froese

global culture research paper

And what managers can do to help their international teams succeed.

Diversity can be both a benefit and a challenge to virtual teams, especially those which are global. The authors unpack their recent research on how diversity works in remote teams, concluding that benefits and drawbacks can be explained by how teams manage the two facets of diversity: personal and contextual. They find that contextual diversity is key to aiding creativity, decision-making, and problem-solving, while personal diversity does not. In their study, teams with higher contextual diversity produced higher-quality consulting reports, and their solutions were more creative and innovative. When it comes to the quality of work, teams that were higher on contextual diversity performed better. Therefore, the potential challenges caused by personal diversity should be anticipated and managed, but the benefits of contextual diversity are likely to outweigh such challenges.

A recent survey of employees from 90 countries found that 89 percent of white-collar workers “at least occasionally” complete projects in global virtual teams (GVTs), where team members are dispersed around the planet and rely on online tools for communication. This is not surprising. In a globalized — not to mention socially distanced — world, online collaboration is indispensable for bringing people together.

  • VT Vasyl Taras is an associate professor and the Director of the Master’s or Science in International Business program at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro, USA. He is an associate editor of the Journal of International Management and the International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, and a founder of the X-Culture, an international business competition.
  • DB Dan Baack is an expert in international marketing. Dan’s work focuses on how the processing of information or cultural models influences international business. He recently published the 2nd edition of his textbook, International Marketing, with Sage Publications. Beyond academic success, he is an active consultant and expert witness. He has testified at the state and federal level regarding marketing ethics.
  • DC Dan Caprar is an Associate Professor at the University of Sydney Business School. His research, teaching, and consulting are focused on culture, identity, and leadership. Before completing his MBA and PhD as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Iowa (USA), Dan worked in a range of consulting and managerial roles in business, NGOs, and government organizations in Romania, the UK, and the US.
  • AJ Alfredo Jiménez is Associate Professor at KEDGE Business School (France). His research interests include internationalization, political risk, corruption, culture, and global virtual teams. He is a senior editor at the European Journal of International Management.
  • FF Fabian Froese is Chair Professor of Human Resource Management and Asian Business at the University of Göttingen, Germany, and Editor-in-Chief of Asian Business & Management. He obtained a doctorate in International Management from the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, and another doctorate in Sociology from Waseda University, Japan. His research interests lie in international human resource management and cross-cultural management.

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  • Americans Remain Critical of China

Many see China as increasingly influential and consider limiting its power a top priority

Table of contents.

  • Unfavorable views of China prevail
  • China’s role in the world
  • China’s territorial disputes
  • Americans lack confidence in Xi Jinping
  • Americans increasingly see China as an enemy
  • Limiting China’s power and influence
  • China’s economic influence on the U.S.
  • Acknowledgments
  • The American Trends Panel survey methodology

global culture research paper

Pew Research Center conducted this study to understand Americans’ opinions of China, its role in the world and its impact on the U.S. economy. For this analysis, we surveyed 3,600 U.S. adults from April 1 to April 7, 2024. Everyone who took part in this survey is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. Read more about the ATP’s methodology .

Here are the questions used for this analysis, along with responses, and its methodology .

A line chart showing American opinions of China between 2005 and 2024 where 81% of Americans hold an unfavorable view of China in 2024.

For the fifth year in a row, about eight-in-ten Americans report an unfavorable view of China, according to a new Pew Research Center survey. Today, 81% of U.S. adults see the country unfavorably, including 43% who hold a very unfavorable opinion. Chinese President Xi Jinping receives similarly negative ratings.

Still, many Americans agree that China’s influence in the world has been getting stronger in recent years (71%). This sense is accompanied by concern about how China interacts with other nations: 61% of Americans are at least somewhat concerned about China’s territorial disputes with neighboring countries. (For more U.S. views of China’s role in the world, go to Chapter 1 .)

When it comes to China’s relationship with the United States, few see China as a partner (6%) and most Americans instead label it a competitor (50%) or an enemy (42%) of the U.S. They are likewise critical of China’s impact on the U.S. economy, describing its influence as large and negative. Roughly half of Americans think limiting China’s power and influence should be a top U.S. foreign policy priority, and another 42% think this should be given some priority. (For more assessments of China’s relationship with the U.S., go to Chapter 2 .)

A bar chart showing that the shares of conservative Republicans with a very unfavorable opinion of China, who consider China an enemy of the U.S., and who think China’s influence in the world has been getting stronger in recent years are especially high.

According to the Center survey, which was conducted April 1-7, 2024, among 3,600 U.S. adults, Republicans are more wary of China than Democrats are.

Republicans and Republican-leaning independents are about twice as likely as Democrats and Democratic leaners to hold a very unfavorable view of China and to consider China an enemy of the U.S. They are also more likely to say that China has recently become more influential.

Republicans also have wider ideological differences within their party, and conservative Republicans stand out on many measures :

  • Conservative Republicans are 25 percentage points more likely than moderate and liberal Republicans to express a very unfavorable view of China (68% vs. 43%). There is no difference between liberal Democrats and moderate and conservative Democrats on this question.
  • Conservative Republicans are also 31 points more likely than moderate and liberal Republicans to see China as an enemy of the U.S. No ideological difference is present among Democrats.
  • While 83% of conservative Republicans say China’s influence in the world has been getting stronger in recent years, 68% of moderate and liberal Republicans say the same. The latter is similar to the shares of moderate and conservative Democrats (67%) and liberal Democrats (69%) who hold this view.

A bar chart showing that the shares of older Americans Republicans with a very unfavorable opinion of China, who consider China an enemy of the U.S., and who think China’s influence in the world has been getting stronger in recent years are particularly high.

Older Americans are generally more critical of China. A 61% majority of adults ages 65 and older have a very unfavorable view of China, compared with 27% of adults under 30. Adults ages 65 and older are also more than twice as likely as those ages 18 to 29 to see China as an enemy of the U.S. For their part, younger adults are more likely than older ones to label China as a competitor and as a partner.

Older Americans also perceive more growth in China’s international influence. Roughly three-quarters of adults ages 65 and older say China’s influence has been getting stronger in recent years, while about two-thirds of adults under 30 say the same.

Americans with a sour view of the U.S. economy have more critical opinions of China. Those who say the current U.S. economic situation is bad are more likely to hold an unfavorable opinion of China and to say China has a great deal or fair amount of negative influence on the U.S. economy. They are also more likely to see China as an enemy when compared with those who see the economy positively.

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In east asia, many people see china’s power and influence as a major threat, u.s.-germany relationship remains solid, but underlying policy differences begin to show, how views of the u.s., china and their leaders have changed over time, comparing views of the u.s. and china in 24 countries, most popular, report materials.

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ABOUT PEW RESEARCH CENTER  Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of  The Pew Charitable Trusts .

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Migrated Content

ILO Working paper 96

This study assesses the potential global exposure of occupations to Generative AI, particularly GPT-4. It predicts that the overwhelming effect of the technology will be to augment occupations, rather than to automate them. The greatest impact is likely to be in high and upper-middle income countries due to a higher share of employment in clerical occupations. As clerical jobs are an important source of female employment, the effects are highly gendered. Insights from this study underline the need for proactive policies that focus on job quality, ensure fair transitions, and that are based on dialogue and adequate regulation.

Additional details

  • Pawel Gmyrek, Janine Berg, David Bescond
  • ISBN: 9789220395356 (print)
  • ISBN: 9789220395363 (web pdf)
  • ISBN: 9789220395370 (epub)
  • ISBN: 9789220395387 (mobi)
  • https://www.ilo.org/static/english/intserv/working-papers/wp096/index.html

October 12, 2023 2:30pm-3:45pm | AI & Art: Reflections on Language, Myths and Culture

Posted in: Resources

global culture research paper

This event recording features a discussion with Ari Melenciano, whose exhibit The Backend was on display in the University Galleries. Melenciano uses AI artistically and as a tool for social inquiry. Her art and research practice are deeply invested in studying consciousness as a mythopoetic technique for unveiling the collective unconscious in her studio practice. For this, she draws on an anthropological approach with AI. Through her interrogation of notions of truth and objectivity, her work reveals the influence of myths that humanity is rooted within, as well as how the power dynamics of language are being automated through AI. The recording captures Melanciano’s reflections on her work in a conversation with Montclair faculty, including Charlotte Kent, Associate Professor of Visual Culture, and Julian Brash, Associate Professor of Anthropology.

