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Erin Wright Writing

Writing-Related Software Tutorials

How to Insert Citations in Microsoft Word (Step-by-Step)

By Erin Wright

Managing citations for research papers, theses, dissertations, and other nonfiction works can be overwhelming. However, you can ease the process by learning how to insert citations in Microsoft Word using the software’s citation and bibliography tools.

This tutorial covers six topics:

  • How to select a citation style
  • How to insert citations for new sources
  • How to insert citations for existing sources
  • How to edit sources
  • How to use citation placeholders
  • How to insert bibliographies, reference lists, or works cited lists

Important Note: At the time this tutorial was published, Microsoft Word did not offer the most up-to-date formatting for several of our primary style guides , including APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turabian. Therefore, I encourage you to review the available styles before using the citation and bibliography tools. We will cover the steps to customize citation and bibliography styles in a separate tutorial.

This tutorial is also available as a YouTube video showing all the steps in real time.

Watch more than 200 other writing-related software tutorials on my YouTube channel .

The images below are from Word in Microsoft 365. The steps are the same in Word 2021, Word 2019, and Word 2016. However, your interface may look slightly different in those older versions of the software.

How to Select a Citation Style in Microsoft Word

  • Select the References tab in the ribbon.

References tab in Word 365

  • Select your citation style from the Style menu in the Citations & Bibliography group.

Citation Style menu in Word 365

How to Insert Citations for New Sources in Microsoft Word

  • Place your cursor where you want to insert the citation.

Cursor placed for citation insertion

  • Select the References tab in the ribbon (see figure 1).
  • Select the Insert Citation button in the Citations & Bibliography group.

Insert Citation button in Word 365

  • Select Add New Source from the drop-down menu.

Add New Source option in Word 365

  • Select the source type from the Type of Source menu in the Create Source dialog box.

Create Source dialog box Type of Source menu in Word 365

  • Enter the source information into the bibliography fields.

Create Source dialog box Bibliography fields in Word 365

  • (Optional Step) Select Show All Bibliography Fields if you need to add additional information.

Create Source dialog box Show All Bibliography Fields option

  • (Optional Step) Enter the source information into the additional fields.

Create Source dialog box additional bibliography fields

  • Select the OK button.

Create Source dialog box OK button

Your citation should appear in your text.

Citation inserted in a sentence

How to Insert Citations for Existing Sources in Microsoft Word

Once you enter a source, as shown in the section above, you can create additional citations for that source without reentering the information.

  • Place your cursor where you want to insert the citation (see figure 3).
  • Select the Insert Citation button in the Citations & Bibliography group (see figure 4).
  • Select the source from the drop-down menu.

Insert Citation menu in Word 365

Your citation should appear in your text (see figure 11).

How to Edit Sources in Microsoft Word

When you edit an existing source, you will also edit any existing citations for that source in your current document.

  • Select the Manage Sources button in the Citations & Bibliography group.

Manage Sources button in Word 365

  • Select the source you want to edit in the Master List or the Current List in the Source Manager dialog box.

Source Manager dialog box Master List and Current List in Word 365

Pro Tip: The Master List is stored in your computer and is accessible in all your documents. The Current List is part of your current file and is only accessible in that file. By default, Word stores new sources in the Master List and the Current List.

  • Select the Edit button.

Source Manager dialog box Edit button in Word 365

  • Enter your edits in the Edit Source dialog box. (Select Show All Bibliography Fields , if necessary.)

Edit Source dialog box bibliography fields in Word 365

  • Select Yes or No in the alert box stating that you will be updating the source in both the Master List and the Current List. (Strongly consider selecting Yes to update both lists if you plan to cite this source in future documents.)

Update source alert box in Word 365

  • Select the Close button in the Source Manager dialog box.

Source Manager dialog box Close button in Word 365

How to Use Citation Placeholders in Microsoft Word

You can use placeholders if your source information is not available.

  • Place your cursor where you want to insert the citation placeholder.
  • Select Add New Placeholder from the drop-down menu.

Add New Placeholder option in Word 365

  • (Optional Step) Change the name of the placeholder in the Placeholder Name dialog box.

Placeholder Name dialog box in Word 365

Pro Tip : You can use the same placeholder in the future by selecting it from the Insert Citation drop-down menu (see figure 12).

  • When you are ready to replace the placeholder with a source, complete the steps in How to Edit Sources above.

How to Insert Bibliographies, Reference Lists, or Works Cited Lists in Microsoft Word

These steps will only work if you inserted your sources using Word’s citation and bibliography tools.

  • Place your cursor where you want to insert the bibliography, reference list, or works cited list.
  • Select the Bibliography button in the Citations & Bibliography group.

Bibliography button in Word 365

  • Select Bibliography , References , or Works Cited from the drop-down menu.

Bibliography menu in Word 365

Your bibliography, reference list, or works cited list should appear in your document.

Related Resources

How to Create Hanging Indents in Microsoft Word

How to Insert Footnotes and Endnotes in Microsoft Word

How to Convert Individual Footnotes to Endnotes in Microsoft Word (and Individual Endnotes to Footnotes)

How to Create a Cover Page in Microsoft Word (Built-In and Custom)

How to Add Citations and a Bibliography in Google Docs

Updated May 21, 2023

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Formatting a References Page in Word 2013/2016

Use the following directions to format your References page in APA format. Also, check out our APA 7th ed. sample paper . 

  • After completing your paper, click the "Insert" tab and choose "Blank Page" to add a new page to your document. Your header with your page number should appear in the top right corner when you insert the new page.

Task bar of Microsoft Word with the Insert tab outlined in red and the Blank Page icon outlined in a red box.

  • Click on the "Home" tab, then click the "Justify Center" icon. This will center your title.

Home tab in Microsoft Word with a red box outlining it; center justified icon also outlined in a red box.

  • Type in your title: References. Your title should be bolded in size 12 Times New Roman font.

References page in APA format with the word "References" centered and in bold.

  • Hit "Enter" on your keyboard to start a new line. Then, hit the "Justify Left" icon to move the cursor back to the left. Make sure to unbold the text.

Task bar for Microsoft Word under the "Home" tab with the Justify Left icon outlined in red.

  • Type in your full APA citation for your sources. Remember your References page should still be double-spaced!

References page with full APA citation, but the citation does not have a hanging indent.

  • All References entries that are longer than a single line must include a Hanging Indent for second (and so forth) line(s).
  • Choose the line you wish to indent. Move your cursor to the line you wish to indent.
  • Hit CTRL T (or CMD T on a Mac) on your keyboard.

References page with a full APA citation that includes a hanging indent.

  • Repeat (if necessary) for your third line.

Formatting a References Page in Word Online

Use the following directions to format your References page in APA format. Also, check out our APA 7th ed.  sample paper . 

  • After completing your paper, add a new page to your document for your Works Cited. Hit "Enter" on your keyboard until you begin a new page.  Your header with your page number should also update automatically (although you will not be able to see them in the document).
  • Click the "Home" tab, then click the "Justify Center" icon. This will center your title.

Word Online taskbar with "Home" tab outlined in red and the "Center Alignment" tab outlined in red.

  • Type in your title, References. Your title should be bolded and in size 12 Times New Roman font.

References page formatted in Word Online.

  • Hit "Enter" on your keyboard to start a new line. Then, go to the "Home" tab and hit "Justify Left" to move the cursor back to the left. Make sure to unbold the text.

Word Online taskbar with "Home" tab outlined in red and the "Justify Left" icon outlined in red.

  • Type in your full APA Citations for your sources. Remember, your References page should be double-spaced!

References page with a full APA Citation double-spaced, but missing the hanging indent.

  • All References page entries that are longer than a single line must include a Hanging Indent for second (and so forth) line(s). Move your cursor to the end of the first line.
  • Using your mouse, move the cursor to the beginning of the second line of your citation.
  • Hit "Tab" on your keyboard. This should indent only the second line of your citation.

Full APA citation with a hanging indent.

