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How to Cite Sources

Here is a complete list for how to cite sources. Most of these guides present citation guidance and examples in MLA, APA, and Chicago.

If you’re looking for general information on MLA or APA citations , the EasyBib Writing Center was designed for you! It has articles on what’s needed in an MLA in-text citation , how to format an APA paper, what an MLA annotated bibliography is, making an MLA works cited page, and much more!

MLA Format Citation Examples

The Modern Language Association created the MLA Style, currently in its 9th edition, to provide researchers with guidelines for writing and documenting scholarly borrowings.  Most often used in the humanities, MLA style (or MLA format ) has been adopted and used by numerous other disciplines, in multiple parts of the world.

MLA provides standard rules to follow so that most research papers are formatted in a similar manner. This makes it easier for readers to comprehend the information. The MLA in-text citation guidelines, MLA works cited standards, and MLA annotated bibliography instructions provide scholars with the information they need to properly cite sources in their research papers, articles, and assignments.

  • Book Chapter
  • Conference Paper
  • Documentary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Google Images
  • Kindle Book
  • Memorial Inscription
  • Museum Exhibit
  • Painting or Artwork
  • PowerPoint Presentation
  • Sheet Music
  • Thesis or Dissertation
  • YouTube Video

APA Format Citation Examples

The American Psychological Association created the APA citation style in 1929 as a way to help psychologists, anthropologists, and even business managers establish one common way to cite sources and present content.

APA is used when citing sources for academic articles such as journals, and is intended to help readers better comprehend content, and to avoid language bias wherever possible. The APA style (or APA format ) is now in its 7th edition, and provides citation style guides for virtually any type of resource.

Chicago Style Citation Examples

The Chicago/Turabian style of citing sources is generally used when citing sources for humanities papers, and is best known for its requirement that writers place bibliographic citations at the bottom of a page (in Chicago-format footnotes ) or at the end of a paper (endnotes).

The Turabian and Chicago citation styles are almost identical, but the Turabian style is geared towards student published papers such as theses and dissertations, while the Chicago style provides guidelines for all types of publications. This is why you’ll commonly see Chicago style and Turabian style presented together. The Chicago Manual of Style is currently in its 17th edition, and Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is in its 8th edition.

Citing Specific Sources or Events

  • Declaration of Independence
  • Gettysburg Address
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Speech
  • President Obama’s Farewell Address
  • President Trump’s Inauguration Speech
  • White House Press Briefing

Additional FAQs

  • Citing Archived Contributors
  • Citing a Blog
  • Citing a Book Chapter
  • Citing a Source in a Foreign Language
  • Citing an Image
  • Citing a Song
  • Citing Special Contributors
  • Citing a Translated Article
  • Citing a Tweet

6 Interesting Citation Facts

The world of citations may seem cut and dry, but there’s more to them than just specific capitalization rules, MLA in-text citations , and other formatting specifications. Citations have been helping researches document their sources for hundreds of years, and are a great way to learn more about a particular subject area.

Ever wonder what sets all the different styles apart, or how they came to be in the first place? Read on for some interesting facts about citations!

1. There are Over 7,000 Different Citation Styles

You may be familiar with MLA and APA citation styles, but there are actually thousands of citation styles used for all different academic disciplines all across the world. Deciding which one to use can be difficult, so be sure to ask you instructor which one you should be using for your next paper.

2. Some Citation Styles are Named After People

While a majority of citation styles are named for the specific organizations that publish them (i.e. APA is published by the American Psychological Association, and MLA format is named for the Modern Language Association), some are actually named after individuals. The most well-known example of this is perhaps Turabian style, named for Kate L. Turabian, an American educator and writer. She developed this style as a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style in order to present a more concise set of rules to students.

3. There are Some Really Specific and Uniquely Named Citation Styles

How specific can citation styles get? The answer is very. For example, the “Flavour and Fragrance Journal” style is based on a bimonthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1985 by John Wiley & Sons. It publishes original research articles, reviews and special reports on all aspects of flavor and fragrance. Another example is “Nordic Pulp and Paper Research,” a style used by an international scientific magazine covering science and technology for the areas of wood or bio-mass constituents.

4. More citations were created on  EasyBib.com  in the first quarter of 2018 than there are people in California.

The US Census Bureau estimates that approximately 39.5 million people live in the state of California. Meanwhile, about 43 million citations were made on EasyBib from January to March of 2018. That’s a lot of citations.

5. “Citations” is a Word With a Long History

The word “citations” can be traced back literally thousands of years to the Latin word “citare” meaning “to summon, urge, call; put in sudden motion, call forward; rouse, excite.” The word then took on its more modern meaning and relevance to writing papers in the 1600s, where it became known as the “act of citing or quoting a passage from a book, etc.”

6. Citation Styles are Always Changing

The concept of citations always stays the same. It is a means of preventing plagiarism and demonstrating where you relied on outside sources. The specific style rules, however, can and do change regularly. For example, in 2018 alone, 46 new citation styles were introduced , and 106 updates were made to exiting styles. At EasyBib, we are always on the lookout for ways to improve our styles and opportunities to add new ones to our list.

Why Citations Matter

Here are the ways accurate citations can help your students achieve academic success, and how you can answer the dreaded question, “why should I cite my sources?”

They Give Credit to the Right People

Citing their sources makes sure that the reader can differentiate the student’s original thoughts from those of other researchers. Not only does this make sure that the sources they use receive proper credit for their work, it ensures that the student receives deserved recognition for their unique contributions to the topic. Whether the student is citing in MLA format , APA format , or any other style, citations serve as a natural way to place a student’s work in the broader context of the subject area, and serve as an easy way to gauge their commitment to the project.

They Provide Hard Evidence of Ideas

Having many citations from a wide variety of sources related to their idea means that the student is working on a well-researched and respected subject. Citing sources that back up their claim creates room for fact-checking and further research . And, if they can cite a few sources that have the converse opinion or idea, and then demonstrate to the reader why they believe that that viewpoint is wrong by again citing credible sources, the student is well on their way to winning over the reader and cementing their point of view.

They Promote Originality and Prevent Plagiarism

The point of research projects is not to regurgitate information that can already be found elsewhere. We have Google for that! What the student’s project should aim to do is promote an original idea or a spin on an existing idea, and use reliable sources to promote that idea. Copying or directly referencing a source without proper citation can lead to not only a poor grade, but accusations of academic dishonesty. By citing their sources regularly and accurately, students can easily avoid the trap of plagiarism , and promote further research on their topic.

They Create Better Researchers

By researching sources to back up and promote their ideas, students are becoming better researchers without even knowing it! Each time a new source is read or researched, the student is becoming more engaged with the project and is developing a deeper understanding of the subject area. Proper citations demonstrate a breadth of the student’s reading and dedication to the project itself. By creating citations, students are compelled to make connections between their sources and discern research patterns. Each time they complete this process, they are helping themselves become better researchers and writers overall.

When is the Right Time to Start Making Citations?

Make in-text/parenthetical citations as you need them.

As you are writing your paper, be sure to include references within the text that correspond with references in a works cited or bibliography. These are usually called in-text citations or parenthetical citations in MLA and APA formats. The most effective time to complete these is directly after you have made your reference to another source. For instance, after writing the line from Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities : “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…,” you would include a citation like this (depending on your chosen citation style):

(Dickens 11).

This signals to the reader that you have referenced an outside source. What’s great about this system is that the in-text citations serve as a natural list for all of the citations you have made in your paper, which will make completing the works cited page a whole lot easier. After you are done writing, all that will be left for you to do is scan your paper for these references, and then build a works cited page that includes a citation for each one.

Need help creating an MLA works cited page ? Try the MLA format generator on EasyBib.com! We also have a guide on how to format an APA reference page .

2. Understand the General Formatting Rules of Your Citation Style Before You Start Writing

While reading up on paper formatting may not sound exciting, being aware of how your paper should look early on in the paper writing process is super important. Citation styles can dictate more than just the appearance of the citations themselves, but rather can impact the layout of your paper as a whole, with specific guidelines concerning margin width, title treatment, and even font size and spacing. Knowing how to organize your paper before you start writing will ensure that you do not receive a low grade for something as trivial as forgetting a hanging indent.

Don’t know where to start? Here’s a formatting guide on APA format .

3. Double-check All of Your Outside Sources for Relevance and Trustworthiness First

Collecting outside sources that support your research and specific topic is a critical step in writing an effective paper. But before you run to the library and grab the first 20 books you can lay your hands on, keep in mind that selecting a source to include in your paper should not be taken lightly. Before you proceed with using it to backup your ideas, run a quick Internet search for it and see if other scholars in your field have written about it as well. Check to see if there are book reviews about it or peer accolades. If you spot something that seems off to you, you may want to consider leaving it out of your work. Doing this before your start making citations can save you a ton of time in the long run.