For the event recording click here .

Presented by the University Galleries and Research on Interdisciplinary Global Studies (RIGS) and supported by the College of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Departments for Justice Studies, Religion and Sociology.

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global culture research paper

Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research

  • Introduction
  • Published: 11 October 2010
  • Volume 41 , pages 1259–1274, ( 2010 )

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global culture research paper

  • Rosalie L Tung 1 &
  • Alain Verbeke 2  

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OVERVIEW OF 41.8: HOFSTEDE AND GLOBE IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH

While Hofstede's work was not the first systematic study on cross-national cultures, his seminal book, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values (1980) , succeeded in putting cross-cultural analysis at the forefront of international business (IB) research. In a later paper, he boldly asserted that the ( “business of international business is culture” 1994 : 1). Despite the criticisms that have been voiced against his work (see McSweeney, 2002 ; Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002 ), Hofstede's influence on the fields of IB and management is undeniable: according to Harzing's “Publish or Perish” citation index, as of June 2010 there were over 54,000 citations to his work. This is a remarkable record that attests to, first, the growing popularity of cross-cultural research in light of continued internationalization of the world economy, and second, Hofstede's personal impact on scholarly research.

This JIBS issue brings together 10 articles on culture and IB, all of which were submitted to the editorial team led by JIBS Editor-in-Chief Lorraine Eden. While the articles were independently submitted through the regular double-blind reviewing process, the decision to join them in one collection creates, in effect, a Special Issue on “Culture in International Business Research”, which the JIBS editors hope will be widely read and cited by IB scholars. In general terms, the papers in this collection fall into one of two categories: (1) articles and commentaries about conceptual and methodological issues associated with Hofstede's oeuvre vs the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project's cultural dimensions, and (2) articles and perspectives that use culture and/or cultural dimensions, as well as the operational measurement thereof, to explain differences in behavior and practices across countries. The common feature of all these scholarly pieces is that they challenge particular assumptions often made too easily in conventional cross-cultural research.

The first paper in this collection is a perspective written by Franke and Richey that cautions against “questionable generalizations from small numbers of countries in international business research”. Using statistical analysis to support their assertion, Franke and Richey argue that in order to draw “credible” generalizations in IB, a minimum of 7–10 countries must be used. This is an important message: researchers should never formulate strong conclusions about the impact of cultural dimensions on managerial choice or economic performance based on samples that include only one or a few countries. Even when considering only the research published between 2006 and 2009, the authors found that 53% of the empirical studies published in JIBS , AMJ , SMJ , MIR or JWB that focused on multi-country comparisons included fewer than 10 countries. Fortuitously, all empirical papers in this issue of JIBS meet the large country number criterion.

The second paper in this issue, by Venaik and Brewer, uses statistical analysis to explain the conflicting empirical findings with regard to the effects of uncertainty avoidance (UA). The authors demonstrate that the UA dimension in Hofstede's work and the GLOBE project, in fact, represent different aspects of the same construct. More specifically, Hofstede's UA version is shown to represent societal stress, whereas GLOBE's version reflects more the extent to which societies are “rule oriented”. The authors recommend that researchers’ decision to use either Hofstede's or GLOBE's version of UA should therefore depend on “their focal construct of interest”.

These first two empirical pieces are followed by a set of four fascinating commentaries. Through detailed analysis of the questionnaire items used in the GLOBE project, Brewer and Venaik challenge the assertion made by Maseland and van Hoorn in their 2009 JIBS paper that the significant negative correlations between the “practices” and “values” in the GLOBE project can be explained in terms of the theory of diminishing marginal utility. This debate on the contributions of the GLOBE project, especially on the methodological and conceptual issues associated with the findings of negative correlations between “values” and “practices” in the GLOBE dimensions, is ongoing (see Peterson's (2004) insightful review of House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta (2004) ). The first commentary is followed by Maseland and van Hoorn's rebuttal to Brewer and Venaik's claim, where the authors reassert their original explanation. Next, Taras, Steel, and Kirkman jump into the debate between Brewer and Venaik, on the one hand, and Maseland and van Hoorn, on the other, by proffering a variety of alternative explanations (based largely on concepts from psychology and sociology) for these negative correlations. Their article is followed by a commentary from Hofstede, the doyen of cross-cultural research, who summarizes his personal perspective on the debate and reiterates the question he posed in his earlier 2006 JIBS piece ( Hofstede, 2006 ), namely “What did GLOBE really measure?”

These four commentaries as a set demonstrate the deep division among cross-cultural researchers as to what constitutes culture (that is, its key dimensions), how culture should be measured, and what culture implies for managerial practice. This debate is important because, unless researchers pay attention to these issues and differing opinions, many will and often do adopt a particular approach to defining cultural dimensions and measuring differences in these dimensions across cultures, without understanding fully the implications and possible limitations thereof.

Four empirical papers follow this debate surrounding what constitutes appropriate cultural distance dimensions and cultural distance measures. Cultural distance dimensions refer to national/societal values on which nations or societies tend to differ, as identified in major works, such as Schwartz’ value survey (1994) , Inglehart and Associates’ World Values Survey ( www.worldvaluesurvey.org ; Inglehart, 1997 ) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) , in addition to Hofstede's cultural characteristics and the GLOBE project. Cultural distance measures refer to operational parameters that can be used as proxies for these dimensions and allow estimating scores (albeit in an imperfect fashion) to gauge the extent to which countries differ on cultural dimensions. Such measures can take the form of compound indices that bundle distance scores for individual cultural dimensions, for example, operational instruments such as the Kogut-Singh (K-S) and other indices.

Each of the four empirical papers in this JIBS issue utilizes cultural distance dimensions and measures to explain variations in managerial behavior and practices across countries. First, based on a sample of 40 nations, Stephan and Uhlaner used selective data from the GLOBE and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor to explain differences in the entrepreneurship rates across countries. Importantly, they do not just use the GLOBE dimensions, but they compute second-order factors to eliminate multicollinearity among the nine GLOBE dimensions. As a result, they can distinguish between “performance based cultures” and “socially supportive cultures”, and they use this distinction to demonstrate, inter alia, that the latter (rather than the former) are conducive to higher entrepreneurship rates. Since entrepreneurship rates in society can change dramatically over time as a result of demographic, institutional and economic changes, two questions should be raised. First, are the cultural norms measured in the GLOBE project stable themselves? Second, is the relationship found between socially supportive societies and entrepreneurship rates likely to hold in the longer run?

Second, building upon a sample of Finnish firms, Sarala and Vaara examine the impact of both cross-national (GLOBE dimensions) and organizational-level cultural parameters on knowledge transfer in international mergers and acquisitions (M&As). The fascinating outcome is the positive relationship found between national cultural dimensions and international knowledge transfers, whereas no association was found between organizational level cultural differences and knowledge transfers. Sarala and Vaara demonstrate that cultural distance measures based on the K-S formula but utilizing scores from the GLOBE dimensions can be beneficial, and that higher distance should not be considered merely a cost. The paper also suggests that, at the organizational level, M&As can affect culture through convergence (reduction of cultural differences between organizations) and crossvergence (creation of a new organizational culture). In other words, even in the short run, organizational cultures and differences in these cultures can change dramatically. Their results suggest that research should not focus solely on extant differences but also explore processes of cultural integration that could facilitate knowledge transfers. The authors also highlight the need to be informed on the various motives for M&As in order to be able to distinguish among (1) cases where the initial corporate cultures are best left alone vs (2) cases where (one-sided) convergence should be sought vs (3) other cases where crossvergence (through mutual adjustment) is likely to be optimal, see also Verbeke (2010) .