  • << Previous: Formatting Your Title Page and Paper in Word
  • Next: APA Handouts >>
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  • Citing a Website Article or Page
  • Citing a Video
  • Citing Images in a Project
  • In-text Citations
  • Annotated Bibliography - APA
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  • More APA Resources
  • APA Workshop (Mar. 2022)

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How To Create a Works Cited in Microsoft Word

Last Updated: April 19, 2023 Tested

Inserting In-Text Citations

Using footnotes or endnotes, creating your bibliography.

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. The wikiHow Tech Team also followed the article's instructions and verified that they work. This article has been viewed 111,148 times. Learn more...

Microsoft Word has many automatic features that can help you write a report or academic paper. Among these, you can keep a list of sources and citations to automatically generate a bibliography (also called a "Reference List" or "Works Cited") at the end of your paper. If you need footnotes or endnotes, Word has features that can help you format those as well.

Things You Should Know

  • Click Style within the "References" tab in Microsoft Word to select your desired citation style.
  • Click Add New Source to enter info about a source, which can then be used when you next click Insert Citation .
  • Click Bibliography under the "References" tab to open a menu of different bibliography formats, including an MLA Works Cited.

Step 1 Choose a citation style on the

  • Make sure the edition is the same as the one you need to use. Word typically offers the most recent edition of each style, but if you have an older version of Word you may need to upgrade. If you have a subscription version, simply download the latest update. [1] X Research source

Step 2 Click

  • A dialogue box will appear with the necessary fields for the citation, including spaces for the author, title, year of publication, city, and publisher. Enter all the information you have for your source, then click "OK."
  • If you have additional information about the source that doesn't fit into any of these basic fields, check the box next to "Show All Bibliography Fields."

Tip: If you don't have all the information for the source, or if you don't want to interrupt your train of thought to add a new source, you can click "Add New Placeholder" instead. This alerts you that you need to add a citation there.

Step 3 Continue to insert citations as you write your paper.

  • To edit an individual citation, such as if you wanted to add a page number for a direct quote, right-click the citation for citation options and click "Edit Citation." [2] X Research source

Step 4 Use the

  • Choose the source you want to edit from your master list. As you edit, you'll see a preview of the final citation in the lower box.
  • If you inserted placeholders while you were writing, you can also use this menu to add information for those sources.

Step 1 Select the footnote or endnote option on the

  • Word will automatically create a superscripted number in your text and move the cursor to the footnote or endnote field.

Keyboard shortcuts:

Insert Footnote: Alt+Ctrl+F (PC); Command+Option+F (Mac) Insert Endnote: Alt+Ctrl+D (PC); Command+Option+E (Mac)

Step 2 Use the

  • By default, footnotes or endnotes will continue sequential numbering throughout your document. If you want the numbers to restart at the beginning of each new section or chapter, you can specify this in the settings.

If you need to convert footnotes to endnotes, click on the "Insert" menu, then "Footnote," then "Options." Select "Convert" from the menu, then click on "Endnotes."

Step 3 Type your footnote or endnote into your document.

  • You can also use the "Placeholder" tool if you don't yet have all the information for the source and need to add it in later.
  • Check the formatting against your style guide to make sure it's correct before you continue.

Step 4 Double-click the footnote number to go back to the document.

  • Similarly, you can double-click a superscripted footnote number in the text to check that footnote, edit, or add to it. While you can also simply scroll down the page, this is a quicker way to get there.

To delete a footnote or endnote, highlight the footnote or endnote number in your text and press the delete key. Word will automatically renumber your other footnotes or endnotes to accommodate for the deletion.

Step 1 Choose the format for your bibliography.

  • For example, if you're writing your paper in MLA style, you would want a "Works Cited" bibliography. Assuming you chose MLA as the style for your source citations, the "Works Cited" format would be the first format option in the "Bibliography" drop-down menu.

Step 2 Generate your bibliography with a click.

  • The bibliography is considered a separate object from the paper you're writing, and will automatically start on a new page.

Tip: You don't have to wait until you've finished writing your paper to create your bibliography. Word will auto-populate your bibliography with any new sources you add after the bibliography has been generated.

Step 3 Proofread your bibliography carefully.

  • For example, if you made a typographical error when entering the information about the source, that error would carry over into your bibliography.

Expert Q&A

  • The steps and information in this article are accurate for Word for Office 365, Word 2019, Word 2016, Word 2013, Word 2010, and Word 2007. If you have a different edition of Word, your menu options may differ slightly. [10] X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

You Might Also Like

Insert Page Numbers in Word

  • ↑ https://support.office.com/en-us/article/how-do-i-upgrade-office-ee68f6cf-422f-464a-82ec-385f65391350
  • ↑ https://support.office.com/en-us/article/create-a-bibliography-citations-and-references-17686589-4824-4940-9c69-342c289fa2a5
  • ↑ https://support.office.com/en-us/article/insert-footnotes-and-endnotes-61f3fb1a-4717-414c-9a8f-015a5f3ff4cb?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US
  • ↑ https://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=283073&p=1888261
  • ↑ https://www.pcworld.com/article/2687533/how-to-use-microsoft-words-works-cited-tools-sources-footnotes-and-more.html
  • ↑ https://edu.gcfglobal.org/en/word-tips/how-to-create-a-bibliography-or-works-cited-page-in-word/1/

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How to write a paper in apa format using microsoft word.

Introducing the process of writing an APA paper using Microsoft Word! Mastering this skill is crucial for students and professionals. It ensures their work meets the strict standards set by the American Psychological Association. Learn how to use Word’s formatting options, and create perfectly formatted papers in no time!

Let’s go into the details. With Word’s tools and features, you can easily format an APA paper. Know the APA guidelines, and utilize these functions correctly. This way, you’ll have impressive papers, with both content and presentation!

Now, let’s look at an interesting aspect. Technology has changed academic writing over time. Microsoft Word has become essential for authors. It helps them stick to APA formatting principles. This relationship between tech and scholarly pursuits shows how important it is to master this art form.

Understanding APA Format

APA format is a popular writing style for social sciences. To use it properly, you must understand its key principles and apply them. Here are 5 points to help you master APA:

  • In-text Citations: In your paper, cite sources with the author’s last name and year in parentheses ( Smith, 2020 ). If you quote something, add the page number too ( Smith, 2020, p. 15 ). Be consistent with citing sources.
  • Reference List: After your paper, list all cited sources in alphabetical order. Follow APA guidelines for formatting.
  • Tables and Figures: When using charts or graphs, follow APA rules. This includes numbering tables and giving titles to each figure.
  • Remember to follow other APA rules like font ( Times New Roman, 12-point size ), line spacing ( double-spacing ) and margins ( one-inch margin ). Use APA tools in Microsoft Word for help.

By understanding APA, you’ll write well-structured papers that match research expectations. Keep practicing and use reliable APA resources to become an APA expert!

Setting Up Microsoft Word for APA Format

To ensure that your paper is formatted correctly in APA style using Microsoft Word, follow these simple steps:

  • Open Microsoft Word and create a new document.
  • Click on the “Page Layout” tab at the top of the screen.
  • Select “Margins” and choose “Normal” from the drop-down menu. This will set the margins to 1 inch on all sides.
  • Still in the “Page Layout” tab, click on the “Size” button and choose “Letter” from the options. This will set the paper size to 8.5 x 11 inches.
  • Next, go to the “References” tab and select “APA” from the “Style” drop-down menu. This will set the default citation style to APA.
  • Finally, click on the “Insert” tab and choose “Page Number” from the “Header & Footer” section. Select the desired location for the page numbers, typically at the top right of the page.

By following these steps, your Microsoft Word document will be properly set up for writing a paper in APA format.

To enhance your writing experience, here are some additional suggestions:

  • Use the built-in tools in Microsoft Word for creating headings, subheadings, and formatting text. This will help you maintain consistency throughout your paper.
  • Take advantage of the automatic citation feature in Microsoft Word. You can easily insert and manage your references using the “References” tab.
  • Use the spelling and grammar check feature to ensure that your paper is free of errors. This will help maintain a professional and polished appearance.