Finished with your paper? It may be time to run it through a grammar and plagiarism checker , like the one offered by EasyBib Plus. If you’re just looking to brush up on the basics, our grammar guides  are ready anytime you are.

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Citation Basics

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Citing sources: Overview

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Use these tools to help you organize and cite your references:

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If you have questions after consulting this guide about how to cite, please contact your advisor/professor or the writing and communication center .

Why citing is important

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons:

  • To show your reader you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To allow your reader to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography or reference list

About citations

Citing a source means that you show, within the body of your text, that you took words, ideas, figures, images, etc. from another place.

Citations are a short way to uniquely identify a published work (e.g. book, article, chapter, web site).  They are found in bibliographies and reference lists and are also collected in article and book databases.

Citations consist of standard elements, and contain all the information necessary to identify and track down publications, including:

  • author name(s)
  • titles of books, articles, and journals
  • date of publication
  • page numbers
  • volume and issue numbers (for articles)

Citations may look different, depending on what is being cited and which style was used to create them. Choose an appropriate style guide for your needs.  Here is an example of an article citation using four different citation styles.  Notice the common elements as mentioned above:

Author - R. Langer

Article Title - New Methods of Drug Delivery

Source Title - Science

Volume and issue - Vol 249, issue 4976

Publication Date - 1990

Page numbers - 1527-1533

American Chemical Society (ACS) style:

Langer, R. New Methods of Drug Delivery. Science 1990 , 249 , 1527-1533.

IEEE Style:

R. Langer, " New Methods of Drug Delivery," Science , vol. 249 , pp. 1527-1533 , SEP 28, 1990 .

American Psychological Association   (APA) style:

Langer, R. (1990) . New methods of drug delivery. Science , 249 (4976), 1527-1533.

Modern Language Association (MLA) style:

Langer, R. " New Methods of Drug Delivery." Science 249.4976 (1990) : 1527-33.

What to cite

You must cite:

  • Facts, figures, ideas, or other information that is not common knowledge

Publications that must be cited include:  books, book chapters, articles, web pages, theses, etc.

Another person's exact words should be quoted and cited to show proper credit 

When in doubt, be safe and cite your source!

Avoiding plagiarism

Plagiarism occurs when you borrow another's words (or ideas) and do not acknowledge that you have done so. In this culture, we consider our words and ideas intellectual property; like a car or any other possession, we believe our words belong to us and cannot be used without our permission.

Plagiarism is a very serious offense. If it is found that you have plagiarized -- deliberately or inadvertently -- you may face serious consequences. In some instances, plagiarism has meant that students have had to leave the institutions where they were studying.

The best way to avoid plagiarism is to cite your sources - both within the body of your paper and in a bibliography of sources you used at the end of your paper.

Some useful links about plagiarism:

  • MIT Academic Integrity Overview on citing sources and avoiding plagiarism at MIT.
  • Avoiding Plagiarism From the MIT Writing and Communication Center.
  • Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It From Indiana University's Writing Tutorial Services.
  • Plagiarism- Overview A resource from Purdue University.
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  • Last Updated: Jan 16, 2024 7:02 AM
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Harvard Guide to Using Sources 

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  • Citing Sources

Citations provide information to help your audience locate the sources you consulted when writing a paper or preparing a presentation. Some of your instructors will specify which citation format you should use; others will tell you to choose your own citation format as long as you use it consistently. The most common citation formats are MLA (Modern Language Association) style, which is primarily used for papers in the humanities; APA (American Psychological Association) style, which is primarily used for papers in the social sciences; and Chicago style (The Chicago Manual of Style), which is used for both humanities and social science papers.

Some of your courses at Harvard will require you to use other citation formats. Some science courses may require you to use the citation style of the American Medical Association (AMA). AMA style is considered a standard citation format for academic writing in the sciences and is used in many textbooks and medical journals. The AMA Manual of Style is available online . The American Chemical Society publishes its own style guide , which you may be asked to use in chemistry courses. The Harvard Department of Economics provides students with a departmental style guide, which you can find  here . If you are not sure which format to use for a specific course, consult your instructor.

Both APA and MLA styles require you to credit your sources in two ways. First, you must include a parenthetical citation in the text of your paper that indicates the source of a particular quotation, paraphrased statement or idea, or fact; second, you must include a list of references at the end of your paper that enables readers to locate the sources you have used. You can read more about MLA style here and APA style here .

Chicago style also requires you to credit your sources both in the text and at the end of your paper. Chicago offers guidance on two types of in-text citations–notes or parenthetical citations. You can read more about Chicago style here .

If you have questions about which citation style to use, you should always check with your instructor.

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  • Research Process
  • Find Background Info
  • Find Sources through the Library
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Cite your sources

  • is the right thing to do  to give credit to those who had the idea
  • shows that you have read and understand  what experts have had to say about your topic
  • helps people find the sources  that you used in case they want to read more about the topic
  • provides   evidence  for your arguments
  • is professional and  standard practice   for students and scholars

What is a Citation?

A citation identifies for the reader the original source for an idea, information, or image that is referred to in a work.

  • In the body of a paper, the  in-text citation  acknowledges the source of information used.
  • At the end of a paper, the citations are compiled on a  References  or  Works Cited  list. A basic citation includes the author, title, and publication information of the source. 

Citation basics

From:  Lemieux  Library,  University  of Seattle 

Why Should You Cite?

Quoting Are you quoting two or more consecutive words from a source? Then the original source should be cited and the words or phrase placed in quotes. 

Paraphrasing If an idea or information comes from another source,  even if you put it in your own words , you still need to credit the source.  General vs. Unfamiliar Knowledge You do not need to cite material which is accepted common knowledge. If in doubt whether your information is common knowledge or not, cite it. Formats We usually think of books and articles. However, if you use material from web sites, films, music, graphs, tables, etc. you'll also need to cite these as well.

Plagiarism is presenting the words or ideas of someone else as your own without proper acknowledgment of the source. When you work on a research paper and use supporting material from works by others, it's okay to quote people and use their ideas, but you do need to correctly credit them. Even when you summarize or paraphrase information found in books, articles, or Web pages, you must acknowledge the original author.

Citation Style Help

Helpful links:

  • MLA ,  Works Cited : A Quick Guide (a template of core elements)
  • CSE  (Council of Science Editors)

For additional writing resources specific to styles listed here visit the  Purdue OWL Writing Lab

Citation and Bibliography Resources

Writing an annotated bibliography

  • How to Write an Annotated Bibliography
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A Quick Guide to Referencing | Cite Your Sources Correctly

Referencing means acknowledging the sources you have used in your writing. Including references helps you support your claims and ensures that you avoid plagiarism .

There are many referencing styles, but they usually consist of two things:

  • A citation wherever you refer to a source in your text.
  • A reference list or bibliography at the end listing full details of all your sources.

The most common method of referencing in UK universities is Harvard style , which uses author-date citations in the text. Our free Harvard Reference Generator automatically creates accurate references in this style.

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Table of contents

Referencing styles, citing your sources with in-text citations, creating your reference list or bibliography, harvard referencing examples, frequently asked questions about referencing.

Each referencing style has different rules for presenting source information. For in-text citations, some use footnotes or endnotes , while others include the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets in the text.

The reference list or bibliography is presented differently in each style, with different rules for things like capitalisation, italics, and quotation marks in references.

Your university will usually tell you which referencing style to use; they may even have their own unique style. Always follow your university’s guidelines, and ask your tutor if you are unsure. The most common styles are summarised below.

Harvard referencing, the most commonly used style at UK universities, uses author–date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical bibliography or reference list at the end.

Harvard Referencing Guide

Vancouver referencing, used in biomedicine and other sciences, uses reference numbers in the text corresponding to a numbered reference list at the end.

Vancouver Referencing Guide

APA referencing, used in the social and behavioural sciences, uses author–date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical reference list at the end.

APA Referencing Guide APA Reference Generator

MHRA referencing, used in the humanities, uses footnotes in the text with source information, in addition to an alphabetised bibliography at the end.

MHRA Referencing Guide

OSCOLA referencing, used in law, uses footnotes in the text with source information, and an alphabetical bibliography at the end in longer texts.

OSCOLA Referencing Guide

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In-text citations should be used whenever you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source (e.g. a book, article, image, website, or video).

Quoting and paraphrasing

Quoting is when you directly copy some text from a source and enclose it in quotation marks to indicate that it is not your own writing.

Paraphrasing is when you rephrase the original source into your own words. In this case, you don’t use quotation marks, but you still need to include a citation.

In most referencing styles, page numbers are included when you’re quoting or paraphrasing a particular passage. If you are referring to the text as a whole, no page number is needed.

In-text citations

In-text citations are quick references to your sources. In Harvard referencing, you use the author’s surname and the date of publication in brackets.

Up to three authors are included in a Harvard in-text citation. If the source has more than three authors, include the first author followed by ‘ et al. ‘

The point of these citations is to direct your reader to the alphabetised reference list, where you give full information about each source. For example, to find the source cited above, the reader would look under ‘J’ in your reference list to find the title and publication details of the source.