The next paper, by Shao, Kwok and Guedhami, utilizes cultural distance dimensions derived from an equally credible alternative to the Hofstede and GLOBE measures: Schwartz's (1994) values surveys. The authors focus on two of his parameters, namely Conservatism (the extent to which individuals in a society value harmony within a group, as reflected in the importance attached to family security, self-discipline and public image) and Mastery (a dimension which focuses on independence and success), to investigate the relationship between national culture and dividend policy. Using data from 21 countries that represent 27,462 data points, Shao et al. find a positive relationship between Conservatism and dividend payouts and a negative association between Mastery and such payouts. The impressive element in this paper is the masterful selection of the two specific Schwartz dimensions, as a result of thoughtful conceptual analysis driven by both theory (especially agency theory and work on information asymmetries) and insight into managerial practice.

The last paper in this issue, by Kang and Kim, examines the factors that affect governance activities of foreign acquirers. Based on a sample of foreign acquisitions in the United States over a 20-year time period, the study finds that acquirers from culturally similar countries, relative to those from culturally distant ones, are more likely to engage in “post-acquisition governance activities”, mainly because they face lower information asymmetries that allow them to engage in more effective governance intervention. Here again the great strength of the paper is the thoughtful selection of relevant cultural distance dimensions and the recognition that related distance measures are likely to affect the managerial practices being studied. The distance dimensions and measures included in the paper are geographic distance, home-country language other than English, prior acquisition experience in the host country, cultural distance and a specific institutional distance parameter (differences in shareholders’ rights).

Collectively, these 10 papers shed new light on some of the latest debates pertaining to the merits and limitations associated with the Hofstede vis-à-vis GLOBE cultural dimensions, and they show empirically how cross-national differences in culture can affect a wide variety of IB studies: entrepreneurship, knowledge transfers, dividend policy and corporate governance. While acknowledging the intellectual contributions of these papers to, first, new insights on cultural distance dimensions and measures, and second, the similarities and/or differences between cultural phenomena in a multi-nation setting, it is pertinent and important to ask ourselves a question on the future of cross-cultural research: Where should we go from here, after gaining a better understanding of key conceptual and methodological issues surrounding the cultural dimensions in Hofstede's work and the GLOBE project on the one hand, and after having experienced the state-of-the-art in empirical work on cultural distance measures on the other hand? In other words, how can we take the field of cross-cultural research forward? Or, to put it differently, how do we progress beyond the point of adding only marginal value to extant knowledge?

CHALLENGING 10 COMMON ASSUMPTIONS ON CULTURAL DISTANCE DIMENSIONS AND MEASURES IN APPLIED IB RESEARCH

In an earlier JIBS perspective piece, Leung, Bhagat, Buchan, Erez, and Gibson (2005) proposed to look at culture in its full complexity, as a multi-level, multi-layer construct and also strongly advocated the use of experimental methods. The multiple levels refer to the presence of distinct cultural elements at the global, national, organizational, group and individual levels. Gelfand, Nishii, and Raver (2006 : 1239) echoed this call by asserting that “an exclusive focus on cultural values is insufficient to capture this complexity”. We agree with Leung et al.'s (2005) and Gelfand et al.'s (2006) assessment. At the same time, we are also cognizant of the fact that most applied IB and management studies that include a culture component, and the managerial challenges that inspired these studies, are necessarily relatively narrow in scope. Here, special attention should be devoted to the quality of the empirical research (usually based on statistical analysis of secondary data and survey data, or case studies) conducted within this narrow scope, especially in terms of what cultural distance dimensions and cultural distance measures between countries may mean for strategic managerial choice and performance outcomes in international settings.

A useful starting point to improve the quality of cross-cultural studies is to highlight and challenge 10 common assumptions characteristic of much applied empirical work on cultural distance dimensions and measures, thereby revisiting and augmenting Shenkar's (2001) seminal analysis (see Table 1 ). While Shenkar's analysis focused explicitly on cultural distance measures, especially the K-S index, by and large, these assumptions are also relevant to broader applied work that takes on board cultural distance dimensions and measures. The 10 assumptions often affect the intrinsic quality and managerial relevance of the empirical work undertaken, thus undermining the credibility of cross-cultural studies. Many of these weaknesses are addressed appropriately in the empirical papers included in this JIBS Special Issue, but unfortunately this cannot be said about all manuscripts submitted to this journal, nor about many articles published elsewhere in credible IB and management outlets.

Our point here is not to criticize earlier research or researchers, but rather to encourage IB scholars to implement best practices in their work on culture and IB. The standards for rigor in the social sciences are continually rising; what are acceptable practices today can very quickly become unacceptable as scholars better understand the problems and develop better methods for identifying and correcting them in their work. JIBS , with its long history of publishing leading scholarship on culture and IB, should be at the forefront in this area, setting the benchmark for social science research.

Assumptions 1 and 2: Generic Limitations of Applied Cultural Distance Research

All IB and management scholars engaged in applied, cross-cultural research should be attentive to the first two assumptions in Table 1 , symmetry in scores for distance measures between countries and stability of cultural distance dimensions and scores for distance measures over time, and be aware that these assumptions usually do not hold. In many cases, these two assumptions may not affect directly the quality of the empirical analysis conducted, but caution is still required when distance symmetry and stability are simply assumed. Footnote 1 The first assumption , namely that of symmetry between (1) the distance perceived by country A economic actors vis-à-vis country B and (2) the distance perceived by country B economic actors vis-à-vis country A, is often not warranted ( O’Grady & Lane, 1996 ). For example, Selmer, Chiu, and Shenkar (2007) found that it was much easier for 38 German expatriates to adjust comfortably in the United States than for 25 American expatriates in Germany, suggesting a substantial asymmetry in distance experienced by the two countries’ actors. In many empirical settings, the assumption of symmetry is not particularly critical, for example, when assessing entry mode choices of firms from a specific country in various foreign environments. However, it is then still important to specify that any empirically established relationship is unidirectional. Any suggestion that the same relationship would hold in the opposite direction should be avoided, especially if no robustness checks are performed. Including a larger number of countries in empirical studies, and conducting long-run programs of research studying the same managerial phenomenon in multiple directions (e.g., in terms of the choice of home and host countries when studying entry mode decisions), can go a long way towards alleviating this generic research challenge.

The second assumption is that of absence of change in cultural distance dimensions across nations, and therefore of stability of scores used in cultural distance measures between countries, over time. This assumption is obviously also unrealistic ( Fang, 2005–2006 ; Leung et al., 2005 ; Ralston, Egri, Stewart, Terpstra, & Yu, 1999 ). The key question from an IB research perspective is whether particular changes in cultural distance dimensions, and therefore cultural distance measures between countries over time, are likely to affect in a substantive fashion managerial choice and economic performance. In longitudinal studies covering extended periods of time, careful reflection on the issue is warranted, especially if older proxies are used for operationalizing and measuring cultural distance dimensions. This may be an issue in studies where distance proxies are used as the prime explanatory elements in statistical models rather than as moderating or mediating variables.

As one example of the relevance of recognizing changes in cultural distance over time, Heuer, Cummings, and Hutabarat (1999) directly measured Hofstede's individualism/collectivism and power distance dimensions through surveys of managers in Indonesia. The authors found a narrowing over time of the differences between Indonesian and American managers for these two cultural characteristics, thus suggesting cultural crossvergence ( Ralston, 2008 ). Furthermore, drawing upon dialectical thinking and the yin-yang principle, Fang (2005–2006 : 77) used the “ocean” metaphor to explain the “(1) paradoxical nature of culture, (2) the ‘moment’ of culture, and (3) the new identity of national cultures in the era of globalization”. The “ocean” metaphor refers to the reality that at any given time, some cultural values in a country may lie dormant until they are re-ignited by external events, such as foreign direct investment (FDI) and rapid internationalization. For example, risk taking and the entrepreneurial spirit, strong characteristics among overseas Chinese, were dampened in China at the height of communism but quickly unleashed when that country opened its door to foreign trade. In their study of Sino-Western business negotiations over a 30-year time frame, Tung, Worm, and Fang (2008) found that the “ocean” metaphor could capture more adequately the dynamic changes and complexities in present-day Chinese society than standardized, stable scores supposedly measuring China's main cultural dimensions.