By using these suggestions, you can save time and effort in formatting your paper correctly in APA style using Microsoft Word.

Get ready to make formatting your APA paper a piece of cake with Microsoft Word – no actual cake necessary, unfortunately.

Installing the APA Style Template

Make setting up Microsoft Word for APA Format easier! Just follow these 6 steps to install the template:

  • Go to “File” in the top left corner of Microsoft Word.
  • Select “Options” and click on “Add-Ins” on the sidebar.
  • Choose “Manage” at the bottom of the screen. Then select “Templates.”
  • Look for “Word Templates” and click on “Go.”
  • Find the APA Style Template and click “Download.”
  • Once downloaded, pick the template and click “OK.”

And don’t forget to set the APA style as your default formatting style in Word. This can make creating documents according to APA guidelines easier. With the template installed and default settings in place, formatting papers will be a breeze.

Take advantage of the APA Style Template. With it, you can save time by not having to manually format your documents. Enjoy properly formatted papers with no effort.

Adjusting Margins and Fonts

  • Margin Settings: Go to the “Page Layout” tab. Click on “Margins” and set the top, bottom, left and right to 1 inch.
  • Font Type and Size: Select the desired text or press “Ctrl + A” to select all. Choose a professional font like Times New Roman or Arial and set font size to 12 points.
  • Line Spacing: Again, select text or press “Ctrl + A”. Head to the “Home” tab. Locate paragraph section and set line spacing to double.
  • Indentation: Place cursor at the beginning of each paragraph. Right-click and choose “Paragraph.” Under the “Indentation” section, set left and right indentation to 0.5 inches.
  • Header Formatting: Click on “Insert” at the top menu bar. Then, choose “Header.” Use automatic numbering features in Word to add page numbers.

Make sure to follow these principles for a perfect APA formatted document. Begin implementing them today to write words with an impact!

Creating a Running Head

Need a running head for your APA-formatted doc? Here’s a 4-step guide!

  • Step 1: Open Header & Footer. Access it via the “Insert” tab in Word. Choose “Header” or “Footer”, depending on where you want it.
  • Step 2: Insert Page Number. This will set up a running head with page number at top right. Make sure to align it right.
  • Step 3: Add Running Head Text. Type it in all caps, flush left against the left margin. Keep it concise & descriptive. Max 50 characters (inc spaces) & title case.
  • Step 4: Different First Page. If your doc requires a different first page header, check that box. This will prevent running head from appearing on title page.

And there you have it! Follow these 4 steps for a professional APA running head.

Pro Tip: Save time & effort by setting up a template with correct headers & footers for future APA docs.

Writing the Paper in APA Format

Writing Your Paper in APA Format

To write your paper in APA format using Microsoft Word, follow these steps:

  • Prepare your document: Set the margins, font size, and line spacing according to APA guidelines.
  • Create a title page: Include the title of your paper, your name, and your institutional affiliation on a separate page.
  • Format the header: Insert a running head with the title of your paper in all caps, followed by a shortened version of the title. Align it to the left in the header section of each page.
  • Write an abstract: Summarize your paper in 150-250 words. Begin on a new page and format it as a standalone section.
  • Start the introduction: Begin your paper with an introduction that presents the research question or thesis statement. Include background information and the purpose of your study.
  • Write the body paragraphs: Organize your main points into separate paragraphs, using subheadings if necessary. Support your ideas with evidence from credible sources.
  • Format in-text citations: Use APA style for in-text citations by including the author’s last name and the publication year in parentheses. For direct quotes, include the page number.
  • Include a reference list: List all the sources you cited in your paper on a separate page. Arrange them alphabetically by the author’s last name.
  • Edit and proofread: Carefully review your paper for grammar, spelling, and formatting errors. Ensure all APA guidelines are followed correctly.

By following these steps, you can write your paper in APA format using Microsoft Word without any hassle.

First impressions are important, so make sure your title page is like a well-dressed penguin at a fancy party – clean, sleek, and ready to make a statement.

The title page is essential in APA papers. It presents key info, like title, author, school affiliation and running head . It gives a professional look and draws readers in. Here’s how to make an impactful one.

Center the title in bold at the top. Make sure it reflects the research focus and is concise. Below the title, insert your name and institution on separate lines.

Align the running head, a shortened version of the title, to the left margin in uppercase. On each page, add “Running head:” before it.

Formatting details: 12-point Times New Roman font, centered, and double-spaced . No extra spaces.

Pro Tip: Proofread! Check for errors or inconsistencies that can diminish the paper’s professionalism. Pay attention to the title page and adhere to APA guidelines regarding spacing, fonts, margins and alignment.

Now you know how to create a great APA title page! Get ready to write an amazing paper that captivates readers from the start.

Edward Thorndike suggested adding an abstract to APA style papers way back in 1922. It’s a crucial tool for researchers who need info fast. Nowadays, APA format is used across many disciplines. It helps academics communicate efficiently.

The abstract must be written concisely. It should be no longer than 250 words. It summarizes the paper’s research topic, methodology, and findings. It should include keywords related to the study.

Crafting an effective abstract takes careful planning. It should be both informative and concise. Precise language and accurate terminology must be used to convey the meaning accurately.

A great abstract entices readers to keep reading. It may even increase the chance of others citing the paper. That’s why it’s important to make a strong impression with this short but vital section of academic writing.

Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs are an absolute must for APA formatted papers. They analyze and back up the main points. Each paragraph should explore just one idea connected to the topic. Evidence and examples must be given to make the arguments stronger.

The paragraphs should make sense and flow in a logical order. One paragraph should lead to the next. Also, clear topic sentences help readers understand. The sentences and paragraphs should be structured properly, with transitions between them.

Citations and references should be included to avoid plagiarism. These sources provide evidence for the points made in the paper. APA guidelines explain which details should be included, such as author names, dates, and page numbers.

Smith (2018) studied how well-structured body paragraphs can improve APA format papers. The results showed that they can really boost the quality.

In conclusion, writing effective body paragraphs needs careful preparation, organization, and accuracy. By following the rules, writers can make sure their ideas are clear and supported.

In-text Citations

Give credit where it’s due! Avoid plagiarism by acknowledging the original authors or sources of ideas and data with in-text citations. When quoting, use quotation marks and include the author’s last name and the publication year in parentheses (Author, Year). If summarizing or rephrasing, also include the author’s last name and publication year. For sources with two to three authors, include all the authors’ last names. For four or more authors, include the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” Additionally, stick to the proper formatting style for different types of sources.

Mary learned a lesson the hard way. She was working on her research paper but forgot to cite one source. She ended up being accused of plagiarizing unintentionally. The incident taught her to take citation practices seriously for academic integrity.

It’s key to have consistency and accuracy when listing references in APA format . Each entry needs the author’s name, year of publication, title of the work, and publication info. Also, specific formatting rules depend on source types such as books, journals, websites, etc.

Capitalization, punctuation, and italicization must follow APA guidelines. Alphabetize by authors’ last names and organize chronologically if multiple works by the same author(s). This helps retain credibility and keeps academic integrity.

I once encountered a student without a references section in their paper. This caused a big loss of marks since citations weren’t acknowledged. So, don’t neglect this small step – it can impact your grade. Always double-check your references before submitting!

Formatting References in Microsoft Word

” Formatting Citations in Microsoft Word

When it comes to formatting references in Microsoft Word, there are a few key steps to follow. First, you’ll want to begin by selecting the appropriate citation style, such as APA format. Then, ensure that your document is set up correctly by adjusting the settings in Microsoft Word. This includes setting the font size, line spacing, margins, and page numbering according to the specified guidelines. Next, when citing sources within the text, be sure to include the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses. Finally, create a references page at the end of your document, listing all the sources you have cited in alphabetical order. Remember to follow the specific formatting guidelines for each type of source, such as books, journal articles, or websites. By adhering to these steps and utilizing the formatting tools in Microsoft Word, you can ensure that your references are correctly formatted in APA style.

To find references in APA format using Microsoft Word, just hit the Reference tab – it’s like the CliffsNotes of proper citation without needing a magnifying glass.”