Placement of in-text citations

In-text citations should be placed directly after the quotation or information they refer to, usually before a comma or full stop. If a sentence is supported by multiple sources, you can combine them in one set of brackets, separated by a semicolon.

If you mention the author’s name in the text already, you don’t include it in the citation, and you can place the citation immediately after the name.

  • Another researcher warns that the results of this method are ‘inconsistent’ (Singh, 2018, p. 13) .
  • Previous research has frequently illustrated the pitfalls of this method (Singh, 2018; Jones, 2016) .
  • Singh (2018, p. 13) warns that the results of this method are ‘inconsistent’.

The terms ‘bibliography’ and ‘reference list’ are sometimes used interchangeably. Both refer to a list that contains full information on all the sources cited in your text. Sometimes ‘bibliography’ is used to mean a more extensive list, also containing sources that you consulted but did not cite in the text.

A reference list or bibliography is usually mandatory, since in-text citations typically don’t provide full source information. For styles that already include full source information in footnotes (e.g. OSCOLA and Chicago Style ), the bibliography is optional, although your university may still require you to include one.

Format of the reference list

Reference lists are usually alphabetised by authors’ last names. Each entry in the list appears on a new line, and a hanging indent is applied if an entry extends onto multiple lines.

Harvard reference list example

Different source information is included for different source types. Each style provides detailed guidelines for exactly what information should be included and how it should be presented.

Below are some examples of reference list entries for common source types in Harvard style.

  • Chapter of a book
  • Journal article

Your university should tell you which referencing style to follow. If you’re unsure, check with a supervisor. Commonly used styles include:

  • Harvard referencing , the most commonly used style in UK universities.
  • MHRA , used in humanities subjects.
  • APA , used in the social sciences.
  • Vancouver , used in biomedicine.
  • OSCOLA , used in law.

Your university may have its own referencing style guide.

If you are allowed to choose which style to follow, we recommend Harvard referencing, as it is a straightforward and widely used style.

References should be included in your text whenever you use words, ideas, or information from a source. A source can be anything from a book or journal article to a website or YouTube video.

If you don’t acknowledge your sources, you can get in trouble for plagiarism .

To avoid plagiarism , always include a reference when you use words, ideas or information from a source. This shows that you are not trying to pass the work of others off as your own.

You must also properly quote or paraphrase the source. If you’re not sure whether you’ve done this correctly, you can use the Scribbr Plagiarism Checker to find and correct any mistakes.

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

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citing sources in a research paper

APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

  • Basics of APA Formatting
  • In Text Quick View
  • Block Quotes
  • Books & eBooks
  • Thesis/Dissertation
  • Audiovisual
  • Conference Presentations
  • Social Media
  • Legal References
  • Reports and Gray Literature

Mechanics of Style

Standard formatting quick guide, abbreviations.

  • Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
  • Additional Resources
  • Reference Page

Refer to Ch. 6 Mechanics of style in the APA Publication Manual 7th ed. regarding specific guidelines regarding the mechanics of style for writing.

  • Use 1" margins for the entire document.
  • Use a 1/2" indent for every paragraph and footnote.
  • Indent set-off quotations 1/2" from the left margin.

Text Formatting

  • Should be accessible to all users
  • The same font should be used throughout paper
  • San serif fonts preferred for online works (Recommend 11pt Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10pt Lucida Sans Unicode)
  • Serif fonts preferred for print works (Recommend 12pt Times New Roman or 11pt Georgia)
  • Figure images- use a sans serif font with a type size between 8 and 14
  • Computer code- use a monospace font (ex. 10pt Lucida Console or 10pt Courier New)
  • Footnotes- default footnote settings of word-processing program acceptable
  • Do not justify the text or use hyphenation.
  • One space after a period

Page Header

  • Doesn't have to be same as title, but limited to 50 characters and conveys the idea of the title
  • If title is less than 50 characters, can be used as running head
  • Avoid using abbreviations in the running head
  • Appears flush left in all-capital letters
  • Page number should be flush right.
  • If title is longer than one line, separate the title and subtitle on double-spaced lines if desired
  • Center the author's/authors' name directly under the title.
  • Format the name omitting titles (Dr, Prof, etc.) and degrees: First name, middle initial, last name.
  • Center the institutional affiliation directly under the author's/authors' name.
  • Author's note (not applicable to student papers)
  • Course number and name of course
  • Instructor name
  • Assignment due date
  • Running head in page header, flush left (not applicable to student papers)
  • Page number in page header, flush right

Introduction

  • Begin introduction on a new page.
  • Type the title in title case, bold, centered and positioned at the top of the first page of text
  • Do not type the heading "Introduction," title will act as de facto Level 1 heading
  • Use Level 2 heading for any subsections within introduction, Level 3 for subsections of Level 2, and so on
  • Use Level 1 heading for next main section of paper

References (Reference Page)

  • Starts on new page
  • The word " References " should appear (without quotation marks) centered at the top of the page, bold
  • Double-space all reference entries
  • Use a hanging indent for reference- first line of each reference is flush with the left margin while subsequent lines are indented.
  • Use footnotes to provide additional content or acknowledge copyright permission
  • Content footnotes convey just one idea and only include simple, relevant or essential information
  • Use a footnote to acknowledge the source of lengthy quotes, scale and test items, and figures or tables that have been reproduced or adapted
  • Number all footnotes consecutively in the order they appear, use superscript Arabic numerals within the text
  • For separate page- Label section "Footnotes" in bold, centered at the top of the page.  Write footnotes as double-spaced indented paragraphs which begin with superscript footnote number.
  • Begin each appendix on a new page following references and footnotes (if applicable).
  • If single appendix, label page "Appendix."
  • If there is more than one appendix, label each with with a capital letter (ex. "Appendix A," "Appendix B" and so forth) in the order they're mentioned in the text
  • If text appendix contains tables, figures, footnotes and/or display equations, give each one a number preceded by the letter of the appendix in which it appears (ex. Figure A2 for the second figure in Appendix A).
  • If appendix "consists of only a table or figure, then the appendix label takes the place of the table or figure number and the appendix title takes the place of the table or figure title."

Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

  • APA Paper Format Find quick answers to basic APA formatting directly from APA Style
  • Annotated Sample Student Paper

The correct form of abbreviation must be used in reference lists:

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  • Citing Sources

Citing Sources: What are citations and why should I use them?

What is a citation.

Citations are a way of giving credit when certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again-- it provides an important roadmap to your research process. Whenever you use sources such as books, journals or websites in your research, you must give credit to the original author by citing the source. 

Why do researchers cite?

Scholarship is a conversation  and scholars use citations not only to  give credit  to original creators and thinkers, but also to  add strength and authority  to their own work.  By citing their sources, scholars are  placing their work in a specific context  to show where they “fit” within the larger conversation.  Citations are also a great way to  leave a trail  intended to help others who may want to explore the conversation or use the sources in their own work.

In short, citations

(1) give credit

(2) add strength and authority to your work

(3) place your work in a specific context

(4) leave a trail for other scholars

"Good citations should reveal your sources, not conceal them. They should honeslty reflect the research you conducted." (Lipson 4)

Lipson, Charles. "Why Cite?"  Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citation Styles--MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More . Chicago: U of Chicago, 2006. Print.

What does a citation look like?

Different subject disciplines call for citation information to be written in very specific order, capitalization, and punctuation. There are therefore many different style formats. Three popular citation formats are MLA Style (for humanities articles) and APA or Chicago (for social sciences articles).

MLA style (print journal article):  

Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles Vol. 49.3 (2003): 179-182.

APA style (print journal article):

Whisenant, W. A. (2003) How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX. Sex Roles , 49 (3), 179-182.

Chicago style (print journal article):

Whisenant, Warren A. "How Women Have Fared as Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Since the Passage of Title IX." Sex Roles 49, no. 3 (2003): 179-182.

No matter which style you use, all citations require the same basic information:

  • Author or Creator
  • Container (e.g., Journal or magazine, website, edited book)
  • Date of creation or publication
  • Publisher 

You are most likely to have easy access to all of your citation information when you find it in the first place. Take note of this information up front, and it will be much easier to cite it effectively later.

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Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources

Citing sources, why does citing sources matter, what do you cite, tips for citing sources.

  • Avoid Plagiarism
  • MLA Style (8th/9th ed.)
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  • How to Create an Attribution

When you write a research paper, you use information and facts from a variety of resources to support your own ideas or to help you develop new ones. Books, articles, videos, interviews, and Web sites are some examples of sources you might use.

Citing these sources of information in your work is essential because:

  • It gives credit to the author of the original work who provided you with the information or idea
  • It allows your audience to identify and find the source material in order to learn more about your topic
  • It gives your paper more credibility because it shows you're supporting your arguments with high-quality source. It also helps earn your readers' trust because you're telling your readers the source of your facts so that they can confirm them for themselves
  • It helps you avoid plagiarism

Watch this short video from The Learning Portal to learn why you cite and when you cite. Watch, Learn, and Enjoy!