In most cases, it may be beyond the scope of individual research projects to actually measure the evolution over time of the adopted cultural dimensions, but it is nevertheless imperative to recognize explicitly the reality thereof. It does not suffice to state that a particular, older measurement of cultural dimensions is probably still appropriate because other scholars use this measurement too, or because it likely changes only slowly over time, without any credible evidence that this is actually the case.

Assumptions 3–6 : Necessary Improvements in Empirical Research Design

As regards the third to sixth assumptions in Table 1 , substantial progress has been made to address these in contemporary research. In our view, this is often an issue of appropriate empirical modeling. Indeed, the third assumption in many IB studies has been that of a linear association between cultural distance scores, as measured by specific distance proxies on the one hand, and the selected dependent variables, on the other, meaning that any change in cultural distance scores between countries is expected to be associated with a similar change, in terms of sign and magnitude, of the phenomenon studied. For example, if the score for a particular cultural distance measure (supposedly capturing an underlying distance dimension) increases, the likelihood of multinational enterprise (MNE) managers choosing a joint venture rather than a wholly owned subsidiary (or vice versa), should also change proportionally. Fortunately, many recent studies published in the major management journals have adopted more sophisticated empirical approaches allowing for a variety of statistical relationships (other than linear ones) to describe the possible association between cultural distance scores and a variety of managerial choices and performance parameters, thereby taking on board a broad spectrum of moderators ( Tihanyi, Griffith, & Russell, 2005 ).

The fourth and fifth assumptions represent the alleged, unambiguous association (in the sense of a clear causal linkage) between cultural distance scores, on the one hand, and managerial choice or economic performance, on the other. The typical approach is one whereby a higher cultural distance score for one or several cultural distance measures is supposed to lead to additional costs, thereby shifting in an identifiable way what managers, firms and – through aggregation – even countries do. There are a number of problems here. First, any empirical study design should include only those cultural distance dimensions, and the measures associated with them, that can really be expected to affect ex ante managerial choice (such as location choice or entry mode selection) and/or ex post behavior and performance. The inclusion of particular cultural distance dimensions and related measures should therefore be carefully tailored to the empirical question at hand. Here, one should also remember that assuming causality between cultural distance scores, on the one hand, and managerial choice, on the other, in fact contradicts the possibility of a causal linkage between cultural variables and performance. In the former case, managers are assumed to make “correct” decisions ex ante. In the latter case, ex post performance differences result from “incorrect” ex ante decisions, safe cases of unexpected external events that could not reasonably have been predicted.

Second, most dependent variables in IB do not exist in a vacuum. For example, what is the relevance of assessing the impact of cultural distance scores on trade patterns at the macro-level, if other entry modes such as FDI are ignored? An increase in cultural distance scores might actually lead to an increase in trade volumes, if exports replace production abroad (and FDI), because differences in the underlying cultural dimensions make it particularly difficult to manage production operations (at least as compared with international trading activities). In other words, if FDI stocks and flows are kept out of the analysis, little can be concluded.

Third, there is a clear endogeneity problem here: IB transactions do not occur primarily because of cultural distance scores (and thus differences in the underlying cultural dimensions) or the lack thereof. These transactions occur because firms command bundles of firm-specific advantages (FSAs) that can be best exploited or augmented through combination with resources found elsewhere ( Hennart, 2009 ; Rugman, 1981 ; Verbeke, 2009 ). In other words, no direct, generalizable linkage (divorced from a specific situational context) should be expected between cultural distance scores and managerial choice or economic performance ( Tihanyi et al., 2005 ).

The problem is somewhat similar to the one found in the largely misconceived empirical literature assessing the link between multinationality and performance ( Hennart, 2007 ; Verbeke & Brugman, 2009 ; Verbeke, Li, and Goerzen, 2009 ). In that literature, multinationality is assumed to have a direct effect on performance, but in real life most often does not, or at least not in a truly significant way, simply because any observed level of multinationality results from managerial decisions on resource deployment and recombination in ways that benefit the firm more than alternative deployments and recombinations.

Similarly, the absence of genuine causality between cultural distance scores (and variations in the underlying cultural dimensions) and firm performance holds for firms making particular location decisions that lead to operations in a portfolio of host countries with particular distance scores vis-à-vis the home country; these are endogenous choices at least partly based on each firm's extant resource reservoir. Unfortunately, the majority of empirical papers that build upon secondary data and assess either the impact of multinationality on performance or the impact of culture on managerial choice and performance seldom bother to check through interviews with managers or case studies as to whether or not their statistical results are consistent with managerial reality or represent mainly statistical noise ( Barkema, Bell, & Pennings, 1996 ). However, this is ultimately a manageable challenge related to the proper design of empirical work and the honest interpretation of its outcomes.

The sixth assumption reflects the expected equivalence between cultural distance and psychic distance. Psychic distance, which is actually unrelated to any psychological characteristics of particular individuals, can be traced back to Beckerman's (1956) economics paper on trade patterns and refers to the “subjectively perceived distance to a foreign country” ( Håkanson & Ambos, 2010 : 2). Earlier on, we made a distinction between cultural distance dimensions and cultural distance measures , with the latter leading to specific scores and compound indices supposedly describing the distance between two nations. Unfortunately, these dimensions and measures do not fully capture psychic distance, which is really the key parameter affecting many managerial choices in an IB context. In Beckerman's work, other factors than “objective” economic parameters (for example, familiarity resulting from personal relationships) appeared to influence trade patterns, an insight marvelously translated to micro-level decision making by the Uppsala School's internationalization studies ( Johanson and Vahlne, 2009 ). In the oeuvre of the Uppsala school scholars, cultural distance dimensions and related measures represent only one component of psychic distance (other components being related, inter alia , to a variety of information barriers). If many individuals in a country share a particular level of psychic distance vis-à-vis a foreign nation, this may become a predictor of managerial choice and perhaps even economic performance. (The latter will occur only if ex ante perceptions of distance were consistent with reality, but mistakes were made in acting upon these, or if ex ante perceptions did not adequately represent economic, cultural, institutional, etc. realities in the first place.)

Psychic distance is often wrongly equated with cultural distance in empirical work, although it is a much broader concept that includes many other sources of distance than culture related ones. Håkanson and Ambos (2010) analyzed 148 empirical studies using the K-S index, an operational tool based on Hofstede's cultural distance dimensions. Footnote 2 In 40% of the studies, this index was actually used as the proxy for psychic distance in an ex ante decision-making context (e.g., instrumental to investment location selection or entry mode choice). In the remaining 60%, scholars utilized the index in an ex post context, allegedly reflecting the ease/difficulty of doing business in a foreign country, and affecting performance (e.g., subsidiary and joint venture performance, human resources management practices) ( Håkanson & Ambos, 2010 ).

The problem is thus that a concept solely related to expected challenges of operating in a culturally unfamiliar environment (i.e., a compound index of cultural distance scores intended to measure differences in underlying cultural dimensions between countries) is wrongly equated with the much broader and more encompassing concept of psychic distance ( Dow, 2000 ; Dow & Karunaratna, 2006 ). As one example of the relevance of distinguishing between these two concepts, Dow and Larimo's (2008) work suggests that the K-S (1988) index misses 75% of the predictive power of psychic distance's full effect on entry mode selection, with other key psychic distance components including differences between countries in language, religion, industrial development, education and degree of democracy. A positive element for future research is that scales are now available that actually allow measuring differences across countries (see, e.g., Dow & Karunaratna, 2006 ). In addition, several databases are readily available that facilitate the consideration of cultural variations across countries, beyond Hofstede and the GLOBE project. These include Schwartz's value survey, Inglehart and associates’ World Values Survey ( www.worldvaluesurvey.org ), and the Trompenaars Hampden-Turner ecological (cross-cultural) database ( www.thtconsulting.com ).