Using the Reference Tab

Do you know about the Reference Tab in Microsoft Word? It’s a powerful tool that makes formatting references a breeze! Just click the “Add Citation” button and enter in the info you need. Plus, you can choose from many different citation styles like APA, MLA, and Chicago. You can even manage and organize sources, add annotations, import/export from external files, and create bibliographies automatically. This tool is a huge help for students and researchers alike.

Fun fact: According to RIN, researchers can spend up to 4 hours formatting references manually! But with the Reference Tab, you can save time and still get accurate and consistent citations.

Inserting Citations and Managing Sources

Need to insert citations in Microsoft Word? It’s essential for academic writing. Citation management makes referencing easier and ensures it’s accurate. Here’s how:

  • Go to the “References” tab in the toolbar.
  • Click the “Insert Citation” button and pick your source from the bibliography.
  • Use the “Manage Sources” button to add, edit, or delete sources.

Also, you can customize citation styles such as APA or MLA. This lets you format your document perfectly and keep it consistent.

Pro Tip: Don’t forget to check your citations for accuracy before you’re done.

Formatting the Reference List

A well-formatted reference list is essential for any professional document. For the best results, follow these tips!

  • Stick to one formatting style, such as APA or MLA , for uniformity and ease of use.
  • Arrange the references alphabetically by the author’s last name or title if there is no author. This makes navigation easier.
  • Include full details for each reference: author names, publication date, title and page numbers . This lets readers easily find and verify your sources.
  • Double-check your references against in-text citations; they must match! This is key for credibility and integrity.

By following these steps, you can format your reference list with professionalism and accuracy . Consistency in formatting makes the document cohesive. Alphabetically arranging references helps with information retrieval. Providing complete details helps readers trust your work. Lastly, matching references and citations is essential for reliability.

Writing a paper in APA format using Microsoft Word needs attention and following guidelines. To guarantee proper formatting, it’s important to adjust Word correctly and cite references accurately. By following these instructions, you can create an orderly and professional-looking APA paper .

Concluding your paper is essential. Sum up the points discussed in the body paragraphs without repetition . Highlight the value of your research in the bigger context of the subject .

It’s also important to repeat any recommendations or implications in your paper. This ends the paper well by emphasizing how your work adds to existing knowledge or suggests possibilities for future research . Including these elements in the conclusion leaves readers with a good impression of your paper’s worth and effect.

In short, learning to write a paper in APA format using Microsoft Word is a vital skill for any student or researcher. By strictly adhering to formatting and referencing guidelines, you guarantee that your work meets scholarly criteria and makes a major contribution to your field. Don’t miss this chance to show your academic skills by ignoring details in formatting and organizing your APA papers appropriately.

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Step 1: Get ReadCube

If you haven't already,  sign up for a ReadCube Papers account. You’ll be able to try all of the powerful features (including SmartCite) as part of our no-obligation 30 day trial.

Step 2: Add SmartCite Add-In to your Word Toolbar

Look for SmartCite in Microsoft's Add-In Store. You can find the store by going to “Insert” in the menu of Word 2016 and selecting “Store”. You’ll then be able to search for “SmartCite” and embed it into your “References” Toolbar.

Once you’ve launched SmartCite for the first time, you’ll be prompted to log in to your account. You’ll instantly see your library appear in the right-side panel.

List of SmartCite references

Step 3: Start Citing!

You can search your library or click on a list or tag library to browse through the various folders. When you’ve found the reference you are looking for, check the box to the left of the reference and click “Insert” at the bottom of the panel.

Step 4: Inserting your Bibliography

Whenever you are ready, go to “Style” and choose from over 7000 citation styles - we will take care of the formatting! Click “Insert Bibliography” to add it to your documents. Need to change your style? No problem - simply select a new style and click on “Update Bibliography”

Step 5: Collaborate with Other Authors

Want to share your paper with a colleague who uses ReadCube? Simply send them the Word file. When they launch SmartCite, all your references will automatically be indexed and they can continue working on the document seamlessly.

If your colleague is not currently a ReadCube user, they can take advantage of our 30-day trial ! Alternatively, you can also easily export your references for use in other citation tools like EndNote.

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  • Referencing

A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples

Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 15 September 2023.

Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It tells your readers what sources you’ve used and how to find them.

Harvard is the most common referencing style used in UK universities. In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list .

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Table of contents

Harvard in-text citation, creating a harvard reference list, harvard referencing examples, referencing sources with no author or date, frequently asked questions about harvard referencing.

A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:

Note that ‘p.’ is used for a single page, ‘pp.’ for multiple pages (e.g. ‘pp. 1–5’).

An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. It may also appear at the end of the relevant sentence, as long as it’s clear what it refers to.

When your sentence already mentions the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:

Sources with multiple authors

When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors’ names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Sources with no page numbers

Some sources, such as websites , often don’t have page numbers. If the source is a short text, you can simply leave out the page number. With longer sources, you can use an alternate locator such as a subheading or paragraph number if you need to specify where to find the quote:

Multiple citations at the same point

When you need multiple citations to appear at the same point in your text – for example, when you refer to several sources with one phrase – you can present them in the same set of brackets, separated by semicolons. List them in order of publication date:

Multiple sources with the same author and date

If you cite multiple sources by the same author which were published in the same year, it’s important to distinguish between them in your citations. To do this, insert an ‘a’ after the year in the first one you reference, a ‘b’ in the second, and so on:

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A bibliography or reference list appears at the end of your text. It lists all your sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, giving complete information so that the reader can look them up if necessary.

The reference entry starts with the author’s last name followed by initial(s). Only the first word of the title is capitalised (as well as any proper nouns).

Harvard reference list example

Sources with multiple authors in the reference list

As with in-text citations, up to three authors should be listed; when there are four or more, list only the first author followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Reference list entries vary according to source type, since different information is relevant for different sources. Formats and examples for the most commonly used source types are given below.

  • Entire book
  • Book chapter
  • Translated book
  • Edition of a book

Journal articles

  • Print journal
  • Online-only journal with DOI
  • Online-only journal with no DOI
  • General web page
  • Online article or blog
  • Social media post

Sometimes you won’t have all the information you need for a reference. This section covers what to do when a source lacks a publication date or named author.

No publication date

When a source doesn’t have a clear publication date – for example, a constantly updated reference source like Wikipedia or an obscure historical document which can’t be accurately dated – you can replace it with the words ‘no date’:

Note that when you do this with an online source, you should still include an access date, as in the example.

When a source lacks a clearly identified author, there’s often an appropriate corporate source – the organisation responsible for the source – whom you can credit as author instead, as in the Google and Wikipedia examples above.

When that’s not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list:

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Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, September 15). A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 14 May 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-style/

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Articles EndNote: How to insert citations in a Word document

Endnote: how to insert citations in a word document, jun 22, 2022 • knowledge, information.

Bob Wilson

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Reference List: Basic Rules

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This resourse, revised according to the 7 th  edition APA Publication Manual, offers basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward rules. However, because sources obtained from academic journals  carry special weight in research writing, these sources are subject to special rules . Thus, this page presents basic guidelines for citing academic journals separate from its "ordinary" basic guidelines. This distinction is made clear below.

Note:  Because the information on this page pertains to virtually all citations, we've highlighted one important difference between APA 6 and APA 7 with an underlined note written in red.  For more information, please consult the   Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (7 th  ed.).

Formatting a Reference List

Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Basic Rules for Most Sources

  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
  • All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).
  • For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."
  • If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."
  • Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors ( this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors ). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
  • Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.
  • Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.

Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals

  • Present journal titles in full.
  • Italicize journal titles.
  • For example, you should use  PhiloSOPHIA  instead of  Philosophia,  or  Past & Present   instead of  Past and Present.
  • This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
  • Capitalize   the first word of the titles and subtitles of   journal articles , as well as the   first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and   any proper nouns .
  • Do not italicize or underline the article title.
  • Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench.
  • Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication

Please note:  While the APA manual provides examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not cover all conceivable sources. If you must cite a source that APA does not address, the APA suggests finding an example that is similar to your source and using that format. For more information, see page 282 of the   Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th  ed.