"Why You Need to Cite Sources" by The Learning Portal is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Cite all outside sources you use in your research paper! Citing is required for sources you:

Quote  word-for-word,

Paraphrase  (rewrite using your own words), and

Summarize (rewrite the main concept or idea in your own words) .  

How Citation Style Affects Your Paper:

No matter which citation style you use, you need to cite your sources within the body of your paper where you incorporate your outside sources (in-text citations) and in your cumulative list of sources at the end of your paper (Works Cited, References, or Bibliography)

Collect the Information You Need

It's important to make sure you collect all the information you need to cite a source as you gather your information so that you won't need to look it up again, so:

  • Take clear, accurate notes about where you found specific ideas
  • Write down the complete citation information for each book, article, etc. you use as you go along
  • Use quotation marks when directly stating another person's words
  • Always credit original authors for their information and ideas

Keep Track of Information About Your Sources

As you explore your topic, you'll discover and read information from many different sources. With each new source, you'll need to decide if you want to use it. To help you make this decision, you'll ask yourself questions about the source like:

  • Who  is the author of this source?
  • What  is the title of the source?
  • How  was the source published?
  • Where  did I find this source?
  • When  was the source published?

Each of these elements (author, title, publisher, location, publication date) will become part of your citation. As you work, you'll want to keep track of each of these elements so that creating your citations will be easier.

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 and CC BY-NC 4.0 Licenses .

Harvard University Graduate School of Design

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Write and Cite

  • Citing Sources
  • Academic Integrity

When to Cite

  • Citation Styles

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Reasons for citing sources are based on academic, professional, and cultural values. At the GSD, we cite to promote

  • Integrity and honesty by acknowledging the creative and intellectual work of others.
  • The pursuit of knowledge by enabling others to locate the materials you used.
  • The development of design excellence through research into scholarly conversations related to your subject.

Cite your source whenever you quote, summarize, paraphrase, or otherwise include someone else's

  • Words 
  • Opinions, thoughts, interpretations, or arguments
  • Original research, designs, images, video, etc.

How to Cite 

Citations follow different rules for structure and content depending on which style you use. At the GSD, mostly you will use Chicago or APA style. Often you can choose the style you prefer, but it's good to ask your professor or TA/TF. Whichever style you use, be consistent. We recommend using Zotero , a citation-management tool, to structure your citations for you, but you should always check to make sure the tool captures the correct information in the correct place.

  • Chicago Style

 Chicago Style 

Citing print sources.

Footnote - long (first time citing the source)

1. Joseph Rykwert, The Idea of a Town: The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World , (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976), 35.

Footnote - short (citing the source again)

1. Rykwert, The Idea of a Town , 35.

In-text citation (alternative to footnotes)

(Rykwert 1976, 35)

Bibliography (alphabetical order and hanging indentation)

Rykwert, Joseph. The Idea of a Town: the Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World . New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976.

Chapter 

1. Diane Favro, “The Street Triumphant: The Urban Impact of Roman Triumphal Parades,” in Streets: Critical Perspectives on Public Space , ed. Zeynep Çelik , Diana Favro, and Richard Ingersoll (Berkeley: University of California Press,1994), 153.

1. Favro, “The Street Triumphant,” 156.

In-text citation (called "author-date," an alternative to footnotes)

(Favro 1994, 153)

Bibliography  (alphabetical order and hanging indentation)

Favro, Diane. “The Street Triumphant: The Urban Impact of Roman Triumphal Parades.” In Streets: Critical Perspectives on Public Space, edited by Zeynep Çelik, Diane G. Favro, and Richard Ingersoll, 151-164. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Journal Article 

1. Hendrik Dey, “From ‘Street’ to ‘Piazza’: Urban Politics, Public Ceremony, and the Redefinition of platea in Communal Italy and Beyond” Speculum 91, no.4 (October 2016): 919.

1. Dey, “From ‘Street’ to ‘Piazza,’” 932.

Dey, Hendrik. “From ‘Street’ to ‘Piazza’: Urban Politics, Public Ceremony, and the Redefinition of platea in Communal Italy and Beyond.” Speculum 91, no.4 (October 2016): 919-44.

Citing Visual Sources 

Visual representations created by other people, including photographs, maps, drawings, models, graphs, tables, and blueprints, must be cited.  Citations for visual material may be included at the end of a caption or in a list of figures, similar to but usually separate from the main bibliography.

When they are not merely background design, images are labeled as figures and numbered. In-text references to them refer to the figure number. Sometimes you will have a title after the figure number and a brief descriptive caption below it. 

If you choose to include the citation under the caption, format it like a footnote entry. If you would prefer to have a list of figures for citation information, organize them by figure number and use the format of a bibliographic entry. 

A map of Harvard Campus with an example caption and citation below it. Immediately under the map are the words, "Figure One." Under those words is a caption stating that the image is a map of Harvard campus from 1935. Under that caption is the citations, which is as follows: Edwin J Schruers, cartographer, Tercentenary map of Harvard, 1935, color map, 86x64 cm, Harvard University Archives, http and the rest of the permalink code.

The construction of citations for artwork and illustrations is more flexible and variable than textual sources. Here we have provided an example with full bibliographic information. Use your best judgment and remember that the goals are to be consistent and to provide enough information to credit your source and for someone else to find your source.

Some borrowed material in collages may also need to be cited, but the rules are vague and hard to find. Check with your professor about course standards. 

Citing Generative AI

The rules for citing the use of generative AI, both textual and visual, are still evolving. For guidelines on when to cite the use of AI, please refer to the section on Academic Integrity. Here, we will give you suggestions for  how to cite based on what the style guides say and what Harvard University encourages. We again recommend that you to ask your instructors about their expectations for use and citation and to remain consistent in your formatting.

The Chicago Manual of Style currently states that "for most types of writing, you can simply acknowledge the AI tool in your text" with a parenthetical comment stating the use of a specific tool. For example: (Image generated by Midjourney). 

For academic papers or research articles, you should have a numbered footnote or endnote

Footnote - prompt not included in the text of the paper

1. ChatGPT, response to "Suggest three possible responses from community stakeholders to the proposed multi-use development project," OpenAI, March 28, 2024, https://chat.openai.com/chat.

Footnote - prompt included in the text of the paper

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 28, 2024, https://chat.oenai.com/chat

Footnote - edited AI-generated text

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 28, 2024, edited for clarity, https://chat.oenai.com/chat

In-text citation  (called "author-date," an alternative to footnotes)

(Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI) or (Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, edited for clarity)

Chicago does not encourage including generative AI in a bibliography unless the tool also generates a direct link to the same generated content.

https://www-chicagomanualofstyle-org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/qanda/data/faq/topics/Documentation/faq0422.html

 APA Style 

In-text citation  

(Rykwert 1976 p. 35)

Footnote  (for supplemental information)

1. From  The idea of a town: The anthropology of urban form in Rome, Italy and the ancient world by Joseph  Rykwert, 1976, New Jersey:  Princeton University Press.

Bibliography/Reference  (alphabetical order and hanging indentation)

Rykwert, J. (1976).  The idea of a town: The anthropology of urban form in Rome, Italy and the ancient world .  Princeton University Press.

In-Text Citation

(Favro   1994 p.153)

Footnote (for supplemental information)

1. From the chapter "The street triumphant: The urban impact of Roman triumphal parades" in  Streets: Critical perspectives on public space,  edited by Zeynep Çelik , Diana Favro, and Richard Ingersoll, 1994, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Favro, D. (1994) “The street triumphant: The Urban Impact of Roman Triumphal Parades.” In Zeynep Çelik, Diane G. Favro, and Richard Ingersoll (Eds.),  Streets: Critical Perspectives on Public Space ( pp.151-164). University of California Press.

(Dey 2016 p.919)

Footnote  (for supplemental material)

1. From the article “From ‘street’ to ‘Piazza’: Urban politics, public ceremony, and the Redefinition of platea in Communal Italy and Beyond” by  Hendrik Dey in   Speculum 91(4), 919.  www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/spc/2016/91/4

Dey, H. (2016). From "street" to "piazza": Urban politics, public ceremony, and the redefinition of platea in communal Italy and beyond.  Speculum 91 (4), 919-44. www.journals.uchicago.edu/toc/spc/2016/91/4

Visual representations created by other people, including photographs, maps, drawings, models, graphs, tables, and blueprints, must be cited. In APA style, tables are their own category, and all other visual representations are considered figures. Tables and figures both follow the same basic setup. 

When they are not merely background design, images are labeled as figures and numbered and titled above the image. If needed to clarify the meaning or significance of the figure, a note may be placed below it. In-text references to visual sources refer to the figure number (ex. As shown in Figure 1..."). 