Assumptions 7–10 : The Four Masks of Focused Cross-Cultural Studies

The last four assumptions (7–10) represent, in our view, more serious challenges to applied IB and management research in a cross-cultural setting. These assumptions create a clearly inaccurate cross-cultural context within which actual managerial choices are allegedly made and subsequent economic performance is achieved. In other words, if the actual measurements of the cultural dimensions selected by IB and management researchers in their applied work are inappropriate in a micro-level context (irrespective of their quality as averages that are more representative at the macro or national level of analysis), the relevance of these dimensions toward explaining phenomena pertaining to management becomes debatable at best. At the same time, these challenges are not necessarily easy to address through actionable changes in empirical study design. Rejecting these assumptions, which are the equivalent of four masks behind which many cross-cultural studies attempt to hide in order to disguise their intrinsic weaknesses, amounts to substantive reconceptualization as to the meaning and potential value added of cross-cultural studies.

The seventh assumption is that of spatial homogeneity within a single nation . It may make sense to assume spatial homogeneity and estimate average national scores for underlying cultural dimensions when attempting to explain macro-level phenomena. However, at the micro-level, when trying to establish linkages between scores for cultural dimensions and managerial choices or economic performance levels, due consideration should be given to intra-national differences. Drawing upon the concepts of polycontextualization ( Von Glinow, Shapiro, & Brett, 2004 ), culture as a multi-level, multi-layer construct ( Gelfand et al., 2006 ; Leung et al., 2005 ), and the multicultural status of most nation-states ( Naylor, 1996 ), Tung (2008a) has called for the need to balance cross-national and intra-national diversity in cross-cultural research.

Growing intra-national diversity in many countries has highlighted the problems, both conceptual and methodological, associated with assuming cultural homogeneity among people within a given nation-state. Intra-national diversity has been brought about, in part at least, by the globalization of the workforce. “Global workforce 2000” refers to the rising incidence of migration of people across international boundaries ( Johnston, 1991 ), caused first by the boundaryless careers generated by the increasing willingness of people to live and work in other countries ( Stahl, Miller, & Tung, 2002 ; Tung, 1998 ), and second, by the “brain circulation” that stems from immigrants’ desire to return to their countries of origin to partake in economic development and/or establish dual beachheads of businesses in both their countries of origin and countries of residency ( Saxenian, 2002 ; Tung, 2007 ).

The most popular cross-national dimensions used in IB research to date, such as Hofstede's (1980) , GLOBE's ( House et al., 2004 ), Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner's (1997) , Inglehart and associates’ World Values Survey ( Inglehart, 1997 ), and Schwartz’ (1994) values survey, are all premised on the assumption of cultural homogeneity within a given country. As Tung (2008a : 45) warned, the “fallacious assumption” of cultural uniformity can “risk the generation of results that mask or confound the phenomena under investigation”.

There is growing evidence to show that intra-national diversity (i.e., variations within a country) can be as salient as, and sometimes more so than, differences across countries. Tung and Baumann (2009) compared the attitudes toward money, material possessions and savings among samples of Caucasian Canadians, Chinese Canadians, Caucasian Australians, Chinese Australians and Chinese from China. The authors found that there were more similarities between ethnic Chinese in Canada and Australia with Chinese in China, on the one hand, vis-à-vis their Caucasian counterparts in Canada and Australia, on the other. This observation may have significant implications for IB research. For example, it may imply that firms owned and managed by individuals from a foreign ethnicity may select as their target market in a host country, individuals or firms with the same ethnic background. Ethnicity might thus represent an FSA, especially for emerging market firms ( Miller, Thomas, Eden, & Hitt, 2008 ). This finding lends credence to Fletcher and Fang's (2006 : 435) strong statement that a source of “weakness in cross-cultural comparisons is the tendency in the literature to make comparisons between countries rather than ethnic groups … (when) globalization and the borderless economy are making nation states increasingly irrelevant”.

In some ways, understanding intra-national diversity can be more nebulous and challenging when compared with deciphering cross-national distance in cultural dimensions because so many variables – such as ethnicity, age, gender, generational differences (for example, first generation Chinese Canadians vis-à-vis second and third generation Chinese Canadians), religion and so on – can come into play in affecting the values, behaviors and practices of peoples within a given nation state. In fact, it may be more difficult to gauge the impact of these demographic variables and their interaction effects than taking the country scores from Hofstede or the GLOBE index on a given country. There are widely available cultural distance indices (such as K-S's, see also the discussion of the tenth assumption below) that researchers can readily use.

In contrast, there is no short-cut approach to gauge the almost endless possibility of variations within a given nation-state that can arise from the diversity of background of its peoples. In line with the “ocean” metaphor ( Fang, 2005–2006 ), it is important to realize that a country's score on the measure for a given cultural dimension is, at best, a one-time snapshot of the characteristics of a select segment of a given nation; therefore, it would be woefully inadequate and misleading to interpret the rest of the country's behavior and tendencies based on a generalized index. Whereas such snapshots may still be useful as average scores for a nation in macro-level studies, they should not be blindly adopted in micro-level studies. Hopefully, the growing recognition that significant differences can exist within peoples in a given nation-state will hasten this move toward the understanding of culture as a multi-level, multi-layered construct showing substantial variation within a single country ( Gelfand et al., 2006 ; Leung et al., 2005 ; Miller et al., 2008 ). In addition, we should also recognize that the extent of intra-national diversity can vary significantly from one country to the next, with each country characterized by a particular degree of “cultural tightness-looseness” ( Gelfand et al., 2006 : 1226–1227). The latter is intended to gauge “how clear and pervasive norms are within societies, … and how much tolerance there is for deviance from norms”. This concept of cultural tightness-looseness holds promise as it can complement existing measures of cultural dimensions, not merely adding to the current inventory of cultural distance parameters.

Moreover, the growing incidence of “brain circulation” has given rise to a new cultural sub-group, which Tung (2008a) has labeled as ex-host country nationals (EHCNs). EHCNs from emerging markets, such as China and India, have been lured to return to their respective countries of origin to partake in the fruits of development that have transformed their former home countries. The 2008 financial crisis that hit the industrialized countries very hard has accelerated this trend. Furthermore, because of the growth opportunities in these emerging markets, many MNEs are expanding their operations in these regions. A common assumption among many MNEs is that the best people to head and/or manage their operations in emerging markets are EHCNs. Thus, studies that seek to examine the interactions between expatriates and host-country nationals, but which continue to assume that EHCNs share the home or investor country's culture, can yield misleading findings. As Tung (2008b : 471) asserted, the phenomenon of brain circulation “has challenged us to fundamentally rethink the parameters and the way in which we have conducted cross-cultural research in the past”.

The key point to remember from the analysis above is that in micro-level studies, only in-depth insight into the idiosyncratic nature of firms’ locational characteristics in home and host environments, and the characteristics of senior MNE managers, expatriates, etc. in the firms studied can yield relevant associations between culture-related variables, on the one hand, and managerial choice or economic performance variables, on the other. Take this mask of intra-country homogeneity away, and the credibility of more than one cross-cultural study may become seriously undermined.

The eighth assumption is that cultural distance dimensions/scores systematically engender negative outcomes . This assumption needs to be carefully reconsidered, particularly when conceptualizing micro-level studies. In fact, if adopted by researchers in applied work and conveyed to practitioners, it can trigger wrong managerial choices or negatively affect performance as a self-fulfilling prophecy ( Brown, Rugman, & Verbeke, 1988 ). To date, most research questions and hypotheses in IB and management publications on cross-national interactions, including foreign market entry strategies, have been guided by the concepts of homophily and psychic distance (see also the discussion above on Assumption 6 ). Homophily, in essence, means that people prefer to be with those who resemble themselves ( Ibarra, 1993 ; Lazarsfeld & Merton, 1954 ). This explains, in line with past research, why in general, expatriates from the United States are more comfortable with assignments to Canada and the United Kingdom (culturally similar countries) as opposed to China, Japan and Korea (culturally distant countries) ( Tung, 1998 ), and why superiors should take into consideration the level of cultural novelty (i.e., the difference between the cultures of the home and host countries) when assessing expatriates’ performance abroad ( Selmer, Chiu, & Shenkar, 2007 ).