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Superscript or Subscript in Word [For Students]

Students from multiple disciplines need to write papers. Some of these disciplines might need you to write a chemistry lab report or a Mathematical theory paper. In situations like these, how do you type in compounds or powers like H2O or x2 without it looking like H2O or x2?

In Word, learning how to add superscripts and subscripts can elevate your formatting skills, but that’s something that a lot of students struggle with. How do you add a superscript and subscript in Word? Let me help you out. Follow this guide for complete step-by-step instructions using WPS Office.

How Students can use Superscript and Subscript for Paper

Superscripts and subscripts are used in a variety of texts. In many papers, using superscripts and subscripts are important to accurately represent the information you are writing about. It is critical for STEM majors and students who have to write academic papers.

Use Superscript and Subscript for Academic Writing

When writing academic papers, many students are confused on how to express information where superscripts and subscripts are involved. The main distinction between them is whether they appear at the base or at the top of the line you’re writing in. Let’s break these down with examples.

Oftentimes, when writing about chemical ionic compounds, mathematical sequences, or doing homework involving a computer programming language, there are text items that we need to express as subscripts. These might appear like this:

a1, b3, H2O

Superscripts are used in references or to indicate any degree or notation. These might appear like this:

C24, Robert3, Organograma

Use Superscript and Subscript for Citations

In academic writing, citations and references are the most important parts of your research and writing. Formatting for citations can be a bit tricky since it might involve footnotes or endnotes.

When inserting a citation, make sure to use a number as a superscript at the end of the citation. In your respective footnote, enter in the corresponding number and type in your complete citation.

To make it easier to understand, I’ll show you an example of what this looks like:

Practical Tips for Formatting

As students, you have to write academic papers very frequently. It is helpful to refer to citation style guides like APA, MLA, or Chicago to understand their usage of superscripts and subscripts.

For your ease, APA style recommends the use of superscripts within the text for citations, while subscripts for chemical arrangements and mathematical expressions. MLA and Chicago might differ slightly in this regard.

However, once you do refer to these style guides, your paper will be easy to read, and will be more consistent and professional in presentation.

Here's a breakdown of common scenarios where you might use superscript and subscript:

Superscript Formatting :

Ordinal Numerals: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.

Copyright and Trademark Symbols: ©, ™, ®

Footnote and Endnote Numbers: Numbers referring to additional information within a text.

Mathematical Functions (Exponents): x^2 (x squared), e^x (exponential function), etc.

Chemical Symbols (Ion Charges): Na⁺ (sodium ion with a positive charge)

Subscript Formatting :

Chemical Formulas (Number of Atoms) : H₂O (water, two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom)

Mathematical Settings (Indices) : A_i (ith element in a matrix A)

Steps of Using Superscript and Subscript

In using superscripts and subscripts, there are two ways you can go about it. I’ll explain both in a simple way so you can easily follow along. To do that, I’ll be using WPS, a free office suite that is compatible with all versions of Word documents, and is available on Mobile, Windows, and Mac.

I prefer it because it's free and can even convert your papers to PDF without losing the format. It reduces the hassle of using other softwares, and acts as an all-in-one tool when working on your document. Let’s begin:

Step 1 : Type in your sentence or text as you normally would until you reach the point where you need to add a superscript/ subscript in Word .

Step 2 : Go to the Home tab.

Step 3 : In the “Font” section, you will see the options for superscript and subscript, marked by an “x” as a base and a corresponding number in superscript/subscript. Click on your desired option.

Visually, the option would look like this:

Step 4 : Start typing in your text that needs to be in superscript/subscript.

Step 5 : Click the option again to deselect the superscript/subscript and return to normal font size.

In these 5 easy steps, you have now typed your superscripts/subscripts.

You might have noticed that if your document needs a lot of citations, or deals primarily with subscripts and superscripts, this process can take up a lot of your time.

To make it a little quicker, consider simply selecting the text. Let me show you how to do that:

Step 1 : Select the text that you want to use as superscript/subscript.

Step 3 : In the “Font” section, click on the respective superscript/subscript option that you want.

Once you click somewhere else on the document, the option will automatically deselect so you can return to your normal font size.

I have found these steps very easy to follow when writing. However, if you’re really short in time, I’ll let you in on some keyboard shortcuts to use as well. All you have to do is select your text that you need as a superscript/subscript in Word and press your shortcut keys.

The keyboard shortcut for adding a superscript is:

Ctrl + Shift +  Plus Sign (+)

The keyboard shortcut for adding a subscript is:

Ctrl + Equal Sign (=)

How WPS Office Can Help Students Create Academic Documents

WPS Office has always been a favorite among students for its user-friendly interface and robust features. With the integration of WPS AI, it's become even more powerful. The AI feature significantly enhances the quality of your language, and ensures that your academic documents are polished and error-free with real-time grammar and spell-checks.

Additionally, WPS has a wide collection of ready-to-use, editable templates specifically designed for academic use. These templates provide a structured format for various academic documents, from research papers to reports and essays, allowing you to start writing with confidence.

Coupled with the templates, WPS’s seamless PDF conversion feature can convert your documents to PDF in just a click without losing formatting. This is especially useful when submitting assignments, sharing work with classmates, or sending documents to professors or supervisors.

FAQs about Superscript and Subscript in Word for Students

Q1. how do i ensure my superscript and subscript text remains aligned with the main text.

There's no way to directly adjust the default position of superscripts and subscripts in most text editors. However, you can use the Advanced tab of the Font dialogue to raise or lower selected text, which indirectly affects their alignment with the main text. This method allows you to manually adjust the vertical position of superscripts and subscripts. It is important to note that this technique applies to regular document text. If you're dealing with equations created by the built-in equation editor , these adjustments may not be applicable.

Q2. Can superscript and subscript formatting be applied in WPS Office mobile apps?

In WPS Office, you can format text as superscript or subscript in the desktop version and the mobile apps. Here’s how to do it:

Step 1 : Launch your WPS Office Writer document on your mobile device.

Step 2 : Select the text you want to format as superscript or subscript.

Step 3 : Click on the menu icon to access additional options.

Step 4 : Scroll down until you locate T2 and T2.

Step 5 : If you want to format your text as superscript, then choose T2 and if you want to format the text as subscript then select T2.

Q3. What distinguishes subscript from superscript?

Subscript is when text is lowered below the regular line, while superscript is when text is raised above the regular line.

Subscript is commonly used in :

Chemical formulas (e.g., H₂O).

Mathematical expressions (e.g., CO₂).

Footnotes or references in academic writing.

Superscript is often used for :

Exponents in mathematical equations (e.g., x²).

Footnote numbers in academic papers.

Indicating units (e.g., m² for square meters).

Mastering Superscripts and Subscripts in Word for Clear and Polished Writing

Adding superscripts and subscripts in Word is an easy formatting way to express your writing. Whether it’s adding citations or adding a mathematical equation in your paper, you will be able to present your argument in a clear and appealing way. If you feel stuck at any point, make sure to refer to this guide for clarity, and use WPS Office for a clean, simple, and student-friendly experience to add your superscripts and subscripts.

  • 1. How to Convert Word to PDF [For Students]
  • 2. How to Add Superscript in WPS Spreadsheet [Easy Way]
  • 3. How to do subscript in WPS Spreadsheet
  • 4. How to Check Word Count for Your Essays in Word [For Students]
  • 5. How to Insert Signatures in Word [For Students]
  • 6. How to add superscript

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Free Harvard Referencing Generator

Generate accurate Harvard reference lists quickly and for FREE, with MyBib!

🤔 What is a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator is a tool that automatically generates formatted academic references in the Harvard style.

It takes in relevant details about a source -- usually critical information like author names, article titles, publish dates, and URLs -- and adds the correct punctuation and formatting required by the Harvard referencing style.

The generated references can be copied into a reference list or bibliography, and then collectively appended to the end of an academic assignment. This is the standard way to give credit to sources used in the main body of an assignment.