Citations for visual material created by other people may either be included under the figure or note or compiled in a list of figures, similar to but usually separate from the main bibliography.

Figures may take up a whole page or be placed at the top or bottom of the page with a blank double-space below or above it.

If you choose to include the citation under the figure, format it like a bibliographic entry. If you would prefer to have a list of figures for citation information, organize them by figure number and use the format of a bibliographic entry. Here is a detailed example. Some figures will require less bibliographic information, but it is a good practice to include as much as you can.

citing sources in a research paper

The construction of citations for artwork and illustrations is more flexible and variable than for textual sources. Here we have provided an example with full bibliographic information. Use your best judgment and remember that the goals are to be consistent and to provide enough information to credit your source and for someone else to find your source.

The APA style team currently says to "describe how you used the tool in your Methods section or in a comparable section of your paper," perhaps the introduction for literature reviews and response papers. In your paper, state the prompt followed by the resulting generated text. Cite generative AI use according to the rules you would use for citing an algorithm. Include the URL if it leads directly to the same generated material; otherwise, the URL is optional.

(OpenAI, 2024) 

Footnote   (for supplemental material)

APA does not yet provide a structure or example for a footnote. If you need to mention generative AI in a footnote, stay as consistent with formatting as possible.

OpenAI. (2024). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

These links take you to external resources for further research on citation styles.

  • Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Online access to the full manual through Hollis with a quick guide, Q&A, video tutorials, and more.
  • CMOS Shop Talk: How Do I Format a List of Figures? A brief description of how to format a list of figures with an attached sample document.
  • Documenting and Citing Images in Chicago A Research guide from USC with nice examples of images with citations.
  • Harvard Guide to Citing Sources A guide from Harvard Libraries on citing sources in Chicago style.
  • A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers A Chicago manual specifically for students with clear and detailed information about citing for papers rather than publications.
  • Chicago Manual of Style Q&A Citing Generative Artificial Intelligence
  • APA Style Common Reference Examples A list of sample references organized by type.
  • APA Style Manual 7th Edition Online access to the full APA Style Manual (scanned) through Hollis.
  • APA Style Sample Papers Links to sample papers that model how to create citations in APA.
  • Formatting Checklist This page is a quick guide to all kinds of formatting, from the title page to the bibliography, with links to more detailed instructions.
  • Harvard Guide to Citing Sources A guide from Harvard Libraries on citing sources in APA style.
  • Journal Article References This page contains reference examples for journal articles.
  • In-Text Citations in APA Style A place to learn more about rules for citing sources in your text.
  • Tables and Figures This page leads to explanations about how to format tables and figures as well as examples of both.
  • How to Cite ChatGPT Here are the APA's current rules for citing generative AI and ChatGPT in particular.
  • MetaLAB AI Code of Conduct A proposed code of conduct generated by a collaborative of Harvard faculty and students.
  • << Previous: Academic Integrity
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How to Write a Research Paper: Citing Sources

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Style Guides

Choosing a style.

C hoosing A Style

There are different ways to properly cite resources in your paper. The citation style usually depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:

MLA style (Modern Language Association) is typically used by the Humanities 

APA style (American Psychological Association) often is used by Education, Psychology, and Business

  • Chicago  (Professor Turabian, University of Chicago) is generally used by History and some of the Fine Arts.

When determining which style to use there are several resources to keep in mind:

Ask your professor which style they prefer for the course.

Consult a style guide for examples of using various citation styles to create in-text citations, bibliographies and reference lists, or use citation software to assist you in tracking sources used and building in-text citations and bibliographies. 

Bottom line: Check with your professor to make sure you use the style required for that class. And whatever style you choose,  BE CONSISTENT!

UMary Writing Center

UST Writing Center

Check out the resources available from the  Writing Center . 

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  • Introduction
  • Conclusions
  • Article Information

Models were stratified by age, cohort (sex), and calendar time, and adjusted for Southern European/Mediterranean ancestry (yes/no), married (yes/no), living alone (yes/no), smoking status (never, former, current smoker 1-14 cigarettes/d, 15-24 cigarettes/d, or ≥25 cigarettes/d), physical activity (<3.0, 3.0-8.9, 9.0-17.9, 18.0-26.9, ≥27.0 metabolic equivalent of task–h/wk), multivitamin use (yes/no), history of hypertension (yes/no), history of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), history of diabetes (yes/no), in women postmenopausal status and menopausal hormone use (premenopausal, postmenopausal [no, past, or current hormone use]), total energy intake (kcal/d), family history of dementia (yes/no), history of depression (yes/no), census socioeconomic status (9-variable score, in quintiles), and body mass index calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (<23, 23-25, 25-30, 30-35, ≥35). Pooled results were obtained by pooling the datasets of the cohorts. AMED score is without monounsaturated:saturated fats intake ratio component. AHEI score is without polyunsaturated fats intake component. HR indicates hazard ratio.

a Reference value.

b P  < .05.

Substitution analysis of 5 g/d intake of olive oil for the equivalent amount of butter, other vegetable oils, mayonnaise, and margarine. All Cox proportional hazards models were stratified by age and calendar time. Models were adjusted for Southern European/Mediterranean ancestry (yes/no), married (yes/no), living alone (yes/no), smoking status (never, former, current smoker 1-14 cigarettes/d, 15-24 cigarettes/d, or ≥25 cigarettes/d), alcohol intake (0, 0.1-4.9, 5.0-9.9, 10.0-14.9, and ≥15.0 g/d), physical activity (<3.0, 3.0-8.9, 9.0-17.9, 18.0-26.9, ≥27.0 metabolic equivalent of task–h/wk), multivitamin use (yes/no), history of hypertension (yes/no), history of hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), in women postmenopausal status and menopausal hormone use (premenopausal, postmenopausal [no, past, or current hormone use]), total energy intake (kcal/d), family history of dementia (yes/no), history of depression (yes/no), census socioeconomic status (9-variable score, in quintiles), body mass index calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (<23, 23-25, 25-30, 30-35, ≥35), red meat, fruits and vegetables, nuts, soda, whole grains intake (in quintiles), and trans-fat. Pooled results were obtained by pooling the data sets of the cohorts and Cox proportional hazards model 3 was further stratified by cohort (sex). HR indicates hazard ratio.

eTable 1. Odds Ratios for Dementia-Related Mortality by APOE4 Allelic Dosage

eTable 2. Risk of Death With Dementia (Composite Outcome) According to Categories of Total Olive Oil

eTable 3. Joint Associations of Olive Oil Intake and AMED (A), and AHEI (B) With Dementia-Related Mortality Risk

eTable 4. Risk of Dementia-Related Mortality According to Categories of Total Olive Oil in the Genomic DNA Subsample

eFigure. Subgroup Analyses for 5g/d Increase in Olive Oil Intake With Dementia-Related Mortality Risk

eTable 5. Risk of Dementia-Related Mortality According to Categories of Total Olive Oil Without Stopping Diet Update Upon Report of Intermediate Non-Fatal Events

eTable 6. Risk of Dementia Mortality According to Categories of Total Olive Oil Applying a 4-Year Lag Period Between Dietary Intake and Dementia Mortality

eTable 7. Risk of Dementia-Related Mortality According to Categories of Total Olive Oil Adjusting for Other Covariates

eTable 8. Risk of Mortality From Dementia and Other Causes of Death According to Categories of Total Olive Oil Applying a Competing Risk Model

eReferences

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Tessier A , Cortese M , Yuan C, et al. Consumption of Olive Oil and Diet Quality and Risk of Dementia-Related Death. JAMA Netw Open. 2024;7(5):e2410021. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.10021

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© 2024

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Consumption of Olive Oil and Diet Quality and Risk of Dementia-Related Death

  • 1 Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 2 School of Public Health, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China
  • 3 Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 4 Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 5 Department of Public Health and Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Question   Is the long-term consumption of olive oil associated with dementia-related death risk?

Findings   In a prospective cohort study of 92 383 adults observed over 28 years, the consumption of more than 7 g/d of olive oil was associated with a 28% lower risk of dementia-related death compared with never or rarely consuming olive oil, irrespective of diet quality.

Meaning   These results suggest that olive oil intake represents a potential strategy to reduce dementia mortality risk.

Importance   Age-standardized dementia mortality rates are on the rise. Whether long-term consumption of olive oil and diet quality are associated with dementia-related death is unknown.

Objective   To examine the association of olive oil intake with the subsequent risk of dementia-related death and assess the joint association with diet quality and substitution for other fats.

Design, Setting, and Participants   This prospective cohort study examined data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1990-2018) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1990-2018). The population included women from the NHS and men from the HPFS who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed from May 2022 to July 2023.

Exposures   Olive oil intake was assessed every 4 years using a food frequency questionnaire and categorized as (1) never or less than once per month, (2) greater than 0 to less than or equal to 4.5 g/d, (3) greater than 4.5 g/d to less than or equal to 7 g/d, and (4) greater than 7 g/d. Diet quality was based on the Alternative Healthy Eating Index and Mediterranean Diet score.