The psychic distance concept discussed above (from a perspective of appropriate empirical design, see the discussion of Assumption 6 ), is analogous to that of homophily and, as noted, is a fundamental tenet of the Johanson and Vahlne (1977 , 2009 ) and broader Uppsala School theories of incrementalism in entering foreign markets. These theories suggest that internationally operating firms first seek to enter markets that are psychically closer to that of the home country, before venturing into psychically distant locations after they have gained more IB experience. In fairness to Johanson and Vahlne's analysis, their expectation was that psychic distance would decline with the absolute level of economic development of the target country: regardless of proximity, wealthier countries were expected to have a better developed infrastructure for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information relevant to operating in the market. Nevertheless, the assumption that psychic distance does help explain a firm's evolutionary path toward internationalization parallels the principle of homophily, which asserts that relationships and associations tend to be formed among peoples from similar backgrounds (i.e., that are psychically closer). Footnote 3

While the principles of homophily and psychic distance may hold in the West, even in micro-level studies, the findings by Mamman (1995) and Carr, Rugimbana, Walkom and Bolitho (2001) in their studies of sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania suggest the opposite. In their studies, they found that host-country nationals were more likely to hold negative stereotypes about expatriates from other developing countries, particularly those from neighboring nations. Borrowing the principle of inverse resonance in applied mechanics, Carr et al. (2001) have used this concept to explain the more positive or neutral reception by host nationals of individuals from culturally distant countries.

The inverse resonance hypothesis is diametrically opposed to the homophily hypothesis advocated in the mainstream IB and management literature. Even though the studies on inverse resonance have, thus far, been done on Africa only, we suspect that this principle will most probably hold in Asia as well. For example, it would be erroneous to assume that it is best to send a Hong Kong or Taiwanese Chinese to manage in China or a Sri Lankan or Pakistani to manage in India. Footnote 4 Here, the critical issue in applied research is not to find a statistical curve that would best describe the association between cultural (or psychic) distance scores and managerial choice or performance outcomes. The real challenge is to understand at the macro- and micro-levels, on the basis of direct observation, what distance means in practice, and why high-distance solutions (e.g., in the context of expatriates) may sometimes be preferred over low distance ones, and may even lead to superior performance. Here, one should also take into account that sources of distance other than culture (e.g., differences in economic development level) may help explain the attractiveness of a high-distance solution (e.g., when associated with a higher likelihood of advanced knowledge transfers). It is intuitively appealing to wear the mask of homophily , but this mask does disguise substantial cross-cultural complexity that more often than not remains unaccounted for.

The ninth assumption is the homogenous impact of (national) cultural distance, irrespective of firm characteristics . It does make sense to assess in applied macro- and meso-level studies how distance, as measured by average distance scores for underlying, relevant cultural dimensions, affects location choices, sequences in location choices, entry mode choices, managerial practices and ultimately economic performance. However, the question then arises as to how this translates into any managerial prescription in micro-level IB studies. That MNEs command idiosyncratic resource bundles and successful strategy either results from emulating rival firms’ strategies but in a superior fashion, or from making very different choices as to resource deployment.

In this context, there are five weaknesses associated with neglecting firm-level characteristics when assessing the impacts of cultural distance dimensions/measures in applied micro-level studies. First, the firm may command resources alleviating any problems that could transpire in an allegedly high-distance context at the macro-level. For example, a US-based company contemplating expansion to Taiwan might not experience any distance-related difficulties associated with such a location choice if the MNE employs senior managers who were born and raised in Taiwan, and kept their local networks active, even after completing graduate studies in the United States and working for American companies (this situation is similar to the use of EHCNs, discussed under Assumption 7 ). In more general terms, the costs of negotiating with local partners, transferring knowledge to a Taiwanese production operation, and developing the required location-bound FSAs to be fully productive there, may be quite low because of the idiosyncratic resources the firm commands.

Second, international experience can go a long way to alleviating distance challenges in IB ( Hutzschenreuter & Voll, 2008 ; Hutzschenreuter et al., 2010 ). More specifically, what matters in the case of a new entry is not so much the distance between the home country A and the host country B, but between the newly entered host country B and the host country C, where the firm already has substantial experience and that shows the lowest distance to the newly entered country B. Ideally, one should even recognize the importance of intra-country variation in the context of added cultural distance, as suggested when discussing Assumption 7 .

The issue of added cultural distance is important, as it suggests that much of the extant, applied IB and management research at the micro-level, building upon differences between home and host countries, has been fundamentally ill-conceived, especially in an era of network MNEs where host-country operations can be strategic leaders and even command subsidiary-specific advantages ( Rugman & Verbeke, 2001 ). In this context, it is especially important to investigate the diversity in the educational, functional and geographic experience of the senior management team. Tung and Chung (2010) , for example, found that Australian firms that were owned by immigrants from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan were more likely to enter their respective former countries of residence via joint or wholly owned ventures as compared to exporting and licensing by other Australian firms without such connections.

Third, the impact of distance may be very different depending upon the value chain activity involved. For example, Rugman and Verbeke (2004 , 2005 , 2008 ) have shown in the context of regional vs global strategies of the Fortune Global 500 companies, that input markets appear to be much less prone to suffer from costs of distance than output markets, because resource commitments by the firm at the output side are usually more one-sided than at the input side.

Fourth, in accordance with our analysis above (see the discussion around Assumption 8 ), viewing distance as a cost and as a barrier to IB may make perfect sense for firms merely interested in exploiting their extant FSAs in new settings with the lowest possible requirements for adaptation. However, distance may actually confer benefits to firms interested primarily in developing new FSAs in host environments, for example, in the context of strategic asset seeking investments; although the net benefits of penetrating high-distance environments should never be taken for granted and overestimated ( Verbeke & Kenworthy, 2008 ).

Fifth, much past micro-level research has attempted to describe the impact of cultural distance dimensions/scores on strategic choices such as entry mode selection (e.g., wholly owned subsidiary vs joint venture vs exports). However, what is sometimes forgotten is that internalization implies replacing external distance (i.e., dealing with host country, arm's length parties) by internal distance (i.e., working with host-country employees). It is again the idiosyncratic resource bundles, including the firm's operating routines and its capacity to train and acculturate foreign employees, which will determine the option that should be selected based on its net benefits ( Hennart, 2009 ). Wearing the mask of homogeneity across firms , in terms of likely impacts of cultural distance can lead to statistically significant results, but what these might imply for actual managerial choice and economic performance, if anything, is unclear.

Finally, the tenth assumption is related to the appropriateness of bundling individual distance measures into aggregate indices that can easily be applied in IB and management studies, whether at the micro or macro-levels. From the perspective of expediency, such indices make perfect sense because they are easy to apply and confer instant legitimacy to the study at hand, especially if they have often been adopted in prior studies as is the case with the K-S index. Unfortunately, this may be at the expense of the research outcomes’ validity and reliability, as demonstrated in Håkanson and Ambos’ (2010) empirical assessment of psychic distances between 25 countries. The authors found that the K-S index had a particularly weak explanatory power. In contrast, the “fifth” Hofstede dimension, long-term orientation, did add substantial explanatory power, individualism appeared to be important, but inter alia, masculinity was not. Other empirical studies have also identified some Hofstede dimensions, most notably UA and individualism, as more critical to explaining managerial phenomena than other ones ( Shenkar, 2001 ). In more general terms, it would appear that the impact of K-S's index on the quality of cross-cultural research in IB and management may have been mixed.