👩‍🎓 Who uses a Harvard Referencing Generator?

Harvard is the main referencing style at colleges and universities in the United Kingdom and Australia. It is also very popular in other English-speaking countries such as South Africa, Hong Kong, and New Zealand. University-level students in these countries are most likely to use a Harvard generator to aid them with their undergraduate assignments (and often post-graduate too).

🙌 Why should I use a Harvard Referencing Generator?

A Harvard Referencing Generator solves two problems:

  • It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper.
  • It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with the Harvard referencing style -- and it does so considerably faster than writing them out manually.

A well-formatted and broad bibliography can account for up to 20% of the total grade for an undergraduate-level project, and using a generator tool can contribute significantly towards earning them.

⚙️ How do I use MyBib's Harvard Referencing Generator?

Here's how to use our reference generator:

  • If citing a book, website, journal, or video: enter the URL or title into the search bar at the top of the page and press the search button.
  • Choose the most relevant results from the list of search results.
  • Our generator will automatically locate the source details and format them in the correct Harvard format. You can make further changes if required.
  • Then either copy the formatted reference directly into your reference list by clicking the 'copy' button, or save it to your MyBib account for later.

MyBib supports the following for Harvard style:

🍏 What other versions of Harvard referencing exist?

There isn't "one true way" to do Harvard referencing, and many universities have their own slightly different guidelines for the style. Our generator can adapt to handle the following list of different Harvard styles:

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  • University of the West of England (UWE)

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How-To Geek

How to make only one page landscape in a word document.

Sometimes landscape is just the way to go.

Quick Links

Turn specific pages landscape by inserting a break, change specific pages to landscape with page setup.

By default, Microsoft Word orients its pages in portrait view. While this is fine in most situations, you may have page or group of pages that would look better in landscape view. Here are two ways to make this happen.

Regardless of which method you use, be aware that if the text runs over to an extra page as a result of the rotation, that new page will also adopt the landscape orientation.

You can make a page or group of pages landscape by using section breaks , but there are slight differences in how to do this depending on the position of those pages in your document.

Enable Show/Hide

Unless you change your settings, section breaks are invisible pagination controls and can cause confusion if you forget where you've added them. To make them visible, click the Show/Hide (¶) icon in the Paragraph group of the Home tab.

Re-orientate the First Page or Pages

Place your cursor at the end of the page or pages you want to change to landscape. In the Layout tab, click "Breaks," and choose "Next Page." This inserts a next page section break in your document.

With your cursor on the first page (before the section break you just added), in the Layout tab, click "Orientation," and pick "Landscape."

This changes the first page or group of pages (depending on where you added your section break) to landscape.

Re-orientate Pages in the Middle of Your Document

If you have three or more pages, and you need to change the middle page or pages to landscape, place your cursor at the start of the first page you want to change. Then, as before, in the Layout tab, click "Breaks" and "Next Page." This inserts a section break at the start of the pages you want to re-orientate.

Next, with your cursor at the beginning of the new section you have just created, head to the Layout tab, click "Orientation," and then click "Landscape." This changes the current and all subsequent pages to landscape view.

But, as you only want certain pages in the middle of your document to be landscape, you'll need to add a second page break at the end of your landscape section.

Then, click anywhere after this new section break, and use the Orientation option in the Layout tab to turn the remaining pages to portrait, leaving the pages in between your section breaks in landscape view.

Re-orientate the Last Page or Pages

To change the end of your document to landscape, simply place your cursor at the start of this final section, add a next page section break here, and change the orientation accordingly (using the same steps as outlined above).

To delete a section break, place your cursor before the paragraph marker (¶), and press Delete.

Another way to convert a page or a number of adjacent pages from portrait to landscape in Word is to select the content and turn only those pages manually. This method works with text, images , tables, and other items you have on the page.

Select all items on the page or pages you want to rotate 90 degrees. If you have text, drag your cursor through all of it. If you have an image, table, chart, or another type of object, simply select it.

In the Layout tab, click the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the Page Setup group.

In the Page Setup dialog box that opens, confirm that you're on the Margins tab . In the Orientation section, choose "Landscape." Then, at the bottom, change the "Apply To" drop-down choice to "Selected Text," and click "OK."

When the dialog box closes, you will see the pages you selected turn to landscape view.

While this method is the simplest, you may run into difficulties. For instance, if you have an image or table with text wrapped around it , changing the page's orientation may alter its layout. Also, you might run into difficulties if you want to add more landscape pages to your document. The most structurally secure way to change page orientation is through the first method described at the top of this article.

If you use Google Docs, you can change the page orientation in Google Docs just as easily.

reference in word using papers

APA, MLA, Chicago – automatically format bibliographies

Word automatically generates a bibliography from the sources you used to write your paper. Each time you add a new citation to your document, Word adds that source so that it appears in the bibliography in the proper format, such as MLA , APA , and Chicago-style .

Add a citation after a quote

On the References tab , in the Citations & Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style .

The Style APA option is highlighted on the References tab

Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. 

Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. 

Click Insert Citation and then select Add New Source . 

In the Create Source box, type in the citation details, and then click OK .

The option in the Creaet Source dialog box are shown

When you've completed these steps, the citation is added to the list of available citations. The next time you quote this reference, you don't have to type it all out again, just click Insert Citation and select the citation you want to use.

The list of citations is shown from the Insert Citation button

Important:  APA and MLA can change their formats, so you’ll want to ensure that these format versions meet your requirements. You can create your own updated version of a style or build custom styles. For more information see Bibliography & Citations 102 – Building Custom styles .

Create a bibliography from your sources

If you want to create a bibliography from your sources, do the following:

Click where you want to insert a bibliography. Typically, they are at the end of a document. 

On the References tab, in the Citations & Bibliography group , click Bibliography .

Similar to the Table of Contents builder in Word, you can select a predesigned bibliography format that includes a title, or you can just click Insert Bibliography to add the citation without a title.

If you want to learn more about using citation placeholders and editing sources, take a look at Create a bibliography . Or, if you want to export your bibliography sources to another computer, check out this post on the Microsoft Word blog .

APA 6th Edition citation style fix procedure.

APA style uses the author's name and publication date. If you have multiple citations from the same author, there is a known Word bug where the citation generator fills in the publication title when it's not supposed to. If this happens to you, here's how to fix the problem:

In the Word document, click the citation.

Click the down-arrow, and then click Edit Citation .

The available options under a citation are shown

Click the Title checkbox, and then click OK .

You can't automatically generate citations in Word Online. Word Online preserves the bibliography in your document, but it doesn’t provide a way to create one.

Instead, if you have the desktop version of Word, select Open in Word to open the document.

Image of the Open in Desktop App command

Then follow the steps for Word desktop .

When you’re done and you save the document in Word, you’ll see the table of contents when you reopen the doc in Word Online.

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Wordle hints and answer (#1063): How to solve the Friday May 17 Wordle

Stuck on today's Wordle word for May 17? Read our hint or find the answer below!

This guide is for a previous day! Looking for today's solution? Check out the Wordle hint and answer for Friday 17th May !

Need a hint for today's Wordle answer? We have you covered with a group of clues followed by the word if you need it, to help keep your streak firmly in place.

Every day, Wordle presents its legions of players with a deviously simple quandary: can you guess the right five-letter word within just six guesses? All you have to help you in finding the Wordle answer are the contextual clues you gain from each guess - but often, that's not enough. Wordle can be tricky, you see, and it's not unusual to look for a little bit of help if you want to preserve your year-long winstreak.

In this guide we'll offer up a selection of Wordle hints to help you figure out today's solution for Friday May 17. Scroll down a bit further and we'll also reveal today's Wordle answer for 17/5, and a definition of the word if you need it.

Use our Wordle Solver tool to help you figure out the answer to any Wordle in moments! Just pop your current guesses in the grid and watch the tool instantly give you all the potential answers.