Main Outcome and Measure   Dementia death was ascertained from death records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs adjusted for confounders including genetic, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors.

Results   Of 92 383 participants, 60 582 (65.6%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 56.4 (8.0) years. During 28 years of follow-up (2 183 095 person-years), 4751 dementia-related deaths occurred. Individuals who were homozygous for the apolipoprotein ε4 ( APOE ε4 ) allele were 5 to 9 times more likely to die with dementia. Consuming at least 7 g/d of olive oil was associated with a 28% lower risk of dementia-related death (adjusted pooled HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.64-0.81]) compared with never or rarely consuming olive oil ( P for trend < .001); results were consistent after further adjustment for APOE ε4 . No interaction by diet quality scores was found. In modeled substitution analyses, replacing 5 g/d of margarine and mayonnaise with the equivalent amount of olive oil was associated with an 8% (95% CI, 4%-12%) to 14% (95% CI, 7%-20%) lower risk of dementia mortality. Substitutions for other vegetable oils or butter were not significant.

Conclusions and Relevance   In US adults, higher olive oil intake was associated with a lower risk of dementia-related mortality, irrespective of diet quality. Beyond heart health, the findings extend the current dietary recommendations of choosing olive oil and other vegetable oils for cognitive-related health.

One-third of older adults die with Alzheimer disease or another dementia. 1 While deaths from diseases such as stroke and heart disease have been decreasing over the past 20 years, age-standardized dementia mortality rates have been on the rise. 2 The Mediterranean diet has gained in popularity owing to its recognized, multifaceted health benefits, particularly on cardiovascular outcomes. 3 Accruing evidence suggests this dietary pattern also has a beneficial effect on cognitive health. 4 As part of the Mediterranean diet, olive oil may exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects due to its high content of monounsaturated fatty acids and other compounds with antioxidant properties such as vitamin E and polyphenols. 5 A substudy conducted as part of the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED) randomized trial provided evidence that higher intake of olive oil for 6.5 years combined with adherence to a Mediterranean diet was protective of cognitive decline when compared with a low-fat control diet. 6 - 8

Given that most previous studies on olive oil consumption and cognition were conducted in Mediterranean countries, 7 - 10 studying the US population, where olive oil consumption is generally lower, could offer unique insights. Recently, we showed that olive oil consumption was associated with a lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality in large US prospective cohort studies, including a 29% (95% CI, 22%-36%) lower risk for neurodegenerative disease mortality in participants who consumed more than 7 g/d of olive oil compared with little or none. 11 However, this previous analysis was not designed to examine the association of olive oil and diet quality with dementia-related mortality, and therefore the latter remains unclear.

In this study, we examined the association between total olive oil consumption and the subsequent risk of dementia-related mortality in 2 large prospective studies of US women and men. Additionally, we evaluated the joint associations of diet quality (adherence to the Mediterranean diet and Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI] score) and olive oil consumption with the risk of dementia-related mortality. We also estimated the difference in the risk of dementia-related mortality when other dietary fats were substituted with an equivalent amount of olive oil.

Analyses were performed in 2 large US prospective cohorts: the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). The NHS was initiated in 1976 and recruited 121 700 US female registered nurses aged 30 to 55 years. 12 The HPFS was established in 1986 and included 51 525 male health professionals aged 40 to 75 years. 13 The cohorts have been described elsewhere. 12 , 13 Lifestyle factors and medical history were assessed biennially through mailed questionnaires, with a follow-up rate greater than 90%. Baseline for this analysis was 1990, which is when the food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) first included information on olive oil consumption.

Participants with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer at baseline, with missing data on olive oil consumption, or who reported implausible total energy intakes (<500 or >3500 kcal/d for women and <800 or >4200 kcal/d for men) were excluded. The completion of the questionnaire self-selected cognitively highly functioning women and men. In total, 60 582 women and 31 801 men were included. The study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, which deemed the participants’ completion of the questionnaire to be considered as implied consent. This report followed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology ( STROBE ) reporting guideline.

Dietary intake was measured using a validated greater than 130-item FFQ administered in 1990 and every 4 years thereafter. The validity and reliability of the FFQ have been described previously. 14 Participants were asked how frequently they consumed specific foods, including types of fats and oils used for cooking or added to meals in the past 12 months. Total olive oil intake was determined by summing up answers to 3 questions related to olive oil consumption (ie, olive oil used for salad dressings, olive oil added to food or bread, and olive oil used for baking and frying at home). The equivalent of 1 tablespoon of olive oil was considered to be 13.5 g. Intakes of other fats and nutrients were calculated using the United States Department of Agriculture and Harvard University Food Composition Database, 15 and biochemical analyses. The nutritional composition of olive oil and other types of fat, as well as trends of types of fat intake in the NHS and HPFS, have been reported previously. 11

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a modified version of the 9-point Alternative Mediterranean index (AMED) score. 16 Adherence to the AHEI (0-110), previously associated with lower risk of chronic disease, was also computed. 17 Higher scores indicated better overall diet quality.

The apolipoprotein E ε4 ( APOE ε4 ) allele is known to interfere with lipid and glucose metabolism such that it increases the risk of dementia. 18  APOE genotyping was conducted in a subset of 27 296 participants. Blood samples were collected between 1989 and 1990 in the NHS and between 1993 and 1995 in the HPFS. NHS participants who had not provided blood samples were invited to contribute buccal samples from 2002 to 2004. DNA was extracted with the ReturPureGene DNA Isolation Kit (Gentra Systems). The APOE genotype was determined using a Taqman Assay (Applied Biosystems) 19 in 5069 participants, and through imputation from multiple genome-wide association studies, 20 which has shown high accuracy, 20 in the remaining subset.

Deaths were ascertained from state vital statistics records and the National Death Index or by reports from next of kin or the postal authorities. The follow-up for mortality exceeded 98% in these cohorts. Dementia deaths were determined by physician review of medical records, autopsy reports, or death certificates. Dementia deaths were those in which dementia was listed as the underlying cause of death, or as a contributing cause of death, or as reported by the family, in the absence of a more likely cause. The International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision (ICD-8) was used in the NHS and ICD-9 in the HPFS, which were the revisions used at the inception of those cohorts. Dementia deaths included codes 290.0 (senile dementia, simple type), 290.1 (presenile dementia), and 331.0 (Alzheimer disease). To test the validity of the dementia mortality outcome, we examined the likelihood of dementia mortality by APOE ε4 allelic dosage (eTable 1 in Supplement 1 ). 18 A composite outcome was also created including both participants who reported having dementia during follow-up and later died, with those who had dementia reported on their death certificate.

Participants completed biennial questionnaires reporting updates on body weight, smoking, physical activity, multivitamin use, menopausal status, and postmenopausal hormone use in women, family history of dementia, self-report of chronic diseases, and ancestry. History of depression was identified based on antidepressive medication use and self-report of depression. Socioeconomic status (SES) was established through a composite score derived from home address details and various factors such as income, education, and housing; the composite score methods are described in a previous report. 21 Body mass index (BMI) was obtained by dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared.

In each cohort, age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of olive oil intake with dementia-related mortality. Participant person-time was calculated from baseline until end of follow-up (June 30, 2018, in NHS; January 31, 2018, in HPFS), loss to follow-up, or death, whichever came first. The cumulative average (mean) of olive oil intake from all available FFQs, from baseline until 2014 (or loss to follow-up or death), was used as the exposure. Because potential diet modifications following cancer or CVD diagnosis may not represent long-term diet, we ceased updating dietary variables upon report of these conditions. For missing covariates, we carried forward nonmissing values from previous questionnaires and assigned median values for continuous variables.

Participants were categorized by olive oil intake frequency: never or less than once per month (reference group), greater than 0 to less than or equal to 4.5 g/d, greater than 4.5 g/d to less than or equal to 7 g/d, and greater than 7 g/d. P values for linear trends were obtained using the Wald test on a continuous variable represented by the median intake of each category. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for dementia mortality according to categories of olive oil intake, separately in each cohort. Participants were censored at death from causes other than dementia. Model 1 was stratified for age and calendar time. Multivariable model 2 was adjusted for Southern European/Mediterranean ancestry, married, living alone, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, multivitamin use, history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in women postmenopausal status and menopausal hormone use, total energy intake, family history of dementia, history of depression, census SES, and BMI. Multivariable model 3 was further adjusted for intake of red meat, fruits and vegetables, nuts, soda, whole grains, and trans-fat, all indicative of diet quality.

In a secondary analysis we used the composite outcome for dementia-related deaths. We also repeated the main analysis in the genotyping subsample. We carried out mediation analyses to calculate the percentage of the association between olive oil intake and dementia-related mortality that is attributable to CVD, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes. We also performed stratified analyses by prespecified subgroups (eMethods in Supplement 1 ).