Having accepted that the unbundling of cultural (or psychic) distance dimensions is important, it should be noted that a rapidly growing stream of applied IB and management research is now focusing on including institutional distance dimensions, in addition to cultural distance ones. Here, it would indeed appear important to include both culture-related and institution-related variables in studies on managerial choice and performance outcomes in international settings, since both are complementary ( Xu & Shenkar, 2002 ). For example, there have been studies analyzing the impact on MNE foreign entry mode decisions of intellectual property rights protection ( Delios & Beamish, 1999 ; Oxley, 1999 ), political risk ( Brouthers & Brouthers, 2001 ) corruption ( Cuervo-Cazurra, 2006 ; Habib & Zurawicki, 2002 ), political systems ( Dow & Karunaratna, 2006 ), sub-national institutional variables ( Meyer & Nguyen, 2005 ) and regulative, normative and cognitive institutional factors ( Yiu & Makino, 2002 ).

Meyer (2001) is probably the first researcher who showed the impact of macro-level governance distance between countries on entry mode choice, in the context of emerging economies. Gaur and Lu (2007) also analyzed the impact of distance in macro-level governance on the survival of MNE foreign subsidiaries. Building on Scott (1995) , the authors distinguished between regulative and normative distance and suggested significant effects of both indicators on subsidiary survival. Estrin, Ionascu, and Meyer (2007) found significant effects on entry mode choice of the regulative, normative and cognitive components of institutional distance.

This last approach suggests the almost natural complementarity between cultural and institutional distance dimensions, though it should be recognized that much of the institutional distance literature suffers less than the cultural distance literature from homophily, in that institutional quality is often considered more important than institutional proximity ( Globerman & Shapiro, 2003 ; Kaufmann, Kraay, & Mastruzzi, 2003 ). A relatively recent research stream in the international strategy literature indeed suggests that the foreign regulatory environment may have more of an influence on MNE behavior than previously recognized ( Coeurderoy & Murray, 2008 ; Henisz, 2000 ; Kostova & Zaheer, 1999 ). In this context, a number of authors have also claimed – at the intersection between institutional distance and institutional quality – that the costs of doing business abroad may be affected significantly by the level of regional integration between the countries involved ( Benito, Grøgaard, & Narula, 2003 ; Berry, Guillén, & Zhou, 2010 ; Hejazi, 2007 ; Rugman & Verbeke, 2004 ).

The mask of bundling a predetermined set of cultural distance parameters into standard indices in applied IB studies is again intuitively appealing, but likely to disguise or ignore much of the full spectrum of parameters that actually matter. This is not merely an empirical study design issue but goes to the heart of conceptualizing cross-cultural studies: what do IB and management scholars actually try to achieve with their work? Is it establishing some statistically significant relationship vs truly understanding managerial choice and economic performance in a cross-cultural and cross-institutional context?

CONCLUSIONS

We have discussed 10 common assumptions in applied IB and management research on cultural distance dimensions and measures. While substantial advances have been made in the field since cultural dimensions received widespread attention with the publication of Hofstede's (1980) seminal work, our conclusion is not necessarily very encouraging in terms of the state-of-the-art. The scholarly fields of IB and management in general are now populated by a number of “clubs”, each of which has very specific views on the inclusion of cultural distance dimensions and measurable proxies thereof in academic studies. For example, many authors and journal reviewers still feel it is entirely appropriate to use K-S type indices, whereas a growing number of others reject this outright as being a vestige of the “dark middle ages” of cross-cultural research.

We see four distinct challenges that exist for researchers doing applied work and contemplating the use of K-S type indices: first, addressing possible quality problems with the inputs (e.g., scores for the underlying cultural distance dimensions, as identified in work such as Hofstede's) that are instrumental to calculating index values; second, assessing the relevance of these inputs, which reflect national, societal values rather than managerial perceptions; third, reflecting on the usefulness of a compound index in which each component is given an equal weight, when some components should carry more weight than other ones; fourth, making explicit the assumptions adopted by researchers as to the index's usefulness to help explain managerial choices, practices and economic performance, taking into account that cultural distance is not the same as psychic distance.

The Hofstede–GLOBE debate included in this issue of JIBS has provided substantial intellectual spark, but has not answered the question as to possible complementarities, although the Venaik and Brewer paper has shed some light on this issue in the context of the UA dimension. In addition, the linkages with other approaches, such as the Schwartz paradigm (e.g., Schwartz, 1994 ), the World Values Survey ( Inglehart, 1997 ) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner (1997) , were not investigated in depth. Many scholars may believe, after reading the various pieces included here, that they should perhaps include both Hofstede-based and GLOBE-based measures in their empirical work as well as alternative indices in order to avoid the wrath of reviewers strongly positioned in one particular camp. But is this the right way forward? We do not think so.

We see the way forward as threefold for IB and management scholars engaged in applied research on the effects of cultural distance. First, scholars should adopt a broad conceptual view of the distance concept , embracing cultural, institutional, economic and spatial components, and include in their empirical studies the various dimensions most likely to affect ex ante the managerial choices or ex post the performance areas being investigated. The goal, however, is not to be exhaustive in terms of including measures for all the distance dimensions and control variables that could possibly be considered, but to set up credible research designs that can actually help explain the managerial phenomena being investigated. Footnote 5 Second, scholars should revisit and challenge their own research frames, especially in terms of how the 10 common assumptions and in particular the four masks included in Table 1 , may affect the scholarly credibility and managerial relevance of their empirical work. Authors should at least be explicit on why they made (or were forced to make) some of these assumptions. Third, in our view, the four masks, and within these the unbundling issue , are probably the most critical items that need to be addressed. Perhaps it is correct that some cultural distance dimensions and related scores for distance measures might (1) be affected in only a minor way by (intra-national) spatial characteristics; (2) usually have the same “sign” in terms of the nature of the impact on managerial choices or ease of doing business abroad; (3) have a large, direct impact in an absolute sense on discrete managerial choices or overall performance levels; and (4) have an impact largely independent of other distance components – and therefore can simply be “added” to other distance dimensions within the framework of a standard, overall distance measure. However, what we do know is that some cultural distance dimensions and related scores for distance measures actually (1) are affected by intra-national location elements, including the extent of cultural tightness-looseness proposed by Gelfand et al. (2006) ; (2) do not have the same type of impact in all situational contexts; (3) may not be directly instrumental to managerial choice and economic performance; and (4) probably do not exert any influence independently of other distance dimensions – and therefore cannot be simply added to scores for other dimensions using a standard, overall distance measure. In these situations, masking individual distance dimensions through the use of simple aggregate indices may actually render a disservice to students trying to understand the impact of distance on managerial choices and economic performance, to scholars attempting to build upon this prior work, and to managers facing real-world distance challenges and looking for guidance from the scholarly IB and management communities.

The way forward to improve the quality of applied IB and management research is for scholars to have an impeccable command of the full (and still growing) arsenal of instruments for measuring distance dimensions and providing distance scores. Such command should then lead to selecting in a judicious rather than expeditious manner the unbundled distance dimensions and related measures, including the cultural, institutional, economic and spatial ones that are most likely to affect the ex ante managerial choices or ex post performances being investigated, while avoiding the obvious endogeneity problems haunting much of the past research. Cross-cultural analysis in IB and management research should also systematically consider competing hypotheses and alternative explanations in terms of the possible impacts of distance dimensions, and not limit itself to simply adopting readily available compound indices as easy tools to determine whether culture does matter to managerial choice and economic performance. Footnote 6

Finally, there is an exciting challenge ahead for scholars engaged in fundamental rather than applied research on how cultural values vary across space and time, and how these should be operationalized and measured. It is time for independent scholars to revisit in a comprehensive fashion the quality of the available arsenal of instruments and parameters in the realm of cultural dimensions, and adopted in applied IB and management research. In other words, the way forward appears to center around two major challenges, namely to determine: First, which – if any – of these tools and parameters really hold up against the quality standards of contemporary scholarly endeavor in terms of validity and reliability? Second, which of these measures are most appropriate in light of the research questions and context at hand?