Wordle hints: Clues for today's Wordle on 17/5

Every day we offer up a number of Wordle hints that you can use to help figure out the solution. So have a read of our clues below and see if you can figure it out before skipping ahead to the answer:

What is the Wordle hint today?

Today's Wordle word is someone you may hire for teaching.

What letter does today's Wordle begin with?

Today's Wordle word begins with T.

What letter does today's Wordle end with?

Today's Wordle word ends with R.

How many vowels are in today's Wordle?

Today's Wordle word contains 2 vowels.

Are there any double letters in today's Wordle?

There are 4 unique letters in today's Wordle word.

What's a good starting word for today's Wordle?

If you type in the starting word "court", then four letters will turn yellow.

Still having some trouble finding today's Wordle solution? To preserve your win streak, scroll down to reveal today's Wordle answer, and a description of the word's meaning.

What is today's Wordle answer on May 17?

It's time to reveal the answer to today's Wordle for 17/5. The word is...

Congrats if you managed to correctly guess the Wordle answer today!

What does the Wordle answer today mean?

A tutor is a private teacher who usually teaches one-on-one or with a small group.

How to share your Wordle results without spoilers

A screenshot of the Wordle sharing panel, with the sharing button highlighted and an example on the right of the spoiler-free sharing format which is copied to the clipboard when a user clicks the sharing button.

Wordle has a built-in method of sharing your results in a spoiler-free way, so that those you sent it to don't see today's Wordle word itself, only the colours in your grid to show how well you did.

To share your Wordle results, simply complete (or lose) today's Wordle, and then wait a moment for the statistics panel to appear on your screen. Then tap the "SHARE" button.

On PC this will simply copy the text into your clipboard, so you can then paste the text anywhere you wish, whether it's a private message or a status update on social media. On iPhone or Android, when you tap the "SHARE" button you'll have the option either to copy to clipboard, or to share the results directly to another app on your phone (such as WhatsApp or Twitter).

Using the built-in sharing feature of Wordle is a much nicer way of sharing your results than potentially spoiling the answer to those who haven't yet had the chance to play today's Wordle themselves. So we highly encourage you to use it!

How to play Wordle

Wordle is wonderfully simple. The aim is to guess the correct five-letter word within six guesses. After each guess, the letters of your chosen word will highlight green if they're in the correct place, yellow if they're in the wrong place, or grey if they don't appear in the word at all.

Using these clues you can start to narrow down the correct word. Head over to the Wordle site to try it for yourself!

How did Wordle begin?

Wordle began life as a little family game created by software engineer Josh Wardle. He created the game so that he and his partner could play a fun little word game together during the pandemic, and they quickly realised that there was something quite special in this simple little guessing game. So after a bit of refinement, Wardle released it to the public on his website, Power Language .

The game was released in October 2021, and by the end of the year the game had two million daily players. It became a viral hit, thanks in large part to the ease with which players could share their results in a spoiler-free manner on Twitter and other social media sites. In January 2022, Wardle accepted an offer from the New York Times to acquire Wordle for a seven-figure sum. Well done, Mr Wardle. Well done indeed.

A Wordle grid with punctuation instead of letters for most of the tiles, and a red cross over the whole image.

Are any Wordle words not allowed?

You can type in pretty much any five-letter word in the English language and Wordle will accept it as a guess. However, the answer is picked each day from a much smaller list of more common five-letter words. There are still thousands of possible answers, of course, but it means the answer will never be a word as obscure as, say, "THIOL", or "CAIRD", or "MALIC" (yes, those are all real words).

There are very occasional words which the New York Times will choose not to publish as the day's Wordle answer, perhaps for reasons relating to recent news or politics. For example, shortly after news broke that Roe v Wade might be overturned in the United States, the NYT decided to change the March 30th word from "FETUS" to "SHINE", as the feeling was that the word "fetus" was too politically charged a word in the context of recent events.

The New York Times has also been careful never to allow what they consider to be rude words as the answer to a Wordle puzzle. But of course there's nothing stopping you from using even the dirtiest of words as guesses, as long as they're accepted words in the dictionary, and as long as you realise that they'll never end up being the answer.

Is Wordle getting too easy for you?

If Wordle is starting to get too easy, there are a few ways you can make the game more challenging for yourself. The first choice is to turn on Hard Mode. You can do this on the Wordle site by clicking the cog icon in the top-right of the screen. Hard Mode means that any highlighted letters must be used in all future guesses. This stops you from using the common tactic of choosing two words like "OUNCE" and "PAINS" to test all five vowels early on.

You can take it up another notch by playing by what we call "Ultra-Hard" rules. This means that every guess you enter must potentially be the answer. If you were just playing on Hard Mode, and you typed "MOIST", and the "O" appeared yellow, then nothing would stop you from making "POLAR" as your next word, even though it couldn't possibly be the answer because you already know the "O" is in the wrong place. If you play by "Ultra-Hard" rules, that's not allowed. You must adhere to every clue, and make sure every single word you enter is potentially the answer.

If after all that Wordle is still too easy for you, then you could always try one of the many other Wordle-inspired games online that have cropped up over the past year. One of our favourites is Worldle , in which you must guess a country of the world based on its shape. There's also Waffle , which is about swapping letters in a completed grid to complete all the words; Moviedle , which shows you an entire movie in a tiny space of time and challenges you to guess the movie within six guesses; and Quordle , which tasks you with solving four Wordles at once with the same guesses.

If you need some help with future Wordles, be sure to check out our list of the best Wordle starting words for the greatest chance of success. You can also check out our archive of past Wordle answers to see which words have been chosen previously.

Read this next

  • Wordle cheating is "rampant", with thousands looking up the answer every day, study suggests
  • Introducing our new Wordle Solver tool
  • Stardew Valley's fishing gets the Wordle treatment in this new browser game

Past Wordle answers

Today's NYT Connections hint and answers (Sat, May 18)

Wordle hint and answer today #1064 (May 18 2024)

Elden Ring: How to get to Liurnia early

Tiny Tina's Wonderlands SHiFT codes

NYT Connections hint and answers (Fri, May 17)

Elden Ring: How to get to the Haligtree

All free games on the Epic Games Store: What's free right now?

Help | Advanced Search

Astrophysics > Astrophysics of Galaxies

Title: discovery of $\sim$2200 new supernova remnants in 19 nearby star-forming galaxies with muse spectroscopy.

Abstract: We present the largest extragalactic survey of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in nearby star-forming galaxies using exquisite spectroscopic maps from MUSE. Supernova remnants exhibit distinctive emission-line ratios and kinematic signatures, which are apparent in optical spectroscopy. Using optical integral field spectra from the PHANGS-MUSE project, we identify SNRs in 19 nearby galaxies at ~ 100~pc scales. We use five different optical diagnostics: (1) line ratio maps of [SII]/H$\alpha$; (2) line ratio maps of [OI]/H$\alpha$; (3) velocity dispersion map of the gas; (4) and (5) two line ratio diagnostic diagrams from BPT diagrams to identify and distinguish SNRs from other nebulae. Given that our SNRs are seen in projection against HII regions and diffuse ionized gas, in our line ratio maps we use a novel technique to search for objects with [SII]/H$\alpha$ or [OI]/H$\alpha$ in excess of what is expected at fixed H$\alpha$ surface brightness within photoionized gas. In total, we identify 2,233 objects using at least one of our diagnostics, and define a subsample of 1,166 high-confidence SNRs that have been detected with at least two diagnostics. The line ratios of these SNRs agree well with the MAPPINGS shock models, and we validate our technique using the well-studied nearby galaxy M83, where all SNRs we found are also identified in literature catalogs and we recover 51% of the known SNRs. The remaining 1,067 objects in our sample are detected with only one diagnostic and we classify them as SNR candidates. We find that ~ 35% of all our objects overlap with the boundaries of HII regions from literature catalogs, highlighting the importance of using indicators beyond line intensity morphology to select SNRs. [OI]/H$\alpha$ line ratio is responsible for selecting the most objects (1,368; 61%), (abridged).

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Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs .

COMMENTS

  1. Add citations in a Word document

    Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite. On the Reference tab, click Insert Citation and then do one of the following: To add the source information, click Add New Source, and then, in the Create Source dialog box, click the arrow next to Type of Source, and select the type of source you want to use (for example, a book ...

  2. How to Insert Citations in Microsoft Word (Step-by-Step)

    Place your cursor where you want to insert the citation. Figure 3. Cursor placed for citation insertion. Select the References tab in the ribbon (see figure 1). Select the Insert Citation button in the Citations & Bibliography group. Figure 4. Insert Citation button. Select Add New Source from the drop-down menu.

  3. How to add Citations & References in Word

    In this tab, you will find a Citations & Bibliographysection. From here, click on the Insert Citation > Add New Sourceoption. You can also select a Styleto add citations in the required format ...

  4. Formatting Your Reference Page in Word

    Formatting a References Page in Word Online. Use the following directions to format your References page in APA format. Also, check out our APA 7th ed. sample paper. After completing your paper, add a new page to your document for your Works Cited. Hit "Enter" on your keyboard until you begin a new page.

  5. 3 Easy Ways to Cite Sources in Microsoft Word

    2. Click "Add New Source" to enter information about a source. On the "References" tab, click the "Insert Citation" button in the "Citations and Bibliography" group. Any sources you've already entered will appear in a drop-down. Select "Add New Source" if the source you want to cite isn't already listed.

  6. How To Automatically Add Citations And Bibliographies To Microsoft Word

    Switch to the "References" tab on the Ribbon, and then click the "Insert Citation" button. The popup menu that appears shows any sources you have already added (we'll get to that in a moment), but to add a new source, just click the "Add New Source" command. In the Create Source window that appears, you can enter all of the relevant ...

  7. Add or change sources, citations, and bibliographies

    To add a citation to your document, first add the source you used. On the References tab, click the arrow next to Bibliography Style, and click the style that you want to use for the citation and source.For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources.

  8. How to Write a Paper in APA Format Using Microsoft Word

    Choose "Manage" at the bottom of the screen. Then select "Templates.". Look for "Word Templates" and click on "Go.". Find the APA Style Template and click "Download.". Once downloaded, pick the template and click "OK.". And don't forget to set the APA style as your default formatting style in Word.

  9. How do I set up APA format in Word?

    APA footnotes use superscript numbers and should appear in numerical order. You can place footnotes at the bottom of the relevant pages, or on a separate footnotes page at the end: For footnotes at the bottom of the page, you can use your word processor to automatically insert footnotes.; For footnotes at the end of the text in APA, place them on a separate page entitled "Footnotes," after ...

  10. APA format for academic papers and essays

    Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.).

  11. A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers

    Bold the "References" label at the top of the first page of references. Use italics within reference list entries on either the title (e.g., webpages, books, reports) or on the source (e.g., journal articles, edited book chapters). Final checks Check page order. Start each section on a new page. Arrange pages in the following order:

  12. SmartCite for Word

    Step 2: Add SmartCite Add-In to your Word Toolbar. Look for SmartCite in Microsoft's Add-In Store. You can find the store by going to "Insert" in the menu of Word 2016 and selecting "Store". You'll then be able to search for "SmartCite" and embed it into your "References" Toolbar.

  13. How to Cite Sources

    Compare your paper to billions of pages and articles with Scribbr's Turnitin-powered plagiarism checker. Run a free check ... of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries. Use "et al." for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries. Use "et al." for 4+ authors in a ...

  14. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  15. EndNote: How to insert citations in a Word document

    Open your EndNote™ library. 2. Open the document you want to add a citation to in Word. 3. Click the Insert Citation button in the EndNote toolbar and select Insert Citation. 4. In the EndNote Citation search window, search for the Author, Title, or Year of the work you want to cite. 5.

  16. APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)

    Reference List. Resources on writing an APA style reference list, including citation formats. Basic Rules Basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper Author/Authors Rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors that apply to all APA-style references in your reference list ...

  17. Reference List: Basic Rules

    Reference List: Basic Rules. This resourse, revised according to the 7 th edition APA Publication Manual, offers basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward rules. However, because sources obtained from academic journals carry special weight in research writing, these sources are subject to special ...

  18. APA Formatting for Microsoft Word

    APA requires that your papers have a title page and page numbers in the header of each page. To make a title page and page numbers, follow these instructions: How to Make the Page Numbers in the Header. Within a Microsoft Word document: 1. Click on the INSERT tab at the top of the page. 2. Click on the "Page Number" tool to open a menu of ...

  19. Paperpile for Word

    Paperpile's citation plugin for Microsoft Word is now available for download. We are still polishing some parts of the app and working on the support pages in our new Help Center. That's why we still call it Beta — but it's ready to use and we invite you to try it today! All your papers in one place. Nice and tidy.

  20. Superscript or Subscript in Word [For Students]

    In many papers, using superscripts and subscripts are important to accurately represent the information you are writing about. It is critical for STEM majors and students who have to write academic papers. ... Superscripts are used in references or to indicate any degree or notation. These might appear like this: C24, Robert3, Organograma.

  21. Free Harvard Referencing Generator [Updated for 2024]

    Generate Harvard references automatically with our fast and free Harvard reference generator. Get correctly formatted references for books, websites, journals and more! ... It provides a way to organise and keep track of the sources referenced in the content of an academic paper. It ensures that references are formatted correctly -- inline with ...

  22. How to Make Only One Page Landscape in a Word Document

    Tony is also an academic proofreader, experienced in reading, editing, and formatting over 2 million words of personal statements, resumes, reference letters, research proposals, and dissertations. Before joining How-To Geek, Tony formatted and wrote documents for legal firms, including contracts, Wills, and Powers of Attorney.

  23. Free Citation Generator

    Citation Generator: Automatically generate accurate references and in-text citations using Scribbr's APA Citation Generator, MLA Citation Generator, Harvard Referencing Generator, and Chicago Citation Generator. Plagiarism Checker: Detect plagiarism in your paper using the most accurate Turnitin-powered plagiarism software available to ...

  24. Word Alignment as Preference for Machine Translation

    The problem of hallucination and omission, a long-standing problem in machine translation (MT), is more pronounced when a large language model (LLM) is used in MT because an LLM itself is susceptible to these phenomena. In this work, we mitigate the problem in an LLM-based MT model by guiding it to better word alignment. We first study the correlation between word alignment and the phenomena ...

  25. Create a bibliography, citations, and references

    Create a bibliography. With cited sources in your document, you're ready to create a bibliography. Put your cursor where you want the bibliography. Go to References > Bibliography, and choose a format. Tip: If you cite a new source, add it to the bibliography by clicking anywhere in the bibliography and selecting Update Citations and Bibliography.

  26. APA, MLA, Chicago

    If this happens to you, here's how to fix the problem: In the Word document, click the citation. Click the down-arrow, and then click Edit Citation. Click the Title checkbox, and then click OK. Apply styles like APA, MLA, or Chicago when writing a bibliography or other resource-based document.

  27. Wordle hint and answer for Friday, May 17

    The aim is to guess the correct five-letter word within six guesses. After each guess, the letters of your chosen word will highlight green if they're in the correct place, yellow if they're in the wrong place, or grey if they don't appear in the word at all. Using these clues you can start to narrow down the correct word.

  28. Diagnostic Performance of [18F]AlF-Thretide PET/CT in Patients with

    The dosimetry evaluation of [18F]AlF-thretide was performed on 3 patients. Pathologic examination was used as the reference standard to evaluate the location, number, size, and Gleason score of tumors, for comparison with the [18F]AlF-thretide PET/CT results. PSMA expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining.

  29. [2405.08974] Discovery of $\sim$2200 new supernova remnants in 19

    We present the largest extragalactic survey of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in nearby star-forming galaxies using exquisite spectroscopic maps from MUSE. Supernova remnants exhibit distinctive emission-line ratios and kinematic signatures, which are apparent in optical spectroscopy. Using optical integral field spectra from the PHANGS-MUSE project, we identify SNRs in 19 nearby galaxies ...