A joint analysis was performed to test whether olive oil intake (never or <1/mo, >0 to ≤7g/d, and >7g/d) and the AMED or the AHEI score (tertiles) combined as the exposure was associated with dementia mortality. In substitution analyses, we assessed the risk of dementia-related mortality by replacing 5 g/d of different fat sources, including margarine, mayonnaise, butter, and a combination of other vegetable oils (corn, safflower, soybean, and canola), with olive oil. Both continuous variables as 5-g/d increments were included in a multivariable model 3, mutually adjusted for other types of fat. The difference in the coefficients obtained for olive oil and the substituted fat provided the estimated HR and 95% CI for substituting 5 g/d of olive oil for an equivalent amount of the other fats.

Several exploratory sensitivity analyses were performed including a 4-year lagged analysis, analyses adjusting for other covariates, a cause-specific competing risk model and analyses excluding participants who self-reported having dementia at baseline (n = 12) (eMethods in Supplement 1 ). Analyses were performed from May 2022 to July 2023 using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute). All statistical tests were 2-sided with an α = .05.

Over 2 183 095 person-years of follow-up, this study documented a total of 4751 dementia deaths (3473 in NHS and 1278 in HPFS; 37 649 total deaths). Among 92 383 participants included at baseline in 1990, 60 582 (65.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 56.4 (8.0) years. Mean (SD) olive oil intake was 1.3 (2.5) g/d in both NHS and HPFS; the mean (SD) adherence score for the Mediterranean diet was 4.5 (1.9) points in the NHS and 4.2 (1.9) points in the HPFS; and the mean (SD) AHEI diet quality score was 52.5 (11.1) points in the NHS and 53.4 (11.6) points in the HPFS.

Table 1 shows baseline characteristics of participants categorized by total olive oil intake. Participants with a higher olive oil intake (>7 g/d) at baseline had an overall higher caloric intake, but not a higher BMI, had better diet quality, had higher alcohol intake, were more physically active, and were less likely to smoke compared with those never consuming olive oil or less than once per month ( Table1 ). Individuals who were homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele were 5.5 to 9.4 times more likely to die with dementia compared with noncarriers for the APOE e4 allele (χ 2  P  < .001) (eTable 1 in Supplement 1 ).

Olive oil intake was inversely associated with dementia-related mortality in age-stratified and multivariable-adjusted models ( Table 2 ). Compared with participants with the lowest olive oil intake, the pooled HR for dementia-related death among participants with the highest olive oil intake (>7 g/d) was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.64-0.81), after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The association between each 5-g increment in olive oil consumption with dementia-related death was also inverse and significant in the pooled analysis. The multivariable-adjusted HR for dementia-related death for the highest compared with the lowest olive oil intake (>7 g/d) was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.77) for women and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.69-1.09) for men ( Table 2 ). Olive oil intake in 5-g increments was inversely associated with dementia-related mortality in women (HR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.93]), but not in men (HR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.88-1.04]). Analyses remained consistent when using the composite outcome for death with dementia (eTable 2 in Supplement 2 ). In the genotyping subsample, the results remained unchanged after further adjusting for the APOE ε4 allelic genotype (multivariable-adjusted pooled HR comparing high vs low olive oil intake, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54-0.81]; P for trend < .001) (eTable 4 in Supplement 1 ). Pooled mediation analyses found that CVD, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes did not significantly attenuate the association (unchanged HRs with and without adjusting for the intermediate; data not shown).

In joint analyses, participants with the highest olive oil intake had a lower risk for dementia-related mortality, irrespective of their AMED score (28% to 34% lower risk compared with participants in the combined low olive oil and high AMED) ( Figure 1 A; eTable 3 in Supplement 1 ) and of their AHEI (27% to 38% lower risk compared with participants with low olive oil and high AHEI) ( Figure 1 B; eTable 3 in Supplement 1 ).

Replacing 5 g/d of mayonnaise with 5 g/d of olive oil was associated with a 14% (95% CI, 7%-20%) lower risk of dementia-related mortality in pooled multivariable-adjusted models ( Figure 2 ). As for the substitution of 5 g/d of margarine with the equivalent amount of olive oil, we estimated an 8% (95% CI, 4%-12%) lower risk. Substitutions of other vegetable oils or butter with olive oil were not statistically significant.

Exploratory subgroup analyses (eFigure in Supplement 1 ) showed associations between higher olive oil intake and lower risk of dementia-related mortality across most subgroups. No statistically significant associations were found in participants with a family history of dementia, living alone, using a multivitamin, and in non– APOE ε4 carriers. Results from exploratory sensitivity analyses (eTables 5-8 in Supplement 1 ) were comparable with the findings from the main analysis (eResults in Supplement 1 ).

In 2 large US prospective cohorts of men and women, we found that participants who consumed more than 7 g/d of olive oil had 28% lower risk of dying from dementia compared with participants who never or rarely consumed olive oil. This association remained significant after adjustment for diet quality scores including adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We estimated that substituting 5 g/d of margarine and mayonnaise with olive oil was associated with significantly lower dementia-related death risk, but not when substituting butter and other vegetable oils. These findings provide evidence to support dietary recommendations advocating for the use of olive oil and other vegetable oils as a potential strategy to maintain overall health and prevent dementia.

In the NHS and HPFS, a lower risk of neurodegenerative disease mortality, including dementia mortality, was observed with higher olive oil consumption (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.78-0.84]). 11 Evidence that pertains to cognitive decline or incident dementia is more widely available than it is for dementia mortality. 6 , 22 In the French Three-City Study (n = 6947), participants with the highest olive oil intake were 17% (95% CI, 1%-29%) less likely to experience a 4-year cognitive decline related to visual memory, but no association was found for verbal fluency (odds ratio [OR], 0.85 [95% CI, 0.70-1.03]). 22 Furthermore, participants with a higher intake of olive oil (moderate or intensive vs never) had a lower risk of verbal fluency and visual memory cognitive impairment. Potential sex differences were not investigated. In the PREDIMED trial, which supplemented a Mediterranean-style diet with extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/wk/household) or nuts (30 g/d), 23 the authors investigated cognitive effects and status in 285 and 522 cognitively healthy participants using global and in-depth neuropsychological battery testing. Although the study was not originally designed for cognitive outcomes and the effect of olive oil cannot be isolated, after 6.5 years, the olive oil group exhibited improved cognitive performance in verbal fluency and memory tests compared with a low-fat diet (control), and they were less prone to develop mild cognitive impairment (OR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.12-0.97]; n = 285). 6 Global cognitive performance was higher in both the olive oil and the nut groups compared with the control post trial (n = 522). 8 These studies were conducted in Europe, in populations with typically higher olive oil intake compared with US populations.

Observational studies and some trials have consistently found associations between following diets such as the Mediterranean, DASH, MIND, and AHEI, and prudent patterns to healthier brain structure, 24 reduced cognitive impairment and Alzheimer risk, and improved cognitive function. 4 In our study, those with the highest olive oil intake (>7 g/d) had the lowest dementia-related death risk compared with those with minimal intake (never or less than once per month), regardless of diet quality. This highlights a potentially specific role for olive oil. Still, the group with both high AHEI scores and high olive oil intake exhibited the lowest dementia mortality risk (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.58-0.79]; reference: low AHEI score and low olive oil intake), suggesting that combining higher diet quality with higher olive oil intake may confer enhanced benefit.

Olive oil consumption may lower dementia mortality by improving vascular health. 18 Several clinical trials support the effect of olive oil in reducing CVD via improved endothelial function, coagulation, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and decreased inflammation. 25 Nonetheless, the results of our study remained independent of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer disease, and related dementias were associated with abnormal blood brain barrier permeability, possibly allowing the crossing of neurotoxic molecules into the brain. 26 Mechanistical evidence from animal 27 - 29 and human studies 9 , 30 have shown that phenolic compounds in olive oil, particularly extra-virgin olive oil, may attenuate inflammation, oxidative stress and restore blood brain barrier function, thereby reducing brain amyloid-β and tau-related pathologies and improving cognitive function. However, incident CVD, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes were not significant mediators of the association between olive oil intake and dementia-related death in our study.

The association was significant in both sexes but did not remain in men after full adjustment of the model. Some previous research has reported cognitive-related sex differences. Evidence from trials also showed sex- and/or gender-specific responses to lifestyle interventions for preventing cognitive decline, possibly due to differences in brain structure, hormones (sex) and social factors (gender). 31 Olive oil intake may be protective of dementia and related mortality, particularly in women. Nonetheless, we did not observe significant heterogeneity or interaction of cohort by olive oil intake on the risk of fatal dementia. Sex and gender differences should be carefully considered in future studies examining the association or effect of olive oil on cognitive-related outcomes to improve our understanding.