It is worth noting that when the Uppsala School first operationalized the “psychic distance” construct, discussed under Assumption 6 , asymmetry was implied ( Vahlne & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1973 ). However, because the measurements involved only one focal country, this aspect was not elaborated upon; over time, this assumption of asymmetry was distorted to imply symmetry. Several studies found evidence of asymmetry ( Brock, Shenkar, Shoham, & Siscovick, 2008 ; Dichtl, Koeglmayr, & Mueller, 1990 ; Dow, 2000 ; Ellis, 2007 ; Håkanson & Ambos, 2010 ).

For a detailed description of this index, albeit using inputs from GLOBE, see the paper by Sarala and Vaara in this Special Issue.

In this context, one of the reviewers of this article commented that the K-S index is not a good indicator of similarity. The cultural distance between Austria and Japan is 1.5 according to this index, whereas the difference between Austria and Sweden is 4.04.

One reviewer of this article commented that negative stereotypes about culturally proximate nations, especially those in a situation of economic dominance, can also be found in Europe (e.g., Austria vs Germany; Canada vs the United States), though this does not necessarily affect IB transactions. Similarly, the country-of-origin literature where animosity (i.e., perceptions of inferior quality) held by consumers, especially those from emerging markets is often associated with products from other emerging markets, suggests that the homophily assumption needs to be challenged (see, Funk, Arthurs, Treviño, & Joireman, 2009 ).

In other words, we think that a continued focus on the distance concept, with distance having a variety of potentially negative and positive effects, remains particularly valuable to the field of IB research, because of its role in explaining IB expansion choices, managerial practices, and performance outcomes. However, we advocate the use of cultural distance as an “envelope concept”, with its precise content to be determined ex ante in empirical studies, as a function of the research questions to be answered. Here, concepts such as cultural intelligence, cultural complementarity and cultural diversity can be usefully folded into the cultural distance envelope concept.

One reviewer suggested viewing culture as a dependent variable rather than as an independent variable in IB studies. Our view is that this would be one bridge too far, since explaining cultural variation or change does not fall within the domain of IB research. However, we do advocate a rich, evolutionary perspective on the use of proxies for cultural variables, whereby researchers should recognize that IB transactions can indeed alter some aspects of culture over time.

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We thank Lorraine Eden and three anonymous reviewers for their valuable feedback and suggestions that have greatly improved the paper.

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  • Published: 06 May 2024

Venus water loss is dominated by HCO + dissociative recombination

  • M. S. Chaffin   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1939-4797 1   na1 ,
  • E. M. Cangi 1   na1 ,
  • B. S. Gregory 1 ,
  • R. V. Yelle 2 ,
  • J. Deighan   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-3667-902X 1 ,
  • R. D. Elliott 1 &
  • H. Gröller 2  

Nature volume  629 ,  pages 307–310 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Atmospheric chemistry
  • Inner planets

Despite its Earth-like size and source material 1 , 2 , Venus is extremely dry 3 , 4 , indicating near-total water loss to space by means of hydrogen outflow from an ancient, steam-dominated atmosphere 5 , 6 . Such hydrodynamic escape likely removed most of an initial Earth-like 3-km global equivalent layer (GEL) of water but cannot deplete the atmosphere to the observed 3-cm GEL because it shuts down below about 10–100 m GEL 5 , 7 . To complete Venus water loss, and to produce the observed bulk atmospheric enrichment in deuterium of about 120 times Earth 8 , 9 , nonthermal H escape mechanisms still operating today are required 10 , 11 . Early studies identified these as resonant charge exchange 12 , 13 , 14 , hot oxygen impact 15 , 16 and ion outflow 17 , 18 , establishing a consensus view of H escape 10 , 19 that has since received only minimal updates 20 . Here we show that this consensus omits the most important present-day H loss process, HCO + dissociative recombination. This process nearly doubles the Venus H escape rate and, consequently, doubles the amount of present-day volcanic water outgassing and/or impactor infall required to maintain a steady-state atmospheric water abundance. These higher loss rates resolve long-standing difficulties in simultaneously explaining the measured abundance and isotope ratio of Venusian water 21 , 22 and would enable faster desiccation in the wake of speculative late ocean scenarios 23 . Design limitations prevented past Venus missions from measuring both HCO + and the escaping hydrogen produced by its recombination; future spacecraft measurements are imperative.

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Data availability.

Tables containing all reactions used in the model, including their adopted rate coefficients and computed column rates, are provided in a supplementary PDF file accessible on the journal website. These rates are also accessible in the archived code repository listed below, which also includes our adopted photo cross-sections and all other source data used in our model. Model densities for all species, computed rates for reactions shown in Fig. 2 , assumed temperature and escape probabilities and computed photo rates are provided in Excel format in the online version of the paper; this file also includes data for our illustrative water-inventory timelines.  Source data are provided with this paper.

Code availability

All model code is available at github.com/emcangi/VenusPhotochemistry . The version of the model used to prepare the manuscript is archived on Zenodo at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10460004 .

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Acknowledgements

M.S.C., E.M.C., B.S.G. and R.D.E. were supported by NASA Solar System Workings grant 80NSSC19K0164 and Planetary Science Early Career Award grant 80NSSC20K1081. E.M.C. was also supported by NASA FINESST award 80NSSC22K1326. M.S.C. and E.M.C. thank M. Landis for helpful discussions about water delivery.

Author information

These authors contributed equally: M. S. Chaffin, E. M. Cangi

Authors and Affiliations

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA

M. S. Chaffin, E. M. Cangi, B. S. Gregory, J. Deighan & R. D. Elliott

Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

R. V. Yelle & H. Gröller

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Contributions

M.S.C. oversaw the study, performed final model calculations and the photochemical equilibrium calculation and wrote the initial text of the paper. E.M.C. developed the H-bearing and D-bearing photochemical model and nonthermal escape calculation originally used at Mars with a reaction network provided by R.V.Y. and performed initial model calculations for Venus. B.S.G. developed and ran the Monte Carlo model to generate escape probability curves. R.D.E. initially developed the Monte Carlo escape model with support from J.D. and H.G. H.G. performed pilot studies of HCO + -driven loss in the Mars atmosphere. All authors contributed to the interpretation and presentation of model results.

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Correspondence to M. S. Chaffin .

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Extended data figures and tables

Extended data fig. 1 model densities for all species..

The six panels function only to separate species for clarity.

Extended Data Fig. 2 Key photochemical model inputs.

a , Temperature profiles for neutrals, ions and electrons adapted from the inputs in ref.  28 . b , Adopted eddy diffusion profile and molecular diffusion coefficients for H and O atoms.

Extended Data Fig. 3 Implications of HCO + -driven loss for Venus ocean scenarios.

a , Escaping H production rates for the two most important processes in our model. b , Schematic water loss history of Venus.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information.

This file contains Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Tables. Merged PDF containing tables of reactions used in the model, assumed reaction rate coefficients and computed equilibrium model column rates.

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Chaffin, M.S., Cangi, E.M., Gregory, B.S. et al. Venus water loss is dominated by HCO + dissociative recombination. Nature 629 , 307–310 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07261-y

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-024-07261-y

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The Korean cultural festival, "KoreaON," will be held in Hungary from May 18 to 19 to display and promote special products from Namhae County, South Gyeongsang. “KoreaON” will be held with local government cooperation and serves as a communication channel for Korea-related local companies, including the Budapest Korean Restaurant Council.  

Poster for the Korean cultural festival, KoreaON, which will be held in Hungary, May 18 to 19. [MINISTRY OF CULTURE, SPORTS AND TOURISM]

The Cultural Center in Spain will collaborate with the trade center of Kotra Madrid and well-known local department stores to hold the Korean Culture Festival in June. Korean fashion exhibitions will be held, introducing the latest beauty trends in Korea. 

"The Cultural Center will continue to collaborate with related ministries, such as the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy and the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs for the Korean cultural festivals,” said Yong Ho-sung, head of the International Cultural Affairs and Public Relations Office of the Culture Ministry.  

“We will establish a continuous network of links with related organizations, such as Kotra, and local Korean companies to greatly expand support for the overseas expansion of Korean products through culture," he said. 

BY KIM MIN-YOUNG [[email protected]]

From Manila to Budapest, Korean cultural festivals ignite global interest

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