We found that using olive oil instead of margarine and mayonnaise, but not butter and other vegetable oils, was associated with a lower risk of dementia-related death. At the time of the study, margarine and mayonnaise contained considerable levels of hydrogenated trans-fats. The latter were strongly associated with all-cause mortality, CVD, type 2 diabetes, and dementia, 32 , 33 which may explain the lower dementia-related death risk observed when replacing it with olive oil. The US Food and Drug Administration banned manufacturers from adding partially hydrogenated oils to foods in 2020. 34 Future studies examining intake of trans-fat–free margarine will be informative. Although the substitution of butter with olive oil was found to be associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, CVD, and total mortality, 11 we did not find an association with the risk of dementia mortality. Although these previous studies did not examine the associations for butter per se, intake of regular fat dairy products, including cheese, yogurt, and milk, was reported to be either not associated or inversely associated with lower cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. 35 - 37

Our cohort analyses include several strengths, namely the long follow-up period and large sample size with a high number of dementia death cases. Also, we included genotyping of the APOE ε4 allele in a large subsample of participants to reduce potential confounding attributed to this well-known risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Additionally, our repeated diet measurements, weight, and lifestyle variables permitted us to account for long-term olive oil intake and confounding factors. Furthermore, the use of dietary cumulative average updates reduced random measurement error by considering within-person variations in intake.

This study has limitations. The possibility of reverse causation cannot be excluded due to the observational nature of our study. However, the 4-year lagged analysis results, consistent with the primary analysis, suggest that olive oil intake is predictive of dementia mortality rather than a consequence of premorbid dementia. While it is plausible that higher olive oil intake could be indicative of a healthier diet and higher SES, our results remained consistent after accounting for the latter. Despite adjusting for key covariates, residual confounding may remain due to unmeasured factors. Also, our study was conducted among health professionals. While this minimizes the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic factors and likely increases reporting due to a high level of education, this may also limit generalizability. Our population was predominantly of non-Hispanic White participants, limiting generalizability to more diverse populations. Additionally, we could not differentiate among various types of olive oil that differ in their polyphenols and other nonlipid bioactive compounds content.

This study found that in US adults, particularly women, consuming more olive oil was associated with lower risk of dementia-related mortality, regardless of diet quality. Substituting olive oil intake for margarine and mayonnaise was associated with lower risk of dementia mortality and may be a potential strategy to improve longevity free of dementia. These findings extend the current dietary recommendations of choosing olive oil and other vegetable oils to the context of cognitive health and related mortality.

Accepted for Publication: March 6, 2024.

Published: May 6, 2024. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2024.10021

Open Access: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the CC-BY License . © 2024 Tessier AJ et al. JAMA Network Open .

Corresponding Authors: Anne-Julie Tessier, RD, PhD ( [email protected] ), and Marta Guasch-Ferré, PhD ( [email protected] ), Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Ave, Bldg 2, Boston, MA 02115.

Author Contributions: Drs Tessier and Guasch-Ferré had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Concept and design: Tessier, Chavarro, Hu, Willett, Guasch-Ferré.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Tessier, Cortese, Yuan, Bjornevik, Ascherio, Wang, Chavarro, Stampfer, Willett, Guasch-Ferré.

Drafting of the manuscript: Tessier.

Critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Tessier, Cortese, Yuan, Bjornevik, Ascherio, Wang, Chavarro, Stampfer, Hu, Willett, Guasch-Ferré.

Statistical analysis: Tessier, Cortese, Wang, Willett, Guasch-Ferré.

Obtained funding: Chavarro, Stampfer, Hu, Guasch-Ferré.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Cortese, Yuan, Stampfer, Hu.

Supervision: Chavarro, Hu, Guasch-Ferré.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Cortese reported a speaker honorarium from Roche outside the submitted work. Dr Ascherio reported receiving speaker honoraria from WebMD, Prada Foundation, Biogen, Moderna, Merck, Roche, and Glaxo-Smith-Kline. No other disclosures were reported.

Funding/Support: This study is supported by the research grant R21 AG070375 from the National Institutes of Health to Dr Guasch-Ferré. The NHS, NHSII and HPFS are supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (UM1 CA186107, P01 CA87969, U01 CA167552, P30 DK046200, HL034594, HL088521, HL35464, HL60712). Dr Tessier is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Postdoctoral Fellowship Award. Dr Guasch-Ferré is supported the Novo Nordisk Foundation grant NNF23SA0084103.

Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 2 .

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Computer Science > Robotics

Title: robocar: a rapidly deployable open-source platform for autonomous driving research.

Abstract: This paper introduces RoboCar, an open-source research platform for autonomous driving developed at the University of Luxembourg. RoboCar provides a modular, cost-effective framework for the development of experimental Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS), utilizing the 2018 KIA Soul EV. The platform integrates a robust hardware and software architecture that aligns with the vehicle's existing systems, minimizing the need for extensive modifications. It supports various autonomous driving functions and has undergone real-world testing on public roads in Luxembourg City. This paper outlines the platform's architecture, integration challenges, and initial test results, offering insights into its application in advancing autonomous driving research. RoboCar is available to anyone at this https URL and is released under an open-source MIT license.

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    A citation identifies for the reader the original source for an idea, information, or image that is referred to in a work. In the body of a paper, the in-text citation acknowledges the source of information used.; At the end of a paper, the citations are compiled on a References or Works Cited list.A basic citation includes the author, title, and publication information of the source.

  8. 11. Citing Sources

    A citation is a formal reference to a published or unpublished source that you consulted and obtained information from while writing your research paper. It refers to a source of information that supports a factual statement, proposition, argument, or assertion or any quoted text obtained from a book, article, web site, or any other type of ...

  9. A Quick Guide to Referencing

    APA referencing, used in the social and behavioural sciences, uses author-date in-text citations corresponding to an alphabetical reference list at the end. In-text citation. Sources should always be cited properly (Pears & Shields, 2019). Reference list. Pears, R., & Shields, G. (2019). Cite them right: The essential referencing guide (11th ...

  10. APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources

    The same font should be used throughout paper San serif fonts preferred for online works (Recommend 11pt Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10pt Lucida Sans Unicode) Serif fonts preferred for print works (Recommend 12pt Times New Roman or 11pt Georgia)

  11. Citing Sources: What are citations and why should I use them?

    By citing their sources, scholars are placing their work in a specific context to show where they "fit" within the larger conversation. Citations are also a great way to leave a trail intended to help others who may want to explore the conversation or use the sources in their own work. In short, citations (1) give credit

  12. Citing Sources

    When you write a research paper, you use information and facts from a variety of resources to support your own ideas or to help you develop new ones. Books, articles, videos, interviews, and Web sites are some examples of sources you might use. Citing these sources of information in your work is essential because:

  13. Research Guides: Write and Cite: Citing Sources

    Reasons for citing sources are based on academic, professional, and cultural values. At the GSD, we cite to promote. Integrity and honesty by acknowledging the creative and intellectual work of others. The pursuit of knowledge by enabling others to locate the materials you used. The development of design excellence through research into ...

  14. Research and Citation Resources

    APA Style (7th Edition) These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation and format style. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.

  15. How To Cite a Research Paper in 2024: Citation Styles Guide

    There are two main kinds of titles. Firstly, titles can be the name of the standalone work like books and research papers. In this case, the title of the work should appear in the title element of the reference. Secondly, they can be a part of a bigger work, such as edited chapters, podcast episodes, and even songs.

  16. How to Write a Research Paper: Citing Sources

    MLA Handbook - 8th Edition by The Modern Language Association of America The Modern Language Association, the authority on research and writing, takes a fresh look at documenting sources in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook, the official guide to MLA format. Works are published today in a dizzying variety of ways: a novel, for example, may be read in print, online, or as an e-book--or ...

  17. MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)

    Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA style. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the source you are citing. If the author's name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once.

  18. Consumption of Olive Oil and Diet Quality and Risk of Dementia-Related

    Citation. Tessier A, Cortese M, ... we assessed the risk of dementia-related mortality by replacing 5 g/d of different fat sources, including margarine, mayonnaise, butter, and a combination of other vegetable oils (corn, safflower, soybean, and canola), with olive oil. ... This study is supported by the research grant R21 AG070375 from the ...

  19. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

  20. RoboCar: A Rapidly Deployable Open-Source Platform for Autonomous

    This paper introduces RoboCar, an open-source research platform for autonomous driving developed at the University of Luxembourg. RoboCar provides a modular, cost-effective framework for the development of experimental Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS), utilizing the 2018 KIA Soul EV. The platform integrates a robust hardware and software architecture that aligns with the vehicle's existing ...

  21. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    Mission. The Purdue On-Campus Writing Lab and Purdue Online Writing Lab assist clients in their development as writers—no matter what their skill level—with on-campus consultations, online participation, and community engagement. The Purdue Writing Lab serves the Purdue, West Lafayette, campus and coordinates with local literacy initiatives.